Humanities
University of South Florida Chapter 15 Pluralism and Multiculturalism Discussion

University of South Florida

Question Description

I’m trying to learn for my Social Science class and I’m stuck. Can you help?

Hello there I am  taking a test in forensic anthropologist . its onlines test file in excel document . I did most of the questions in it but couldnt do two questions 

the ones i struggled with was in sheet 3, last question (p(x>4) and sheet 4 Q6b and Q7 the (x<100-*<80) and P(X>100).

Unformatted Attachment Preview

Chapter 15 Women: The Oppressed Majority Women and Minority Status • Subordinate status means confinement to subordinate roles – Not justified by a person’s abilities • Biological differences between males and females • Must separate differences of gender from those produced by sexism © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Women and Minority Status • Feminist movement has a long history • Child care & housework disproportionate responsibilities of women • People find it difficult to conceptualize women as a subordinate group – Not all women live in ghettos – No longer attend inferior schools © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Women and Minority Status • Five properties of a subordinate or minority group – 1. Women experience unequal treatment – 2. Women have physical and cultural characteristics that distinguish them from men – 3. Membership in the subordinate group is involuntary © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Women and Minority Status – 4. Women are aware of their subordinate status and have a sense of solidarity – 5. Women are not forced to marry; many feel subordinate status defined within marriage • Sexism – The ideology that one sex is superior to the other © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Women and Minority Status • Androgyny – The view that there are few differences between the sexes • Permits people to see that humans can be both aggressive and expressive – Depending on the situation © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Gender Roles • Gender Roles – Society’s expectations of the proper behavior, attitudes, and activities of males and females • Acceptable behavior for men and women change over time in a society © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Gender Roles • Socialization has powerful impact on development of females and males in US • Origin of gender roles are not clear – Animal studies and gender – Cross-cultural studies and gender © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Sociological Perspective • Gender differences maintained in our culture through systematic socialization • Gender differentiation in US culture embedded in social institutions – Family, education, religion, politics, economy, medicine, and mass media © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Sociological Perspective • Functionalist – Sex differentiation contributes to overall social stability – Persuasive in explaining the way men and women are brought up is US society • Conflict Theory – Relationship between female & male unequal © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Sociological Perspective • Functionalists and conflict theorists – It is not possible to change gender roles without revisions in a culture’s social structure • Functionalists see potential social disorder or unknown social consequences • Conflict theorists contend no social structure is desirable if maintained through oppression © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. The Feminist Movement • Women activists & sympathetic men who spoke of equal rights were ridiculed • Emerged during the early part of the nineteenth century • Evolved out of oppression of women and children within colonial family and society © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. The Feminist Movement • The Suffrage Movement • Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Lucretia Mott and Seneca Falls women’s rights convention • 19th Amendment to the Constitution (1919) • Movement faded and regained prominence in the 1960s © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. The Women’s Liberation Movement • Role of the civil rights movement and the re-emergence of feminism • Several events delayed progress in 1960s – Civil rights movement and the antiwar movement slow to embrace women’s rights © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. The Women’s Liberation Movement – New Left as sexist as the rest of society in practice despite talk of equality – Protest groups rejected women leaders • Civil rights movement, New Left, & est. women groups endorsed the movement • Feminist movement underwent significant change © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. The Women’s Liberation Movement • Founder of National Organization for Women (NOW) – Feminine Mystique • Recognizing that society saw women only as their children’s mother and their husband’s wife – Called for restructuring the “institution of home and wife” © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. The Economic Picture • Occupational segregation of women • Women are concentrated in low paying occupations • Increase in female labor force participation over the last century © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. The Economic Picture • Sexism in employment • Bureau of Labor Statistics segregation index • There is a substantial gap in median earnings between: – Full-time male and female workers in the same occupation © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Occupational Segregation and Discrimination • Occupational segregation by gender continues • Women earnings have increased significantly over the last quarter century – From 62 cents to 79 cents for every dollar earned by men © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Occupational Segregation and Discrimination • Sources of discrimination • Primary cause is segregating influences in the labor market • Ideological devaluation of the occupational roles of women © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Occupational Segregation and Discrimination • The social and occupational roles of men and women have become segregated – Ideologically – Physically – Socially © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Occupational Segregation and Discrimination • Efforts to eliminate discrimination as it applies to women – Pay Equity (Comparable worth) • Calls for equal pay for different types of work that are judged to be comparable by measuring: – Knowledge; Skills; Effort ; Responsibility; Working conditions © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Occupational Segregation and Discrimination – 1964 Civil Rights Act • Equal Employment Opportunity Commission • Primary goal of feminists – Eliminate sex discrimination in labor force and equalize job opportunities • Glass Ceiling © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Occupational Segregation and Discrimination • Mommy Track – Unofficial career track – Firms use for women who want to divide their attention between work and family • Can’t be applied to all women • Implies that men are not interested in maintaining balance between work and family © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Sexual Harassment • Unwanted & unwelcome sexual advances that interfere with a person’s ability to: – Perform a job and enjoy the benefits of a job • Sociocultural theory of sexual harassment – Rooted within patriarchy and male dominance © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Sexual Harassment • Takes place where the hierarchy of authority finds White men at the top – Women’s work is valued less than men’s • Power theory of sexual harassment – Rooted within the distribution of power within organizations – Function of the difference in power relations © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Sexual Harassment • Conflict Perspective – Women, especially women of color, are most likely to be victims of sexual harassment – Typically are an organization’s most vulnerable employees in terms of job security © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Feminization of Poverty • Poverty and women • Increase in the number of female headed households; Increase in divorce • Displaced Homemaker; Declining alimony and the lack of child support • Lack of family friendly Federal policies © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Education • Sex-segregated classrooms (structure and tracking by gender) • Discrimination in admissions and financial aid by sex • Increase in the number female faculty on campuses • Equal access to educational resources © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Education • Education Act of 1972 and Department of Health, Education, and Welfare guidelines of 1974 and 1975 – Collectively called Title IX provisions – Schools must make changes or lose federal assistance © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Family Life • US society equates work with wages – Women who do household chores and volunteer work are given little status • Sociologist Susan Walzer (1996) • Media attention (21st century) – Focused on high profile women who choose not to climb the last steps of corporate ladder © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Family Life • Sociologist Arlie Hochschild – Second Shift • Issue increasingly important as more mothers work outside the home – Mommy Tax • Economic cost of “second shift” – Lose job experience © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Abortion • Controversial subject affecting family life in US • Roe v. Wade (January 22, 1973) • Social class issues and abortion • Abortion issue centers on the distribution of power and control over the roles – And rights of men and women in society © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Abortion • In terms of social class, right to terminate pregnancy affected poor people – 1976 Hyde Amendment • Banned Medicaid & other federal funds for abortion – Another obstacle – access to abortion providers • Fewer hospitals allowing doctors to perform them © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Political Activity • Women constitute 53% of the voting population • Under-represented in National political offices • More representation on Local and State level © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Political Activity • Lack of representatives – Fewer women in business and law– the grooming ground for a political career. – Fewer women in political organizations and decision making. – Some women may feel that a political career may interfere with family responsibilities © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Matrix of Domination: Minority Women • African American Feminist Patricia Hill Collins (1990) • Matrix of Domination • Gender, race, and social class not only systems of oppression • Double Jeopardy: Minority Women – Subordinate status twice © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. ...
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Final Answer

hello there, here is the complete paper. Go through it and in case of anything, feel free to alert me.Regards

Running Head: PLURALISM AND MULTICULTURALISM

Discussion on Pluralism and Multiculturalism
Student’s Name
Institutional Affiliation
Date

PLURALISM AND MULTICULTURALISM

2

PART A
Pluralism refers to a political concept or philosophy that encompasses that people of
different groups, backgrounds, political affiliation, religion and other factors of distinction
can co-exist peacefully and tolerably wi...

Knutsen (22661)
Cornell University

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