Economics
San Diego State University Health Education and Crime Statistical Research PPT

San Diego State University

Question Description

I’m trying to study for my Economics course and I need some help to understand this question.

Must use websites in the PowerPoint slides

Must use Excel to create data entries and graph then export graph to PowerPoint

Unformatted Attachment Preview

Data Analysis Project 2 For this project you will demonstrate competency in researching economics; that is, creatively designing a research question, locating pertinent and credible data to support an answer, and presenting results in a professional and articulate manner. Furthermore, you will also be applying fundamental statistical concepts to your data sets to more quantitively answer your research questions. Follow these steps to complete the project: 1. Using the data covered in the Health, Education, and Crime slides, generate six research questions to study (e.g. “Have thyroid cancer rates have increased since 2000?”, “What is the educational attainment across races in California?”). You are to create two research questions from Health, two from Education, and two from Crime. You are to use a different data source for each research question (e.g. CDC, FBI, NAEP, etc.) in the overall project. Raw data in excel form is necessary for this project (google “data source, subject, Excel” for fastest results). All research question must utilize a minimum of 30 data points (n>=30). 2. Excel File: For each research question create an Excel sheet with your data set, one graph and the statistical metrics listed below. For the overall project you are to use each of the statistical concepts at least once and construct at least three different types of graphs. All statistical metrics are to be calculated in Excel using the functions reviewed in class. ✓ Mean (weighted, arithmetic, or geometric) ✓ Median ✓ Sample Variance ✓ Standard Deviation ✓ Coefficient of Variation ✓ Range ✓ 90th Percentile ✓ Quintiles ✓ Skewness ✓ Z-score for data points ✓ Discrete probability distribution histogram 3. PowerPoint Presentation: For each question, create a PowerPoint slide containing one graph, your statistical metrics, up to three bullet points (optional), and hyperlinks to your data source website (make sure the links work). The PowerPoint should also contain an introduction slide (e.g. name, project #, and class). 4. Submission: Upload the Excel and PowerPoint file into the link provided in Blackboard by the due date (no e-mailed copies). 5. Grading: Project grade is weighted 50/50 for Excel/PowerPoint; however, both must be submitted to receive a score. Excel graphs must be derived from the data input in Excel. The PowerPoint is graded subjectively as a presentation to your fellow classmates so cosmetics, spelling, character size, color, creativity all matter. 6. Academic Integrity: Do not copy graphs from websites nor replicate another student’s work. Health Health • Infant Mortality – – – – CDC CIA Factbook Measured as infant deaths prior to first year after birth per 1,000 live births. Often used to evaluate various health care systems and technologies. • Perceived by many to be highly responsive to improvements and failures in health care. – Differences exist across states, countries, race, and time? – Data Considerations when comparing countries: • Some countries count early births as “miscarriages” and do not include loss in infant mortality statistics, lowering their infant mortality rate. • Countries with a higher ratio of pre-term births, like the U.S., register higher infant mortality. • Abortion – Data: Guttmacher Foundation – Opinions: Gallup – Measuring • Abortion Rate per 1000 Women, percent of pregnancies ending in abortion, demographic characteristics, etc.. • Influencing Factors: income, race, age, etc.. Health • Life Expectancy – CIA FactBook – World Health Organization – SSA – Often used to compare various health care systems and technologies. – U.S has lower life expectancy than many European nations. • U.S. has higher deaths unrelated to the health care system such as homicides, suicides, and accidents, skewing the average lower. • Critics point out these factors are not completely unrelated to the health care system. – U.S. Hispanics live longer (especially immigrants from Mexico) • Ironically, Hispanics have characteristics correlated with lower life expectancy (i.e. higher poverty, less education, and health insurance). • Explained by “return migration” and lower smoking rates. – Blacks have lower life expectancy than Whites (≈4 years difference) • Gap increased in 1980s due to higher homicide rates in the inner cities. • After age 75 the gap diminishes to <1 year. • Black youth have twice the probability of death compared to whites. Health • Life Expectancy – CDC – Very Elderly data may be unreliable • <21 and >70 years of age tend to exaggerate their age causing an upward bias. – Measuring Longevity: Mean vs. Median statistics. • Longevity is skewed left due to high infant mortality rates. • Median may be a better statistic when measuring the “typical” life span. • Leading Causes of Death – CDC Health • Cancer – National Cancer Institute – American Cancer Society – Type of cancer matters for rates • Lung cancer has highest mortality and contributes to the increasing death rates seen post 1950s. • When lung cancer is excluded, death rate falls for cancer. • “War on cancer” may be difficult to track if lung cancer is included since it is primarily caused by smoking rather than insufficient health care advancements. – Survival Rates • Skewed upward: the half that survive the median time-frame can expect to live many years longer than the median would suggest. – Incidence rate • Changes with both actual cases and rates of detection. • 1974 breast examination campaign led to higher incidence as women rushed out to get checked. • 1982-1992 the PSA blood count test for prostate cancer caused the incidence of prostate cancer in men to rise as more got tested. Health • Cost/Benefit Analysis: – Valuing human life • Life-income-lost earnings approach – Problem: certain categories of people are valued differently (i.e. children and high income earners are valued higher) • Willingness to pay approach – Greater salary for higher risk job. – Problem: large range from $300K-$8 million. • Cost effectiveness approach – No value placed on life. – Analyzes the cost per life saved of a particular policy. • Traffic Fatalities – Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) – Overall rates have declined but important trends are masked. • • • • #1 cause of death among teenagers (ages 16-19). 3x the fatal crash rate of adults. Alcohol is present in about one-third of all traffic fatalities. Motorcycle deaths are about 15% of vehicular fatalities but constitute 28x the death rate per mile driven in automobiles. • Increased motorcycle deaths due to greater middle-aged/inexperienced riders. • >90% of all motorcycle fatalities are males. Crime Crime  Uniform Crime Report (UCR)   Summary data compiled by the FBI from local police departments. Issues     National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS)      Legal definitions of crime. “Downgrading crimes” by agencies to create more favorable stats. Hierarchy rule (only the most serious offense recorded). More detailed incident-based data on offense, offender, victim, property, location, etc. Compiled by the FBI beginning in 1989 to replace the UCR by 2021. Records 52 major crimes classifications and up to 10 offenses per incident (no hierarchy rule). Issues: still in development and lacking data to study national crime patterns. National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS)    Annual household survey compiled by the Census Bureau on behalf of the Justice Department. Includes both reported and unreported crimes. Issues:     Excludes murder, commercial burglary and robbery, victimless crimes, and white-collar crimes. Excludes crimes against the homeless. One household respondent: may exaggerate their own, versus other HH members, victimizations. Telescoping: bringing past victimizations closer to the present. Crime  Lower Crime Rates    1991-2000: U.S. experienced a 44% drop in homicides, 47% drop in robberies, and a 42% drop in burglaries. 2001-2008: stabilized, then dropped again in 2009 and 2010. Explanations:      Good economic conditions Higher incarceration rates Improved policing efforts Expanded availability of abortions after 1973 Increased Ratio of Female Criminals  Since the mid-1990s the ratio of offenses committed by women relative to men has increased.   The number of women offenders decreased but not as fast as that for men. Explanations:    Higher single (vs. collaborative) offender incidents. More equal gender roles and increased freedom of women. Welfare reform. Crime  Highest Crime Regions  Adjusted vs. Unadjusted Statistics    Population Count Matters     Adjusted Data: correlated variables such as poverty, income, and unemployment are controlled for to better evaluate law enforcement counter-crime policies. Unadjusted Data: Appropriate for evaluating quality of neighborhood and overall safety. Crime typically measured per 100,000 people. Overestimates of population can artificially lower crime rate. Underestimates can artificially raise crime rate. Rape  Unreliable data: deficient reporting and lack of a clear definition.     2012 & prior: UCR: “The carnal knowledge of a female forcibly and against her will”. Post-2012 UCR: “Penetration, no matter how slight, of the vagina or anus with any body part or object, or oral penetration by a sex organ of another person, without the consent of the victim” Includes: attempts of such, male-male rape, and non-consensual/non-violent rape Excludes: statutory rape and incest Crime  Poverty & Crime  Correlated at group level (city, neighborhood, etc.) but not at individual level.   Correlation not consistent with the Great Depression and Great Recession.   Implications: government policy designed to counter poverty may not reduce crime. Offsetting factors: less to steal, decreased mobility, and greater unity in extreme economic conditions. High Black Crime     Despite being 13% of population, 27% of arrestees and 39% of prison population are black. Blacks age 25-44 are 8 times more likely to be murdered than whites. Disproportionate black on black crime. Type of crime may increase probability of being arrested     Blacks more likely to commit conspicuous street crimes. Whites more likely to commit inconspicuous burglary and drunk driving. “Crime” in UCR omits white-collar crimes. May be discrimination and bias in the law enforcement and judicial system. Crime  Does Prison Pay      Federal Bureau of Prisons World Prison Brief US has the highest incarceration rate in world. In 2008 over 2% of US males age 18-64 were incarcerated. Cost-benefit analysis   Cost to imprison an individual per year (approximately $30-$40 thousand). Benefit is the value of reduced crime.    Criminals often commit a larger number of crimes than they are apprehended for, raising benefits. 3-strikes law increased imprisonment rates and costs but did it decrease crime? Gun Control      Small Arms Survey Estimates indicated there are over 300 million guns in America. Highly concentrated: half of households do not own guns. Correlation studies are difficult since ownership is both legal and illegal. Who kills and would gun control stop them?    ≈15% of homicides are committed by family members. ≈55% of homicides are committed by individuals known to the victim (includes family). ≈12% of homicides are committed by strangers. Crime Crime  Uniform Crime Report (UCR)   Summary data compiled by the FBI from local police departments. Issues     National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS)      Legal definitions of crime. “Downgrading crimes” by agencies to create more favorable stats. Hierarchy rule (only the most serious offense recorded). More detailed incident-based data on offense, offender, victim, property, location, etc. Compiled by the FBI beginning in 1989 to replace the UCR by 2021. Records 52 major crimes classifications and up to 10 offenses per incident (no hierarchy rule). Issues: still in development and lacking data to study national crime patterns. National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS)    Annual household survey compiled by the Census Bureau on behalf of the Justice Department. Includes both reported and unreported crimes. Issues:     Excludes murder, commercial burglary and robbery, victimless crimes, and white-collar crimes. Excludes crimes against the homeless. One household respondent: may exaggerate their own, versus other HH members, victimizations. Telescoping: bringing past victimizations closer to the present. Crime  Lower Crime Rates    1991-2000: U.S. experienced a 44% drop in homicides, 47% drop in robberies, and a 42% drop in burglaries. 2001-2008: stabilized, then dropped again in 2009 and 2010. Explanations:      Good economic conditions Higher incarceration rates Improved policing efforts Expanded availability of abortions after 1973 Increased Ratio of Female Criminals  Since the mid-1990s the ratio of offenses committed by women relative to men has increased.   The number of women offenders decreased but not as fast as that for men. Explanations:    Higher single (vs. collaborative) offender incidents. More equal gender roles and increased freedom of women. Welfare reform. Crime  Highest Crime Regions  Adjusted vs. Unadjusted Statistics    Population Count Matters     Adjusted Data: correlated variables such as poverty, income, and unemployment are controlled for to better evaluate law enforcement counter-crime policies. Unadjusted Data: Appropriate for evaluating quality of neighborhood and overall safety. Crime typically measured per 100,000 people. Overestimates of population can artificially lower crime rate. Underestimates can artificially raise crime rate. Rape  Unreliable data: deficient reporting and lack of a clear definition.     2012 & prior: UCR: “The carnal knowledge of a female forcibly and against her will”. Post-2012 UCR: “Penetration, no matter how slight, of the vagina or anus with any body part or object, or oral penetration by a sex organ of another person, without the consent of the victim” Includes: attempts of such, male-male rape, and non-consensual/non-violent rape Excludes: statutory rape and incest Crime  Poverty & Crime  Correlated at group level (city, neighborhood, etc.) but not at individual level.   Correlation not consistent with the Great Depression and Great Recession.   Implications: government policy designed to counter poverty may not reduce crime. Offsetting factors: less to steal, decreased mobility, and greater unity in extreme economic conditions. High Black Crime     Despite being 13% of population, 27% of arrestees and 39% of prison population are black. Blacks age 25-44 are 8 times more likely to be murdered than whites. Disproportionate black on black crime. Type of crime may increase probability of being arrested     Blacks more likely to commit conspicuous street crimes. Whites more likely to commit inconspicuous burglary and drunk driving. “Crime” in UCR omits white-collar crimes. May be discrimination and bias in the law enforcement and judicial system. Crime  Does Prison Pay      Federal Bureau of Prisons World Prison Brief US has the highest incarceration rate in world. In 2008 over 2% of US males age 18-64 were incarcerated. Cost-benefit analysis   Cost to imprison an individual per year (approximately $30-$40 thousand). Benefit is the value of reduced crime.    Criminals often commit a larger number of crimes than they are apprehended for, raising benefits. 3-strikes law increased imprisonment rates and costs but did it decrease crime? Gun Control      Small Arms Survey Estimates indicated there are over 300 million guns in America. Highly concentrated: half of households do not own guns. Correlation studies are difficult since ownership is both legal and illegal. Who kills and would gun control stop them?    ≈15% of homicides are committed by family members. ≈55% of homicides are committed by individuals known to the victim (includes family). ≈12% of homicides are committed by strangers. Education 2013 BLS Education • Sources – National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) • “Nation’s Report Card” – Census • Educational Attainment • Public School System Finances • Issues in Education – High School Completion • (# of graduates/# of students) – Who represents “graduates”? Equivalency exam? > 4 years? Modified study? – Who represents “students”? Those that started HS 4 years prior? Size of senior class? • What is the study for? Diploma count? Workforce qualification? School performance? • Beginning 2010/11 school year, No Child Left Behind legislation improved consistency across states by requiring graduation rates be reported as: (# of students who graduate in four years with a HS diploma/ # of students who entered school 4 years prior). Graduation Rates High school graduation rates have increased since the 1960 across all races. Cross-Country Comparison Math Scores Average 8th Grade Mathematics Achievement Score: 2009 Japan 539 South Korea 538 Canada 529 Australia 527 Netherlands 522 Germany 520 U.K. 514 Poland 508 Ireland 508 Belgium 507 Hungary 503 U.S. 502 The mathematics achievement scores of eighth grade American students lag behind those of many other countries. Subject Matter Proficiency National Assessment of Student Progress (NAEP) Assessing Progress • • • U.S. has not been in the top scoring countries on any major assessment since the early 1990s However: • The U.S. has diverse student body each with unique challenges. • U.S. students typically progress to higher levels of education, skewing average scores down. Concerns with improvement • • Grade inflation and teaching to the test. Assessments may not adequately measure creativity, social responsibility, professionalism, and friendliness (characteristics often inversely correlated with subject matter achievement). Education SAT Scores • • • Still falling, why? Simpsons Paradox: a relationship that appears in aggregated data disappears or reverses when broken into subgroups. A greater proportion of lower-scoring, mostly lower-income groups, have been taking the SAT. Graduation Rates High school graduation rates have increased since the 1940s. Spending Per Student Real spending per pupil in the U.S. has more than doubled since the mid-70s Spending Per Student Current expenditures, interest payments, and capital outlays per student in fall enrollment in public elementary and secondary schools, by type of expenditure: Selected years, 2000–01 through 2014–15 National Center for Educational Statistics Cross-Country Comparison of Spending Per Student Student-Teacher Ratios Cautions Against Quick Conclusions • Greater Spending, Less Results? • Non-instructional spending (e.g. janitors, secretaries, administration). • Instructional spending declined from 70% in 1960 to less than 50% by 2010. • Special education spending (13% of students qualified in 2011). • Smaller Classes, No Impact? • Special education classes skew the average figure lower. • Lower Test Scores? • Less academically prepared students ar ...
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Final Answer

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Data: https://www.iihs.org/topics/fatality-statistics/detail/yearly-snapshot
Motor vehicle crash deaths by month in 2018
Month
Deaths
January
2828
February
2511
March
2850
April
2788
May
3206
June
3296
July
3326
August
3254
September
3276
October
3368
November
2965
December
2892

Metrics
Mean
Median
Variance
StDev
Coefficient
Range
90%
Quintiles
-25%
-75%
Skew

Motor vehicle crash deaths by month in 2018
4000
3500
3000
2500
2000
1500
1000
500

0

3046.667
3085.5
75940.79
275.5736
9.045084
857
3355.4
2833.5
3291
-0.50994

Z-test for whether February is statistically significant
Mean
3046.667
February
2511
Z-score
P-value

-6.73
0

Yes, February is statistically significantlly different


Infant Mortality Rates and GDP by State in 2
3000000
2500000
2000000
1500000
1000000
500000
0

AL
AZ
CA
CT
FL
HI
IL
IA
KY
ME
MA
MN
MO

Infant Mortality Rates and GDP by State in 2017
State
Mortality Rate GDP
AL
7.4
213903
AK
5.6
54403
AZ
5.7
10589
AR
8.2
126263
CA
4.2 2802289
CO
4.5
351666
CT
4.5
265876
DE
6.6
74978
FL
6.1
984138
GA
7.2
563784
HI
5.3
89302
ID
4.6
73324
IL
6.1
835642
IN
7.3
364649
IA
5.3
191072
KS
6.1
160390
KY
6.5
205935
LA
7.1
2510...

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