Writing
Jefferson College Task Rules Human Rights Discussion

Jefferson College

Question Description

I need an explanation for this Writing question to help me study.

I have two articles kind of lengthy but I only need you to write 300 words in a very specific format that I will attach down below.

I already choose a side of the debate I just want you to follow along and make it 300 words.

here is the debate question: Ignatieff vs de Waal – Are human rights and military action (that is, the “responsibility to protect") ever compatible?

I have attached both articles. You just need to go over the format of the paper which is also attached and write 300 words.

thanks

Unformatted Attachment Preview

4201 Henry Avenue Philadelphia, PA 19144 PhilaU.edu REMINDER CHECKLIST – WRITTEN DEBATE REFLECTION – HUMAN RIGHTS *PLEASE CHECK OFF THE FOLLOWING ITEMS AND MAKE CHANGES AS NECESSARY.* FORMATTING O – This debate reflection is 300 or more words (excluding your name, date, etc. and the bibliography). O – All quotations and/or text representing other people’s information or ideas have been cited and are accompanied by page numbers, and these sources have been listed in the bibliography. O – This document is double-spaced with normal margins, and the font is 12-point Times New Roman. O – Quotations over three lines (or 45 words) are indented on both sides within the body of the text. Only one indented quotation is allowed per reflection. CONTENT O – The first paragraph has a summary of the main positions or arguments presented by the authors, scholars, or activists engaged in the debate. The second paragraph includes analysis of their positions or arguments – addressing the question, for example, “What makes one of these more convincing than the others?” The third paragraph is a reflective conclusion in which you offer your opinion, analysis, or preferred approach or alternative to said debate. GRAMMAR O – Please use “who” when referring to people and “that” when referring to things, places, or ideas. For example, the sentence “The man that made this cheesesteak goes to my college” is technically incorrect. It should read “The man who made this cheesesteak goes to my high college.” O – Do not use third-person plural pronouns when the third-person singular is more appropriate. Words such as “China,” “the United Nations,” “the government,” or “the LGBT community” take the it form, not they. E.g., the sentence, “Switzerland is known for their winter sports,” is incorrect. O – Do not use the adjective “huge” to describe something important or significant. For example, the sentence “WWII was a huge human-rights crisis” is colloquial and inappropriate for this assignment. O – Please use “quotation marks” when referencing articles and chapters, and italics for books and publications. For example, “The Gulf Art Wars” by Negar Azimi; The Last Utopia by Samuel Moyn O – Please sort out the differences between it’s & its and apart & a part. “Alot” is not a word. O – Please verify that there are no spelling mistakes. These look particularly sloppy on the final draft. I am submitting my assignment in stapled hard copy and via Blackboard. I have carefully proof-read the enclosed document, for I know any non-professional writing will result in a grade reduction. SIGNATURE________________________________________ DATE_____________ WRITTEN DEBATE REFLECTION – GRADING RUBRIC FORMATTING – 30 POINTS TOTAL, OF WHICH… __ / 5 points This final version includes 1) a checklist with the boxes checked off and 2) a reflection of 300 words or more. The checklist and the reflection have been stapled together. __ / 5 points This reflection has been uploaded to Blackboard via the appropriate link (in the folder for the session when the assignment is due). __ / 5 points This document is double-spaced with normal margins, and the font is 12-point Times New Roman. __ / 5 points All quotations, data, and/or text representing other people’s information or ideas have been cited and are accompanied by page numbers, and these sources have been listed in the bibliography. If the following are not completed, I will take off another five points for each: 1. Quotations over three lines (or 45 words) are indented on both sides. Only one indented quotation is allowed per reflection. 2. Use “quotation marks” when referencing articles, reports, and chapters, and italics for books and the names of publications. E.g., “The Gulf Art Wars” by Negar Azimi; The New York Times CONTENT – 50 POINTS TOTAL, OF WHICH… __ / 10 points Please cover the following items: The first paragraph has a summary of the main positions or arguments presented by the authors, scholars, or activists engaged in the debate. The second paragraph includes analysis of their positions or arguments, addressing the question, for example, “What makes one of these more convincing than the others?” The third paragraph is a reflective conclusion in which you offer your opinion, analysis, or preferred approach or alternative to said debate. GRAMMAR – 20 POINTS TOTAL __ / 10 points Please carefully proof-read the enclosed document, for any sloppy or non-professional writing will result in an immediate 10-point grade reduction. __ / 5 points Please use “who” when referring to people and “that” when referring to things, places, or ideas. For example, the sentence “The man that made this cheesesteak goes to my college” is technically incorrect. It should read “The man who made this cheesesteak goes to my college.” __ / 5 points Do not use third-person plural pronouns when the third-person singular is more appropriate. Words such as “China,” “the United Nations,” “the government,” or “the LGBT community” take the it form, not they. 2 Back to article page moral advice, and they offer a robust critique. ‘It’s not that your arguments are invalid, they just don’t apply in a Singaporean context,’ says the Seni0r Minister of Singapore, Lee Kuan Yew. (Bell bases Lee’s arguments on his published writings and speeches, which he skilfully edits into a debate with an imaginary American interlocutor.) Lee may have an insalubrious human rights record, but the point he makes needs to be taken seriously. As do the voices of Lee’s victims and critics. The Moral Solipsism of Global Ethics Inc Human rights is an activity as well as a theory; it is an exercise in power. It’s not possible to Alex de Waal private organisations, such as Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch (the US do more than sketch out this activity or the institutions involved in it. At the centre, there are brand leader), intergovernmental bodies such as the UN High Commissioner for Human Like Water on Stone: The Story of Amnesty International by Jonathan Power Allen Lane, 332 pp, £12.99, May 2001, ISBN 0 7139 9319 7 Rights, and a range of intermediaries, such as the International Commission of Jurists. In the Future Positive: International Co­operation in the 21st Century by Michael Edwards Earthscan, 292 pp, £12.99, September 2000, ISBN 1 85383 740 7 encompasses not only the old-style campaigns against manifest injustice, torture and political East Meets West: Human Rights and Democracy in East Asia by Daniel Bell Princeton, 369 pp, £12.50, May 2000, ISBN 0 691 00508 7 last ten years the discourse of human rights has widened considerably and the activity now detention, for example, but the promotion of democracy, conflict resolution, ‘good governance’, humanitarian principles and the increasingly fashionable notion of ‘civil society’. This last is a catch-all term, about which Edwards says that ‘among writers and politicians ‘Uhuru has a new name’, an advertising billboard for mobile phones announces in Dar es doubly disenchanted with the ideologies of Left and Right, civil society has assumed the Salaam. ‘Uhuru’ – Swahili for ‘freedom’ or ‘liberation’ – is a sacred word throughout most of status of a “solution” writ large.’ Development agencies of all kinds, from Oxfam to Unicef, sub-Saharan Africa. It is an ideal for which Africans sacrificed much in their collective from Britain’s Department for International Development to the World Bank, have all struggle against colonialism and racism. But almost two years after the death of Tanzania’s embraced programmes that affirm the importance of civil society. Once inspired former President, Julius Nyerere, in the city that once hosted the OAU Liberation Committee, overwhelmingly by economics, overseas aid departments and multilateral lenders now advertising of this kind passes without comment. In a globalised world, ideals become recognise that ‘development’ is a social concept. Edwards summarises: ‘It’s the polity, stupid.’ commodities along with everything else. The manufacture and dissemination of global ethics Universities teach postgraduate courses on one or another branch of ‘human rights’; research is a neglected strand of globalisation. We are all familiar with the core values embodied in institutes produce reports and analyses; and many of the major foundations, from established human rights, democracy, ‘civil society’ and ‘governance’ – an aseptic word that seems to giants like Ford and Rockefeller to relative newcomers such as George Soros’s Open Society mean government minus politics. We also know the core institutions: the organisations, Institute, have committed themselves to the new agenda. Much of Amnesty’s recent foundations and institutes that teach the world how to implement democracy and human campaigning has focused on international corporations, and it has succeeded in persuading rights. But do we, or the people who staff them, understand what they are up to? several, including Shell, BP, Rio Tinto Zinc and British Telecom, to sign the Universal The global ethical enterprise begins in moral solipsism. Most accounts of the human rights Declaration of Human Rights, though exactly what that amounts to remains to be seen. industry – including Jonathan Power’s Like Water on Stone, the history of Amnesty If you belong to the network of private organisations, foundations, institutes and specialised International, timed for its 40th birthday this year – have a whiff of Whig history about them. departments in aid agencies and government offices that concern themselves with civil and It is hard for those driven by conviction and concern to imagine what it might be like for political liberties worldwide, you will take the virtues of this enterprise for granted. The those on the receiving end of the moral directives. And the more driven, convinced and philosophy of the specialist ethics business is overwhelmingly liberal: opposed to censorship, concerned they are, the more solipsistic they tend to be. They find it almost impossible to repression and corruption; in favour of tolerance, pluralism, respect for all. The relevant listen to voices originating ‘outside the Anglo-Saxon intellectual fortress that dominates activities include training lawyers, monitoring elections, supporting citizens’ organisations writing on foreign policy and international affairs’. This is Michael Edwards’s formulation, that campaign for women’s rights or the environment (all these are seen as laying the and his book, Future Positive, urges them to do better. Daniel Bell rises to this challenge in foundations for a strong civil society), sponsoring reconciliation between warring East Meets West, a series of fictional dialogues about human rights in East Asia. Bell’s East communities and documenting violations of human rights. In some ways, this activity Asian interlocutors express some of the bewilderment felt by the recipients of America’s 1 2 resembles that of a marketplace; in others, it puts you in mind of an intellectual production Benenson, a British lawyer, that governments could be persuaded to release political line for the liberal imperium – Global Ethics Inc. prisoners simply by ordinary people writing letters to them. This remains the core of In its basic structure, the ethics business is like many global businesses. It has its Amnesty’s work. headquarters in a handful of Western centres, notably New York, Washington and London. It Power’s is not an uncritical history. He refers both to the scandal of Benenson’s links with the acknowledges no boundaries and aims nowadays at the dismantling of the sovereign privilege Foreign Office (which brought the organisation to the point of collapse) and – glancingly – to of governments to regulate its product. On this issue, the key battle was won decisively a the view that Amnesty’s focus on prisoners contributed to the preference of some Latin decade ago, when the UN Security Council endorsed the principle that national sovereignty American dictatorships for having their victims ‘disappear’ instead. He charts the ways in did not entitle governments to abuse the rights of their citizens with impunity. And the which Amnesty has contributed to the march of human rights, sometimes dramatically but human rights movement itself crossed a Rubicon when it endorsed the military-humanitarian mostly modestly and quietly. And it is a truly impressive story, of many small, mostly interventions in Somalia, Haiti and the former Yugoslavia. invisible and unattributable victories, in the form of prisoners released or treated better, local Another watershed was the Pinochet case. The fact that the former dictator, Cold War ally and friend of Margaret Thatcher, could be arrested on the instructions of a Spanish magistrate elicited guffaws of delighted disbelief from at least three generations of human human rights groups founded around the world, and legal reforms, all adding up to slowly raising the bar on what it is acceptable for a government to do. There are also failures – prominent among them, the continuing use of the death penalty in the US. rights activists. The principle of global jurisdiction covering outrageous human rights abuses, An alternative narrative would have to tell of the co-option of dissent by liberal governance: and rejecting the defence that raison d’état provides immunity for heads of state, was a leap human rights work has long ceased to be a marginal, dissenting activity – we can now talk of forward for universalism. Pinochet ultimately escaped, as did Hissène Habré, former a real ‘human rights international’. Although Amnesty is a key member of this network, global murderous ruler of Chad, now living in exile in Senegal. Slobodan Milosevic was not so lucky: leadership belongs to American organisations. The immediate ancestor of today’s human the Americans used their economic muscle to ensure that he will be duly tried in The Hague. rights international was the civil rights movement in the US, a classic case of people So the global principle now extends far enough to take care of war criminals hostile to the US. mobilising in pursuit of their rights, legitimately claimed. The movement’s success owed It is improbable on the other hand that the US will ratify the statute of the International much to Martin Luther King’s strategy of non-violence, but it also had to do with the co- Criminal Court, which will have global reach, fearful that its own soldiers (or Secretaries of ordination between a ‘primary’ mass mobilisation of citizens and a skilful activist leadership, State) might be called to account. There is no better illustration of the deeply ambiguous who could channel popular energy into sustained and effective campaigns, and build alliances relationship between America and the human rights international. with other civil liberties activists and with independence movements in Africa. One could argue that global ethics is a largely deregulated business. A globalising liberalism The men and women who emerged from the leadership of the American Civil Liberties Union does not function like the old imperium, which kept its ideologues institutionalised in went on to dominate human rights institutions in the US for a generation, putting their seminaries or propaganda departments, subject to the strictest control. True, some value- experience to work in pursuit of an international extension of the civil liberties movement. manufacturing institutes and academies conduct their affairs under close governmental But the ‘global’ movement – a combination of creative ad hoccery and universal principles – scrutiny, but the market leaders – the most successful foundations and advocacy didn’t get going until 1975, when the part of the Helsinki Accords dealing with human rights organisations – are independent. It is the logic of their enterprise, and the competitive and civil society was agreed. At the time, Soviet concessions in this respect were seen as an market in which they operate, not the hand of government, which causes them to converge on empty gesture to the West: they turned out to be, in the words of Martin Walker in The Cold a largely uniform product. Yet this analogy is also misleading: we are dealing with an War (1993), ‘a time bomb planted in the heart of the Soviet empire’. apparatus of intellectual and moral production that conforms to no known model in social, political or market science. The simplest way to understand it is through its history. The story of the Eastern European dissidents is well known. What is less well known is that the Helsinki Accords were also a minefield of sorts for the American political establishment. The juridical and philosophical framework of human rights originated in the European After Helsinki, the human rights movement in the US operated by ‘mobilising shame’, relying Enlightenment, but as a practice it owes everything to the second half of the 20th century in on journalism and advocacy as a short cut to effecting change. This can be characterised as a Europe and the US. In the official version, virtue has (nearly) triumphed. The story can partly phase of ‘secondary activism’, which saw the growth of institutions based on professional be told as an institutional history of Amnesty International, which is how Jonathan Power skills and institutional funding. There are precedents – the campaign against the colonialist tells it. Amnesty began in 1961, with the simple and apparently absurd idea of Peter crimes in the Congo chronicled in Adam Hochschild’s King Leopold’s Ghost (1998) is one – 3 4 but never before had such activism been so fully institutionalised or pursued with such The human rights movement could not find a way to function once so many of its members ambition. and peers were in government. At first, the Democrats got away with policies that would have Throughout the 1980s, the American movement – exemplified by Human Rights Watch – continued to gather momentum. It was able to mount a sustained campaign against the duplicity and adventurism of both Reagan Administrations. It investigated, documented, exposed and condemned, and was all the more effective for being non-partisan – it also fiercely criticised abuses in the Soviet bloc. Human Rights Watch pioneered an adversarial drawn down the wrath of the human rights lobby had they been implemented by Republicans. But in due course, we began to see a combination of public debate and internal policy dialogue. The human rights industry has not become a servant of US policy, at least not in any simple way. At the same time, the values of the movement have permeated the system: the Bush Administration cannot turn the clock back entirely. strategy perfectly adapted to the decade, turning the rhetoric of right-wing liberalism back on Yet, as Bell explains, the viewpoint only needs to shift to the periphery – to Africa or East itself. The target of the movement’s attention was always the US Administration. Even when a Asia, or indeed the Balkans – for the modus operandi of the ethics industry to look rather report addressed its recommendations to, say, the Government of Guatemala, the message problematic. Do influential activists in the West obey only the dictates of their conscience? was intended for Washington, and it got through because, during the Cold War, every country Should this be the case? To whom are they accountable? And even if they proclaim their mat ...
Purchase answer to see full attachment
Student has agreed that all tutoring, explanations, and answers provided by the tutor will be used to help in the learning process and in accordance with Studypool's honor code & terms of service.

Final Answer

I will be happy to carry any changes, just leave me a message and will get back to you as soon as I can Bye for now, but will be here if you need any further help I will be able to complete the question on time

Surname 1
Human rights
Name
Course
Date
Introduction
Based on the argument of the two presented authors, the articles show the need for
responsibility to protect as quite an essential duty of the national stakeholders. Therefore the
human rights and military action are compatible in that they work to enhance the
accomplishment of similar goals which majorly are the responsibility to protect human nature
and thus the citizens of a nation (Xili, 231-273). According to the human rights treaties and
declarations by the United Nations, it is illegal to break any of the dictated human rights as they
are set to protect the organization and the daily activities of the citizens of a nation. Similarly, the
political organization of a country includes the assistance of the military action to enhance order
and also intervene in the protection of the nation in case of attacks, which include, genocides,
ethnically based crimes, and war among other offences.
Despite the compatibility, according to Ignatieff, the intervention of the universal
declaration of human rights is more persuasive on the performance of the responsibility to
protect as they provide the clarity of the social entitlements, and thus the duty for the military
actions to ensure that the rights of the people are fulfilled. Some of the key benefits which make
human rights more convincing aspects of the protection responsibility and the compatibility with
the military action are the prevention and the punishment on the issues of genocide. Also, the
prevention of inhuman treatments and the clarity of the need for protection. In addition to the

Surname 2
above author, Alex de Waal, argues out that human rights are not only activities but also
theories, which enhance the ethical living in civil societies and the nation. The methods guide the
life and the interactions of the individuals and provide the familiarity of the core values even in
matters that concern the overall governance.
In conclusio...

Robert__F (46968)
Carnegie Mellon University

Anonymous
The tutor managed to follow the requirements for my assignment and helped me understand the concepts on it.

Anonymous
The tutor was knowledgeable, will be using the service again.

Anonymous
Awesome quality of the tutor. They were helpful and accommodating given my needs.

Studypool
4.7
Trustpilot
4.5
Sitejabber
4.4