Humanities
Saint Peters Basilica Religious Site Contextual Analysis Discussion

Question Description

I need an explanation for this History question to help me study.

Module 2 Contextual Analysis Discussion

Engagement and participation are important aspects of any college course. For this online course your engagement and participation are partly determined by your presence on the Discussion Boards.

As mentioned in the syllabus, each of the three Contextual Analysis Discussions gets progressively more complex as your skills increase. For this second Contextual Analysis Discussion, you should make at least one original contextual analysis post and two comments to other posts for each module. Posts should be in full, grammatically correct sentences that create at least one solid response of at least 900 words--make sure you include a word count. The word count does NOT include any headers or references section. All posts must be relevant to the assigned materials (although you may build upon previous knowledge from earlier weeks and include personal observations). Start by answering the prompt, and then build upon the prompt to consider your own perspectives and experiences. You MUST attach photos and web links to support your position. An important part of your grade for this assignment is to communicate with your classmates. Because this is intended to be your opportunity to discuss topics with your classmates, the professor/TA will generally refrain from commenting or actively participating in the discussions aside from reading and grading them.

Each of the two comments should be at least 300 words (include a word count) on two different classmates’ posts each module to receive full credit.

Posts: For this post, select one work of art (architecture, literature, music) that has NOT been already analyzed or extensively discussed in the course readings or videos...part of the fun in learning about art is in DISCOVERING it! You are required to make one post to conduct both a formal and contextual analysis or your chosen work. Then, you will compare it to the work you selected in Module 1 AND to any other work in Module 1 that was analyzed by another student in this class. This will give you THREE works to discuss in this assignment:

  • One work of art you select from the mediums we discussed in this module (architecture, literature, or music) in which you conduct a formal and contextual analysis with social angles.
  • You then compare the work you chose in this module (architecture, literature, or music) with the work you chose in module 1 (two-dimensional art or three-dimensional art). This comparison will be a brief compare/contrast/ways of seeing between the two works.
  • Last, you compare the work you chose in this module to any other work analyzed in module 1 by a peer. Again, this comparison will be a brief compare/contrast/ways of seeing between the two works.

This process expands your skills of doing a contextual analysis by comparing works to each other.

In a narrative format, the post should contain the following elements:

  • Define and Identify: Brief information about the artist and work. For example, birth/death dates, place of birth or work, where work is displayed, name of work, medium of work, context for creation of work.
  • Experience and Appreciation: For example, where you found the work (website, another book, museum), what made you select the work, what about this work speaks to you.
  • Observe and Analyze: Use and underline three terms that were introduced in the module to observe/analyze your chosen work. Add any other relevant information to improve your paper.
  • Critique and Compare: Compare your work to similar pieces or to examples used in the book. Consider the impact of the work on a particular social angle and/or the evolution of the media. Consider the impact of experiencing the work on your general outlook on the medium or appreciation of art.
  • Apply Social Angles AND Context: Identify at least one social angle from the list below that can be observed or analyzed as part of the work. Address how the social angle is connected to the work. Plus, a thorough contextual analysis of the historical, cultural, and social implications should be discussed.
    • race and ethnicity,
    • gender and sexuality,
    • class and highbrow/low,
    • colonialism, postcolonialism, place and regionalism,
    • nature (environment, ecology) and culture,
    • memory, history, generational identity,
    • food culture, and
    • body and mind

Students will be expected to define, identify, and apply at least three terms (underline them so I can quickly find them) from the module in the post. Make sure to underline the terms so that I can quickly identify them. College-level writing and mechanics are expected; however, the purpose of this assignment is to move from experiencing art to analyzing art to evaluating art. Make sure to include a references section at the end of every post, even if you only cite the lecture video. All in-text citations and references should be in MLA.

Comments: For each of the two comments, select a classmate's post, read the post, critique the post, indicate your reaction to the chosen work, discuss a comparison work from the module or any other outside source that is similar to the work identified in the post, and either add personal commentary or pose a question to stimulate conversation.

EXAMPLES: These are"A" grade examples from previous semesters.

"Attached"


Discussion Board Grading: (Note: while the total number of points you can earn is the same in all contextual analysis discussion assignments for this class, the percentage weight of each assignment towards your final grade increases.)

Original Posts—30 points possible per module: Student has actively connected with the materials and has made a thoughtful and engaging post that considers multiple perspectives in relation to the readings and videos. Correct grammar, spelling, and sentence structure are utilized, as well as direct references to the course materials and an image of the selected work. It is crucial that you cite or reference some material from the class at least once during each original post to earn full credit. Minimum of 900 words per original post. Indicate your word count at the end of your post (example: “Word Count: 553”).

Comments—20 points possible per module (10 points per comment): Student stimulates the conversation and has made a thoughtful comment that is directly related to the original post. Correct grammar, spelling, and sentence structure are utilized, as well as direct references to the course materials. Minimum of 300 words per comment. Indicate your word count at the end of your post (example: “Word Count: 283”).


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The Ranakpur Jain Temple, located in India, stands tall with intricately carved pillars that depict awe-inspiring deities. The Ranakpur Temple serves to honor the religion of Jainism and is one of five pilgrimage sites for the followers of Jainism (“Ranakpur Temple”). The Ranakpur Temple was built in the 15th century by Jain businessman Seth Dharna Shah and the king Rana Kumbha, whom the temple is named after. The temple is expansive; at over 48,000 square feet, the temple sits above what are known as the Aravalli hills and is a vision of light marble that shifts colors as the sun sets. The Ranakpur Temple further encompasses four smaller temples dedicated to various Jain Lords. The most prominent of these is the Chaumukha Temple, which is dedicated to Lord Adinath, who appears as a four-faced image. This shows how the Lord and through him Jainism, attempts to expand to all corners of the earth and cosmos (Narayanan). This example of architecture I originally discovered while exploring the internet and trying to compile works of architecture that inspire me or seem to evoke emotions. I chose this piece, among cathedrals such as Notre Dame and the architectural style of the Taj Mahal, because it is unique in how it represents the culture it hails from. The major element of architecture that is visible at once in the Rankpur Jain Temple is the use of post and lintels. Post and lintel is a type of architectural that uses strong columns, or posts, to hold up larger horizontal beams called lintels (Rinck). In Greek architecture, these columns were in the Doric, Ionic, or Corinthian styles, all of which had varying levels of detail. In the Rankapur Temple, the columns are closest to the Corinthian style of having ornate carved capitals but stand out due to how they feature extensive detail in the fluting or scalloped-out parts of the columns (Rinck). The columns of the temple display figures of Jain’s religious figures and nature symbols such as carved leaves in intricate detail. The Rankapur Temple further stands out due to how it is carved from marble. Lines move across the Ranakpur Temple, and the light color of the marble allows it to reflect light differently throughout the day. This shows how the context of the Jain Temple further causes it to move the viewer. The context of a building is the natural surroundings of a building, and the history in which the building was created. The building was built to appear “celestial” yet still to stand as part of the natural landscape (“Ranakpur Temple”). The surrounding greenery around the temple emphasize how Jainism was founded by spiritual leaders who achieved liberation and perfection (“Jainism”). Due to how the temple stands out from the surrounding hills, the temple appears to contrast against the natural world, which in turn shows how the temple is meant to stand out from the real world as a spiritual dwelling. This all shows how the architecture of the Ranakpur Temple emphasize the social angle of culture. The Ranakpur Temple emphasizes culture because it maintains the unique architectural style of its region of India- the columns bear carvings of symbols of the Jain faith, which originates in India. The Temple also bears intricate carvings of snakes, prayer bells, and geometric patterns that reflect the importance of various motifs to the Jain culture (“Jainism”). This cultural identity is also seen in the people who visit the Temple. It stands as a symbol of the Jain faith, and its lines work to connect visitors to the Jain ideals of discipline and purification through their organized structure. Furthermore, the Jain Temple represents the cultural identity of the Jain religion because it shows the importance of sacred imagery to the Jain religion (“Jainism”). At first glance, the Ranakpur Temple is opposite to the image “ちえ” (or “Knowledge”) by Hitoshi Kobayashi that I explored in Module 1. The image “Knowledge” is demonstrative of Japanese architecture in the modern city of Tokyo while the Ranakpur Temple seems to stand away from time and is also more permanent. However, the two pieces are both representative of the cultural identity of the area they are associated with and the importance of documenting that identity. In the image “Knowledge” you can see the national identity of Japan as a modernized country that is transitioning through industrialization. The image “Knowledge” appears to represent the exchange of older knowledge to the newer environment that the building in the image looks to represent. In a similar way, the Ranakpur Temple represents the national identity of India as a country with countless cultural traditions and as a country with deeply rooted religious customs that extend past a thousand years before the modern age. The piece of art from module one that the Ranakpur Temple is similar to is the “Guardians of Time” sculpture by Manfred Kielnhofer that was explored by Tien Pham. At face value, the Ranakpur Temple is vastly different, not only in size, but also in permanence. The “Guardians of Time” are statues covered by hoods that are placed temporarily in places such as Stonehenge or beside a beach (“Guardians of Time: Sculptures by Manfred Kielnhofer”). As stated by Tien Pham, “…these Guardians depict how they are the protectors of the universe even though humans are the sole danger to their existence in time.” The Guardians move from place to place temporarily, but much like the Temple they represent the importance of protection of the universe, much as the Jain Temple shows the importance of protecting the Jain faith. Furthermore, both the sculptures and the carved figures of the Jain Temple seek to emphasize the role humans play in the passage of time and how humans are meant to make active decisions concerning their fate (Pham). In the case of the sculptures, this decision making is enforced by the existence of “guardians” who are meant to watch over humans and play a role in human actions. In the Ranakpur Temple, the process of decision making is of religious importance. The architecture of the Ranakpur Temple seeks to connect the visitors to a higher power and also works to remind visitors of how higher powers are there to watch over humans’ actions. Word Count: 1038 Works Cited: “Guardians of Time: Sculptures by Manfred Kielnhofer.” The Inspiration Grid RSS, Inspiration Grid, 28 Aug. 2015, theinspirationgrid.com/guardians-of-time-sculptures-bymanfred-kielnhofer/. “Jainism.” ReligionFacts.com. 17 Nov. 2016, www.religionfacts.com/jainism. Narayanan, Sathya. “Ranakpur Jain Temple - The Four Faced Temple of the First Tirtankara.” Speakingtree.in, Speaking Tree, 11 May 2016, www.speakingtree.in/allslides/ranakpur-jain-temple-history/temple-highlights-420177. “Ranakpur Temple.” Ranakpur Temple - Ranakpur Jain Temple, Ranakpur Temples Rajasthan, Ranakpur Jain Temple India, Cultural India, www.culturalindia.net/indiantemples/ranakpur-temple.html. Rinck, Christie. "Architecture." HUM 1020: Introduction to Humanities, Spring 2018, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL. Pham, Tien. “Module 1 Discussion.” 13 Jan. 2018. For this contextual analysis I decided to analysis the book 1984. The author of 1984 was George Orwell who was born on June 25, 1903 in Motihari, India (Biography.com). Before he began his writing career, Orwell joined the India Imperial Police Force. After five years of working in the police force, he returned to England and began his writing career by writing about his experience in India. With the end of World War II, Orwell was afraid of the possibility of nations becoming totalitarian. Due to this fear, he wrote 1984while he was severely ill with tuberculosis in 1949. Orwell later succumb to tuberculosis and died on January 1, 1950 (Biography.com). The purpose of writing 1984 was to give a warning to the future generation and onward of the dangers of totalitarianism. 1984 could be classified as a psychological novel, a novel that mainly focuses on the psychological issues that dwell with the main character, due to story being heavily focused on the main character and his thoughts about the society he lives in (Rinck). The plot of this book, or structure of the story in a book, focuses on the life of the protagonist, or the main character in the book or film, Winston Smith living in a totalitarian-like society called the Party which controls every aspect of its citizen, including their thoughts (Rinck). Winston is not a single minded individual and does not agree with everything the Party believes or stands for. Not agreeing to anything or believing in anything that the Party says is considered treason and any thought of betraying the Party is considered a thought crime. Anyone caught committing a thought crime will be reported to the Thought Police and will be killed (Orwell 3). Winston has committed several thought crimes and other crimes that progressively continue. One crime he commits is having an intimate romantic relationship and sex with a girl name Julia, which is considered a crime to do in the Party (Orwell 126). Another crime Winston commits is that he begins to read a book that was written Goldstein who is a rebel trying to overthrow the government (Orwell 184). Winston and Julia are later captured by the Thought Police and are tortured until they are assimilated back into the Party. In the end, Winston comes to except the rules and lifestyle of the Party and becomes assimilated back into the Party. I acquired this book through a friend who lend me the book. As I was reading the book I decided that this book would be the type of medium that I would analysis for this assignment. When I was reading 1984, I was getting a sense of dread and hopelessness that Winston was feeling. As though I was put into his perspective and was trying to think of ways to overthrow the Party and of ways to commit more crimes in private of the Party. The lives of the mindless citizens brainwashed by the Party also allowed me to realize the amount of control the government has and what little control I have if I were to live in a society like this. Compare this society to the United States is very different since we have more liberty to do what we want unlike the Party. For module 1, I analyzed The Old Guitarist by Pablo Picasso. A similarity between the painting and the book is that they both give a feeling of sadness. While both give the same emotion to the viewer or reader, both works do for a certain reason. Picasso painted The Old Guitarist when he was going through a depression of losing his friend. The painting was a way to express his feeling of sadness and show others how he felt through this artwork. Orwell wrote 1984 in order to warn the future generation of the dangers of totalitarianism. By doing this, Orwell creates a depressing tone, or an emotion that the work conveys, in his book by writing about the daily life of Winston who is conflicted with the laws of his society. Another piece that I decided to analyze from module 1 is Guernica. While one can interpret both pieces differently, they both represent a similar time period. Both works were done around the time of World War II in order to convey how chaotic the war was. Guernica illustrates this through the different amounts of shapes and shades of white and black used. 1984interprets the possibility of the aftermath of a war by talking about a future without free will and under totalitarian rule. There are two social angles which I identified in this novel which are class and the mind. In 1984, class can be divided into three segments: the inner party, the outer party, and the proles. The inner party are people working for Big Brother, or the government. People of the inner party are considered the upper class citizens in the society and get more benefits because of it. The outer party are considered the “regular citizens” of this society that follow everything the Party supports. People of the outer party are considered middle class citizens in the society. The proles are citizens that are treated poorly and sometimes considered to be not human in the book. The proles are considered lower class and working class citizens in the society which comprises most of the population of the Party and have more freedom than anyone in the Party. Although the more freedom in the Party, the inner party has been instilled with the rules of the Party and hate the proles for not living up to the rules which is a reason why they are looked down upon. The class system had an important role in the story since it shows how differently each class lives on a daily bases that is described through the perspective of Winston. The mind is the other social angle identified in 1984. There are many moments in the book that question morality and if there are things that are subjectively or objectively right. There are also moments in the book that questions truth and lies and the knowledge that we gain from other is true or not. The reader will experience the same type of philosophical and moral questions that Winston asks throughout the book which helps fully immerse the reader to the same psychological dilemmas that face Winston. I believe this was the intension that Orwell tried to achieve by making the reader experience these same questions that Winston faces. Before he died, he wanted people to know the value of free will through this book. The entire book shows the reader what the absence of free will in hopes of safeguarding the future and prevent a society similar to the Party to rise. Word Count: 1133 References: “George Orwell.” Biography.com, A&E Networks Television, 15 Feb. 2018, www.biography.com/people/george-orwell-9429833. Orwell, George, and Erich Fromm. 1984. Signet Classics, 2017. Rinck, Christie. Literature. HUM1020.001S18 Introduction to Humanities, usfweb.usf.edu/courseresources/cas/hum1020/articulate/literature/pr esentation_html5.hml. I am going to analyze One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest by Ken Kesey for this Contextual Analysis discussion. Ken Kesey was born in Colorado in 1935. While doing a graduate fellowship in creative writing at Stanford University, he volunteered to take part in what turned out to be a CIA-financed study called Project MKULTRA. The project studied the effects of psychoactive drugs, such as LSD, cocaine, DMT, etc. on people. His part in this study and his stint working at the Veteran’s Administration hospital inspired him to write One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest. While working at the hospital, he spent time talking to a lot of patients, sometimes under the influence of the hallucinogenic drugs he had to take as part of the study. He believed that the patients were not actually insane and were just cast aside by society because they did not fit the conventional ideas of how a person was supposed to act and behave. These beliefs of his are represented in the book. Kesey continued using drugs, particularly LSD and marijuana, after the study was over. He would throw parties called Acid Tests in which he and friends would take psychoactive drugs such as LSD. He even drew some illustrations for One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest while under the influence of LSD. His drug use got him in trouble with the law for which he was imprisoned for five months. After his release, he led a secluded family-oriented life while teaching at University of Oregon. He passed away in 2001 at the age of 66 due to complications from an operation. I had to read this book for my Junior English class in high school and I fell in love with it. It became my favourite book. I selected this work because, to me, it is one of the best pieces of literature ever written. The thing that appealed to me the most about this book was the author’s clever use of symbolism, metaphor/allegory and foreshadowing. The book was full of hidden meanings and really required opening up your brain and seeing beyond the surface level to understand it completely. One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest is about a mental ward run by the tyrannical Nurse Ratched, and its inhabitants. The mental ward and its habitants are an allegory for people who are considered outcasts by society. Nurse Ratched and her goons represent the society trying to control these “outcasts” and trying to make them more “normal.” This book contains the elements of a picaresque novel where the main character (R.P. McMurphy) is a roguish hero of low social class in a corrupt society (the mental ward). McMurphy decides to finish his sentence for his criminal charges in the mental ward instead of jail because he thinks it’ll be easier. After seeing how harsh Nurse Ratched is with the patients, he starts rebelling against her. At first the other patients in the ward are too scared to go against her. They’re okay with the way she treats them because that’s the way it has always been. All the patients remain quiet and demure all the time. It isn’t until McMurphy comes into the picture that they start showing emotions. They laugh for the first time in years, they start enjoying themselves, and they also start getting angry at Nurse Ratched whenever she treats them unfairly. The author uses a lot of symbolism to show McMurphy as a Christ figure and to also foreshadow his death. He uses biblical imagery to achieve the former. McMurphy arranges a fishing trip for the patients. This is alluding to how Jesus told his disciples that if they followed him, he would make them “fishers of men.” When McMurphy gets electroshock therapy, they restrain him to the bed in the same position that Jesus was on the crucifix. They also put on a contraption on his head that resembles the crown of thorns that Jesus was wearing as he was crucified. A symbol that the author used to foreshadow his death was that he had a tattoo that depicted the poker hand called “dead man’s hand.” Though McMurphy was overpowered by Nurse Ratched and eventually died, he still ended up being the victorious hero because he left a legacy behind. He caused change in the mental ward. Many of the patients signed out of the ward and the remaining patients stopped being afraid of Nurse Ratched, which reduced her power considerably. The social angle most prominent in the book is culture. It particularly shows how culturally we are very intolerant in our acceptance of “others.” Anyone who behaves or acts in a way that is unusual or different from what we consider “normal” is thrown aside as an outcast. We, as a society, try to get these individuals who are “different” to conform to our conventions. This novel was very different from the piece of art that I analyzed in the previous discussion. The Ice Arch by Andy Goldsworthy, a threedimensional piece of ephemeral and environmental art, related to nature and was made to bring awareness to the hard work that farmers put into the upkeep of their farms. One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest, however, is about culture and society, and its need to shun people who are different. They were similar in one aspect. In the creation of both works, the artist and the author were heavily influenced by their personal experiences. I found that The Son of Man by René Magritte, a work that a peer analyzed in the previous discussion, was a bit more similar to this novel than the Ice Arch was. It shows a man dressed in very nondescript clothing with an apple covering his face. The painting represents a loss of identity at the hands of one’s beliefs/religion. One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest represents the loss of identity at the hands of a society that strives for conformity. Word count: 988 References: Fried, Joshua. “What a Trip.” Stanford Magazine - Article, Stanford University, alumni.stanford.edu/get/page/magazine/article/?article_id=38411. “Ken Kesey.” Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, 21 Mar. 2018, ...
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hey here it is

SURNAME 1
Student:
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Date:

Contextual Analysis
For my module two contextual analysis discussion, I decided to analyze Saint Peter's
Basilica. The church is one of the oldest and most famous religious sites in the world whose
design was inspired by Pope Nicholas V. The design portrays a Latin cross that is three-aisled
and which is complemented by a dome at the crossing. The dome is located directly above
the altar, which in turn covers Saint Peter's shrine. The architectural piece of work at the St.
Peters Holy Basilica was inspired and designed by Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti
Simoni. Michelangelo was both an artist and an engineer who inspired most of the artistic and
religious works of art during the ancient Greek empire. The strength of the building was also
enhanced without affecting the original design, although under the close supervision of
Michelangelo. The dome at the Basilica is 136.6 meters high, which represents the highest
point of the building. Its construction began in 1506and completed in 1626.
The architectural work attracted me due to its historical concept and background. The
completion of the building took over a hundred years and integrated art and religion. Its

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uniqueness revolves around the association between art and religion wanted to inspire
worship and Christianity. The architect worked to ensure that the building stood the test of
time to remain attractive more than five hundred years later. The sculptures and paintings
involved both on the exterior, and the interior portrayed messages both from the new
testament and the old testament. A nave that is presented in the form of a Latin cross
showcases the different chapels found within the Basilica.
The cantilevers employed in the construction of both interior and exterior designs
provide an impressive outlook of the building. The cantilevers, however, were used in the
revisions of the building, which has been happening until the nineteenth century. Concrete is
the primary material employed in the construction of the building, which could explain its
history and firmness over time. The baroque architecture works displayed in the building
signify the importance of history. The type of architecture represents the seventeenth-century
history. The concrete used, however, was known as travertine, which is a particular type of
rock. The sedimentary rock was expensive to purchase and transport. The costly purchase and
transport could explain the extended time used to construct St. Peter's Basilica. The style used
to build the building is unique and exciting as it follows the dictates of the Romanian empire.
The building’s style can ensure that an individual is well aware of the history of Rome while
guiding an individual through the dictates of Christianity. The building continues to be
maintained by workers identified as Sampietrini. The group of workers ensures that the
architectural design is not faced out or the paintings damaged.
Marble and bronze dominate the interior decorations used in the building. Marble and
bronze represent treasures, thereby showcasing the baroque architectural sculptures. The
treasures were also used to showcase culture. The interior design ensures an exciting musical
charm among the worshippers in the building. Anyone visiting the building will even notice
the impressive heights in the building. Another architectural design employed in the building

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is the renaissance architecture, which employs European culture. The design work combines
both the Greek and the Roman cultures; thus, its use in the construction of the St. Peter's
Basilica. The materials and design signify the original and initial thoughts and ideas put in the
development of the building. The design worked well to ensure that components of religion,
Greek, and Roman were all put together in one building.
The columns employed on the exterior of the building are used purposely to showcase
the rich history of the Christian life, specifically Roman catholic. These columns contribute
to the presentation of the axis and the creation of the dome in the building. The dome was
designed in a way ...

Daphne234 (11430)
UT Austin

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