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MGMT 603 APUS Organizational Development Diagnostic Models and Techniques Questions

MGMT 603

American Public University System

MGMT

Question Description

I’m studying for my Management class and don’t understand how to answer this. Can you help me study?

As usual, single spaced... 300-350 words only needed. I don't want the references over-used or cited to often.

1. What are the major diagnostic models and techniques used in OD programs?

2. How are these models used to identify system parameters and recognize, in turn, the symptoms, problems, and causes that result in ineffective organizations?

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References to use:

APUS (n.d.). MGMT603 Organizational Development: Lesson 4

Brock, W. (2012). Synthesizing a systems perspective and organizational change: Principles of a whole-systems metrics model. Organization Development Journal, 30(3), 17-28. http://ezproxy.apus.edu/login?url=http://search.proquest.com/docview/1124543086?accountid=8289

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APUS (n.d.). MGMT603 Organizational Development: Lesson 4 Diagnostic Models INTRODUCTION This week we focus on Diagnostic Models in Organizational Development. One of the most well-known and popular diagnostic models is Lewin’s Change Management Model. Change, though at times considered a difficult and uncomfortable experience, is inevitable and in fact is often a symptom of a growing and successful business. This is because our world is changing at an incredible pace. As such, organizations must be able to adjust and adapt to change quickly, if they are to survive and prosper. Fortunately, Lewin's Change Management Model is a simple and easy-to-understand framework for managing change. Organizational Diagnosis through Diagnostic Models “Many organization development (OD) strategies exist for improving an organization’s effectiveness. One of these strategies, organizational diagnosis, involves “diagnosing,” or assessing, an organization’s current level of functioning to design appropriate change interventions. The concept of diagnosis in organization development is used in a manner similar to the medical model. For example, the physician conducts tests, collects vital information on the human system, and evaluates this information to prescribe a course of treatment. Likewise, the organizational diagnostician uses specialized procedures to collect vital information about the organization, to analyze this information, and to design appropriate organizational interventions (Tichy, Hornstein, & Nisberg, 1977).” Uses of Organizational Models An organizational model is a graphic representation of an organization at a given point in time that helps us to facilitate a clear understanding of what we are observing within the organization under evaluation. Diagnostics models can be useful in a variety of ways, to include: 1 – Enhanced Understanding Enhance our understanding of organizational behavior through a visual depiction; 2 – Categorization of Data Facilitate the categorization of data collected about an organization; 3 – Interpretation of Data Help to expedite the interpretation of data about an organization; 4 – Common Language for Analysis Provide a shared, common language for use in organizational analysis; 5 – Systematic Collection of Data Affords a systematic way to collect organizational data to better understand and categorize the data; 6 – Identified Key Variables Identify key organizational variables vital to the organization; 7 – Depicts Relationships Between Variables And, depicts the relationship and critical adjacencies between organizational variables and how they impact each other. Popular Diagnostic Organizational Models The diagnostic organizational models shared below are presented in the chronological order in which they first appeared in the literature, and are examples of the most popular diagnostic models in use today: 1951 PROBLEM-SOLVING TECHNIQUES #17: FORCE FIELD ANALYSIS https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qj85sDfwRXU 1965 LEAVITT’S MODEL https://youtu.be/u5MevXbAjSo 1967 LIKERT SYSTEM ANALYSIS https://youtu.be/JodWmiIxl2c 1976 WEISBORD’S SIX-BOX MODEL https://youtu.be/gWpd1kRNxaQ 1977 CONGRUENCE MODEL FOR ORGANIZATION ANALYSIS The critical first step in designing and leading successful large-scale change is to fully understand the dynamics and performance of the enterprise. It’s simply impossible to prescribe the appropriate remedy without first diagnosing the nature and intensity of an organization’s problems (Mercer Delta Consulting LLC., 2004). 1981-82 MCKINSEY 7S FRAMEWORK In Search of Excellence, the 1982 best-selling book by McKinsey partners Tom Peters and Robert Waterman, introduced the mass business audience to the firm’s 7-S model. The model, also influenced by an earlier collaboration between McKinsey and management scholars Richard Pascale and Anthony Athos (The Art of Japanese Management, 1980), describes the seven factors critical for effective strategy execution [1]: Strategy, Structure, Systems, Staff, Skills, Style/ Culture, and Shared Values (Kaplan, 2005). 1983 TICHY’S TECHNICAL POLITICAL CULTURAL (TPC) FRAMEWORK 1984 HIGH-PERFORMANCE PROGRAMMING https://youtu.be/cJLuKzVR5Ag 1987 HARRISON’S MODEL FOR DIAGNOSING INDIVIDUAL AND GROUP BEHAVIOR 1992 THE BURKE-LITWIN MODEL OF ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE & CHANGE [Abstract] To provide a model of organizational performance and change, at least two lines of theorizing need to be explored – Organizational functioning and organizational change (Burke & Litwin, 1991). Organizational Change Management: Lewin’s Model The concept of "change management" is a familiar one in most businesses today, and there have been many Change Management models developed to help facilitate getting through what can be a very tumultuous time. But how businesses manage change (and how successful they are at it) varies enormously depending on the nature of the business, the change required, and the people involved. An essential aspect of a successful change process depends on the extent to which the people involved understand the need for change. The method developed by Kurt Lewin to explain his model back in the 1940s is still in use today. Lewin’s model is known as “Unfreeze – Change – Refreeze” and refers to the three-stage process of change that bears Lewin’s name. Lewin, a physicist and social scientist, explained organizational change using the analogy of a block of ice that is transformed during the unfreezing, change, and refreezing process. By recognizing the three distinct stages of change, you can plan to implement the change required. You start by creating the motivation to change (unfreeze). You move through the change process by promoting effective communications and empowering people to embrace new ways of working (change). And the process ends when you return the organization to a sense of stability (refreeze), which is so necessary for creating the confidence from which to embark on the next, inevitable change. LEWIN’S MODEL: UNFREEZE – CHANGE - REFREEZE By way of example, if you have a cube of ice, but realize that what you really want is a cone of ice, Lewin explains the change process using his model. First, the ice must be melted to make it susceptible to change (i.e., the unfreezing stage). Second, a mold must be created to allow the ice water to assume the desired shape (i.e., the change process). Finally, the ice water must be frozen in order for it to assume the new shape (i.e., the refreezing stage). Lewin’s Model Cont. By looking at change as a process with distinct stages, an organization can take the steps necessary to prepare for the change(s) that is/are anticipated and establish a plan to manage the change process. This approach formalizes the change process and permits an organization to avoid the chaos that often accompanies unplanned change. According to Lewin, "motivation for change must be generated before change can occur.” An essential aspect of the change process, therefore, is preparing an organization to accept that change is not only necessary, but critical to moving past the status quo to arrive at a new and better way of doing business. • UNFREEZE Key to this is developing a compelling message showing why the existing way of doing things cannot continue. This is easiest to frame when you can point to declining sales figures, poor financial results, worrying customer satisfaction surveys, or suchlike: These show that things have to change in a way that everyone can understand. To prepare the organization successfully, you need to start at its core – you need to challenge the beliefs, values, attitudes, and behaviors that currently define it. Using the analogy of a building, you must examine and be prepared to change the existing foundations as they might not support add-on stories; unless this is done, the whole building may risk collapse. This first part of the change process is usually the most difficult and stressful. When you start cutting down the "way things are done", you put everyone and everything off balance. You may evoke strong reactions in people, and that's exactly what needs to do. By forcing the organization to re-examine its core, you effectively create a (controlled) crisis, which in turn can build a strong motivation to seek out a new equilibrium. Without this motivation, you won't get the buy-in and participation necessary to effect any meaningful change. • CHANGE After the uncertainty created in the unfreeze stage, the change stage is where people begin to resolve their uncertainty and look for new ways to do things. People start to believe and act in ways that support the new direction. The transition from unfreeze to change does not happen overnight: People take time to embrace the new direction and participate proactively in the change. A related change model, the Change Curve, focuses on the specific issue of personal transitions in a changing environment and is useful for understanding this specific aspect in more detail. To accept the change and contribute to making the change successful, people need to understand how the changes will benefit them. Not everyone will fall in line just because the change is necessary and will benefit the company. This is a common assumption and pitfall that should be avoided. Tip: Unfortunately, some people will genuinely be harmed by change, particularly those who benefit strongly from the status quo. Others may take a long time to recognize the benefits that change brings. You need to foresee and manage these situations. Time and communication are the two keys to success for the changes to occur. People need time to understand the changes and they also need to feel highly connected to the organization throughout the transition period. When you are managing change, this can require a great deal of time and effort and hands-on management is usually the best approach. • REFREEZE When the changes are taking shape and people have embraced the new ways of working, the organization is ready to refreeze. The outward signs of the refreeze are a stable organization chart, consistent job descriptions, and so on. The refreeze stage also needs to help people and the organization internalize or institutionalize the changes. This means making sure that the changes are used all the time; and that they are incorporated into everyday business. With a new sense of stability, employees feel confident and comfortable with the new ways of working. The rationale for creating a new sense of stability in our every changing world is often questioned. Even though change is a constant in many organizations, this refreezing stage is still important. Without it, employees get caught in a transition trap where they aren't sure how things should be done, so nothing ever gets done to full capacity. In the absence of a new frozen state, it is very difficult to tackle the next change initiative effectively. How do you go about convincing people that something needs changing if you haven't allowed the most recent changes to sink in? Change will be perceived as change for change's sake, and the motivation required to implement new changes simply won't be there. As part of the Refreezing process, make sure that you celebrate the success of the change – this helps people to find closure, thanks them for enduring a painful time, and helps them believe that future change will be successful. Practical Steps for Using the Framework UNFREEZE DETERMINE WHAT NEEDS TO CHANGE • • Survey the organization to understand the current state. Understand why change must take place ENSURE THERE IS STRONG SUPPORT FROM UPPER MANAGEMENT • • Use Stakeholder Analysis and Stakeholder Management to identify and win the support of key people within the organization. Frame the issue as one of organization-wide importance. CREATE THE NEED FOR CHANGE • • • • Create a compelling message as to why change must occur. Use your vision and strategy as supporting evidence. Communicate the vision in terms of the change required. Emphasize the "why.” MANAGE AND UNDERSTAND THE DOUBTS AND CONCERNS • Remain open to employee concerns and address in terms of the need to change. CHANGE COMMUNICATE OFTEN • • • • Do so throughout the planning and implementation of the changes. Describe the benefits. Explain exactly the how the changes will affect everyone. Prepare everyone for what is coming. DISPEL RUMORS • Answer questions openly and honestly. • • Deal with problems immediately. Relate the need for change back to operational necessities. EMPOWER ACTION • • Provide lots of opportunity for employee involvement. Have line managers provide day-to-day direction. INVOLVE PEOPLE IN THE PROCESS • • Generate short-term wins to reinforce the change. Negotiate with external stakeholders as necessary (such as employee organizations). REFREEZE ANCHOR THE CHANGES INTO THE CULTURE • • Identity what supports the change. Identify barriers to sustaining change. DEVELOP WAYS TO SUSTAIN THE CHANGE • • • • Ensure leadership support. Create a reward system. Establish feedback systems. Adapt the organizational structure as necessary. PROVIDE SUPPORT AND TRAINING • Keep everyone informed and supported. Conclusion Change is a constant in any business today, regardless of the industry, maturity level, or size of the organization. The good news, this is generally a good thing. There are various models that can help an organization analyze and communicate the implications of the change(s) to the organization and determine how to transition as seamlessly as possible. Ultimately, as suggested by Lewin’s “Unfreeze-ChangeRefreeze” Model, change is necessary and it will likely come with some level of discomfort but can create positive outcomes when given time to run its course. References Burke, W. (1992). Organization Development: A process of learning and changing. (2nd ed.). OD Network Tools - Weisbord Six-Box Model http://c.ymcdn.com/sites/www.odnetwork.org/resource/resmgr/Docs/ActionResearchTools_We isbord.pdf Burke, W. W., & Litwin, G. H., (1992). A causal model of organizational performance and change. Journal of Management, 18(3), 523-545. Retrieved from http://documents.reflectlearn.org/Offline%20OA%20Models%20and%20Frameworks/B urkeLitwin_ACausalModelofOrganizationalPerformance.pdf Ann Howard & Associates (1994), Diagnosis for Organizational Change, Guildford Press, New York, NY. [Google Scholar] Falletta, S. V. (2005). Organizational Diagnostic Models: A Review and Synthesis. Leadersphere, Inc. Retrieved from https://www.iei.liu.se/fek/frist/723g16/files/1.120328/Orgmodels.pdf Flixabout.com (2016, September 12). Levitts model. [YouTube]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u5MevXbAjSo Kaplan, R. (2005). How the balanced scorecard complements the McKinsey 7S model. Retrieved from: https://managementmodellensite.nl/webcontent/uploads/How-the-balancedscorecard-complements-the-McKinsey-7-S-model.pdf Mercer Delta Consulting, LLC (2004). The congruence model: A roadmap for understanding organization performance. Retrieved from http://ldt.stanford.edu/~gwarman/Files/Congruence_Model.pdf O’Loughlin, Eugene (2011, August 23). Problem-solving Techniques #17: Force Field Analysis. [YouTube]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qj85sDfwRXU RichReport (2015, March 24). High-Performance and Scalable Designs of Programming Models for Exascale Systems. [YouTube]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cJLuKzVR5Ag Strategy Directive – MA 208-2 (n.d.). 6.3 Steps of Tichy for change in organizations. Retrieved from http://courses.aiu.edu/Certificate/Strategy%20and%20Management%20Quality/Strategy %20Directive/Leccion%206/STRATEGY%20DIRECTIVE%20-%20Session%206.pdf SuperDataScience (2017, May 25). Likert Scale Tableau Tutorial. [YouTube]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JodWmiIxl2c Tichy, N. M., Hornstein, H. A., & Nisberg, J. N. (1977). Organization diagnosis and intervention strategies: Developing emergent pragmatic theories of change. In W. W. Burke (Ed.), Current Issue and Strategies in Organization development (pp. 361-383). New York, NY: Human Sciences Press. Weisbord, Marvin (2013, April 23). Getting the whole system in the room. [YouTube]. Retrieved from https://www.bing.com/videos/search?q=weisbord%27s+sixbox+model+You+Tube&view=detail&mid=8A63FAD250370B4435968A63FAD250370B443 596&FORM=VIRE Synthesizing a Systems Perspective and Organizational Change: Principles of a Whole-Systems Metrics Model William Brock William Brock is a consumer products CFO, managing both finance and operations for companies operating throughout North America, Central America, Europe, and Asia. His experience includes an emphasis on organizational turnarounds as well as mergers and acquisitions. A licensed CPA, William earned his MBA from Emory University and is structuring his doctoral studies at Benedictine University around the whole-systems of organizations. Contact Information William Brock Benedictine University brockwb@hotmail.com Volume 30 s Number 3 s Fall 2012 Abstract Although comprised of a rich history, the systems perspective is still relatively rare in OD, and practical application of systems concepts is problematic. This paper proposes principles of a Whole-Systems Metrics model based on a foundation established from the systems literature. This model both extends theory and aids practitioners as a powerful organizational change tool founded on a synthesis of systems theory and a combined paradigm of both diagnostic and dialogic approaches to organizational change. Introduction Organizational change in its abstract form may be defined as the empirical observance of variation in an organization’s form, quality, or state over time (Ford & Ford, 1995; Ven & Poole, 1995), but within the field of Organization Development (OD), this abstraction is further refined to focus on a specific type of change - whole-system change. Although perspectives vary within OD literature, there is a normative theme of organizational change as planned, based on behavioral science values and methodologies, and encompassing the wholesystem (Burke, 2008a; Cummings & Worley, 2009; Montuori, 2000). Since its inception, the organizational development and change literature has demonstrated an increasing understanding of the interdependence among the multiple, disparate “parts” of organizations as well as the danger in attempts to “fix” organizational symptoms based on snapshot views without recognition of the continuous interplay among these parts (Burke, 2008b; Katz & Kahn, 1978; Mohrman, Mohrman Jr., & Tenkasi, 1996; Senge, 1990; Weisbord, 2004). Inherent in this theme is the assumption that “the whole is greater than the sum of the parts,” an 17 Aristotelian assertion which serves as one of the basic foundations of a systemic or “whole-systems” approach toward organizational change (Ackoff, 1994; von Bertalanffy, 1972). the organizational and decision-making processes in human society in order to make them more responsive to human needs and not simply to manipulate or control them” (Hammond, 1997, p. 5). A complementary theme appears in the systems literature where it is argued that in lacking a systems view, management makes decisions which provoke unforeseen reactions, thus creating future problems as the result of today’s solutions (Sterman, 2002; Zexian & Xuhui, 2010). It is also posited that the failure of many management fads including benchmarking, right-sizing, total quality management, reengineering, the balanced scorecard (and others) is the result of applying an extension of the “one best way” concept of mechanistic thinking and of the failure to apply a creative, holistic approach as supported by systems thinking (Jac ...
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Running head: DIAGNOSTIC MODELS AND TECHNIQUES

Diagnostic models and techniques
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DIAGNOSTIC MODELS AND TECHNIQUES

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Diagnostic models and techniques
Question 1
The major diagnostic models used in organizational development include Lewin's Model,
Leavitt's Model, Harrison's Model Congruence Model, Likert System Analysis as well as
Mckinsey 7s Framework. Other models include Burke-Litwin Model, Force Field Analysis, and
Weisbord's Six-Box Model as depicted by APUS (n.d.). The diagnostic models and techniques
have been used by ...

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