SOWK 410 MacEwan University Understanding Behavior Antecedents Paper

SOWK 410

MacEwan University


Question Description

I’m studying for my Social Science class and need an explanation.

Please review the presentation and chapters. Then please join the BB discussion (100 words) sharing your learning form the topic

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Understanding Behaviours SOWK410 W20 March 23 The social construction of behaviour ▪ Behaviour is socially constructed to be either positive (asset) or negative (deficit) ▪ The value of particular behaviour, and the negative or positive attributes is socially constructed ▪ Meaning or value of behaviour is acquired through social location of the person who reports on it ▪ The child’s report, categorization, and label are not greatly trusted or perhaps even believed to be true ▪ Social construction is co-relational or contextual as much depends on where behaviours happens and whom it affects Note: If the person who reports has power, the label carries tremendous weight, both for the child who is labelled and for those interacting with her or vice-versa. Social construction of behaviour is adult-centered ▪ Adults have coercive power to categorize, label and construct behaviour to fit their needs. e.g.: some children may socially construct tantrums, whining, and hitting as powerful and effective communication skills, whereas most adults construct these same action as negative behaviours ▪ Adults are using classical conditioning of behaviour to enforce and reinforce behavioural norms e.g.: if children appear cheerful and compliant by hiding their very raw feelings to adults, adults reward them ▪ Worker may label the child’s behaviour as conduct disorder or persistent, anti-social activity that violates the rights of others e.g.: older child may act out her emotions through the theft or vandalizing of property Six Behaviours and Six Labels Behaviour Negative Positive Reading Avoiding work and responsibilities at home; wasting time; being selfish Improving literacy and learning more Playing baseball Avoiding work and responsibilities at home; wasting time; being selfish Exercising and developing psychomotor skills; being a team player Attending school Avoiding work and responsibilities at home; failing to help support the family; being selfish Improving literacy and learning more; preparing to join the workforce Skipping school Missing valuable class time; missing socializing with classmates; failing to be responsible Avoiding bullies and boredom; avoiding feelings of failure; being self-motivated and creative Stealing Immoral and disrespectful of others and their property Acquiring the necessities for daily life; being resourceful Hitting Hurting others Self-protection and self-assertion; Causes of behaviour Cause of behaviour are complex and often difficult to identify. They can include: • Child’s inner characteristics or temperament • Conditions in the micro- and mesosystem • Experiences and relationships • Structural determinants Antecedents of behaviour Antecedents are events that directly precede or trigger a behaviour. Antecedents or precipitating factors can me: • Illness • Death • Bullying • Taunting • Violence Behaviour Control ▪ Behaviour usually is attributed to the child’s internal characteristics or temperament ▪ The behaviour controls the child and the child feels increasingly out of control ▪ When the child’s becomes aware of causes and antecedents, the feeling of control gradually returns ▪ The child may choose to modify, stop, or increase a particular behaviour Behaviour Analysis ▪ Applied Behavioural Analysis (ABA) considers antecedents or precipitating events when analyzing why the child behaves in certain ways: change the precipitating event in order to change the behaviour ▪ Antecedent, Behaviour, Consequence (ABC) suggests changing antecedents or triggers in order to change the behaviour Note: understanding causes and antecedents helps the worker to understand the origins of the child’s behaviour Motivation ▪ Motivation is concerned about why do children and youth behave in certain self-defeating and self-destructive ways ▪ Motivation is about understanding the underlying trajectory or what motivates the child Theorists of Motivation • Lev Vygotsky • Albert Bandura Both theorists follow the assumption that all learning is social or experimental. Vygotsky’s motivation theory Vygotsky considers the infant a blank slate or tabula rasa on which learning happens through the experiences of life. So that Behaviour is motivated by interactions with the environment: • When behaviour is rewarded, the child repeats the behaviour • When a behaviour is punished, or mocked the child changes the behaviour • When behaviour is neither rewarded nor punished; this behaviour tends to be ignored Punishment Section 43 of the Criminal Code of Canada allows parents and other adults in a position of authority to physically discipline children between the ages of 2 and 12 in order to teach or correct them. “Every schoolteacher, parent or person standing in place of a parent is justified in using force by way of correction toward a pupil or child, as the case may be, who is under his care, if the force does not exceed what is reasonable under the circumstances” (Criminal Code of Canada, Section 43) Constraints of the Criminal Code of Canada • Age limit (2 to 12) • Rejoinders (“reasonable”) • Instruments such as wood and belts are not allowed • Slapping the child’s face is not allowed Restraints ▪ Restraints can keep a child safe ▪ When behaviour escalates and the child is at risk to hurting self or others, restraints contain the child and keep the child safe For example a parent restrains a child who is about to run in front of a speeding car. Restraints Methods ▪ Therapeutic Crisis Intervention ▪ Non-Violent Crisis Intervention ▪ Chemical restraints Restraints Methods cont… Crisis intervention and chemical restraints are used through: • Life space interviews: debrief and learn from the behavioural crisis For example reactive and proactive training prepare workers to react to behavioural outbursts. • Psychotropic medication: anti-depressants, tranquilizing medication, stimulants, etc. For example Prozac (Fluoxetine) and Ritalin (methylphenidate) are the most popular drugs for children Cause and effect cycle of chemical restraints ▪ Over prescription of drugs ▪ Incarceration (when child’s behaviour leads to illegal activity) ▪ In Canada children age 12 to 17 who are involved with the criminal justice system are re-categorized as young offenders under the Youth Criminal Justice Act (YCJA) ▪ Community Restorative Justice Program required the young offender to acknowledge and describe the offence, using the principle of behavioural contracting Motivation to Change ▪ Spanking, incarceration, physical and chemical restraints bring short-term behavioural change that focus on the characteristics of the child For example a restrained child can be made to be quiet, sit still, and pay attention ▪ Long-term behavioural change involves structural change and requires the child to take responsibility for change For example using structural interventions to locate the cause in structural determinants that influence the risk behaviour Stages of changes - Recall • Precontemplation • Contemplation • Preparation • Actions • Maintenance • Relapse Structural Interventions ▪ Medicine Wheel ▪ Precontemplation stage Advantages are: • Support the child as a responsible person with strengths and abilities • Provide guidance, modelling, and affirmation for the child • Believe in the child as a person and a responsible member of the community • Support respectful dialogue through listening to the child’s request and affirming it Managing a Behavioural Crisis • Assess the safety of the situation • Focus on the body language • Scan the room for dangerous objects • Make direct eye contact • Stand very still • Make a directive statement clear • Engaged as an active listener • Respond in an empathic, congruent, and respectful way Reflect on the behavioural crisis – using life space interview Step 1 – active listening • Find a calm and quiet place • Ask the child or youth to clarify the event or recall what happened • Respond in a calm and reassuring tone Thanks Understanding Risk in Children and Family SOWK410 W2020 March 23 Ways of viewing human error (Reason, 2000) The person approach: • Focuses on errors of individuals, blaming them for forgetfulness, inattention or moral weakness. • It focuses on errors and violations of procedures • Errors attributed to individual failures • There is established ways of responding to errors Ways of viewing human error - Contd The system approach: • Concentrates on the conditions under which individuals work and tries to build defences to avert errors or mitigate their effects • Humans are fallible and errors to be expected, even in the best organisation • Errors are consequences of human fallibility in an environmental context, rather fallibility per se causing errors. • Errors have their origins in ‘upstream’ systematic factors as well as in human characteristics Types of errors in systems (Reason, 2000) Hazards or risks only becomes losses, or accidents if accident preventing mechanisms at every level of the organisation at once. Active Failures: the failures made by people in direct contact with service users – happening through human errors- bring short term vulnerability in the system Later conditions for errors: are part of disastrous mistakes: flawed procedures, high workload, equipment inadequacy – If latter conditions of for error are addressed, the organisation becomes more reliable Understanding Risk in wider contexts • Risk assessment is based on theory – cause effect relationships • It is closely tied up with social expectations of appropriate parental behaviour • They are based on values, and later increasingly based on evidence • Risk is about coping in an uncertain world: finding strategies for making sense of uncertainty and using this as the basis for managing it. • Risk assessment should be approach ed in a structural, systematic and reflective way to maximise the usefulness of the knowledge that we do have and minimise danger, arbitrariness and injustice. What we mean by risk? • Risk is measurable in terms of the interaction between two factors: first likelihood that something – usually negative – may take place, and second, the likely severity of the consequences if that something does happen. • Risk assessment is an acknowledgement of our predictive limitations. • We can only make the best estimate possible with our limited knowledge and understanding: our ‘bounded rationality’. • The judgements social workers that social workers are called upon to make are embedded in complex social and cultural concepts of family, parenting, child welfare and the role of the state. Social work as science and art SW as science SW as art • Scientific, rational, formal analytical: forming and testing hypothesis • Imaginative, compassionate, understanding ‘heart’ activity • Evidence based: observation and collection of evidence a major part of the social work role • Use of knowledge of formal processes and procedural rules • Empowerment: through application of human rights legislation and entitlements • Intuitive, reflective: analysis includes reflecting on self and content • Use of interpersonal skills, especially building therapeutic professional relationship with service users • Empowerment as an objective of therapeutic interventions: related to changes in personal values and attitudes What we mean by risk? Cnntd • What we understand to be risk or danger is a product of historically, socially, politically contingent ‘ways of seeing’. • A good decision, that a social worker reaches is one that is best supported by the available evidence, and informed by sound ethical and legal principles. • Quality of the assessment relies upon the collection of sufficient information to form the basis of a valid opinion about what is happening or may happen, in a family. • Need for integration of information and reflection on what it would means for the individual child Thank you ...
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Understanding Behaviors
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Understanding Behaviors
Behavior can get socially constructed as either a deficit or an asset. Negative behavior is
a deficit, while a positive reaction is an asset. An individual reporting on the behavior social
construction determines a behavior’s value or meaning. Children's behavior social construction
gets cen...

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