Learn research in a systematic fashion
In-depth study of a topic
Ability to read several articles and search for ideas and/or perform implementation
Demonstrate understanding through an exam on selected articles
A goal is to write professional research report after picking up a topic of interest.
Present your report and demonstrate your understanding of the topic.
Perform implementation and explain your work.
Comprehend other presented reports and write a final exam on selected items.
Phase 1: Topic selection
• Select a topic in Computing disciplines. For example:
•Database: Design, Monitoring, and tuning.
•Knowledge based systems
•Risk and Configuration Managements
•Mobile Application Software
Later we will study the tools that are available. However, before considering the tools,
issues pertaining to concepts, models, algorithms, techniques, etc should be dealt with
first. Then, collect various tools in your selected topic. Among others, should consider
evaluation criteria, comparison elements, features, limitations, reviews, and
experimentation with the tools.
Phase 1: What to submit
Send me a page by email. The page contains:
The name, ID, Course No and name.
Topic title and the area
A paragraph describing the topic and its significance and application.
A paragraph indicating the motivation for selecting the topic.
Phase 2: Bibliography
• A list of all references related to your topic. Use any style such as APA, IEEE, MLA,
• Format: Cite the reference followed by a link to its contents in the SM.
• Submit a SM of all references with links to their contents in the SM.
Phase 3: References Evaluation
• Follow the steps to be explained to obtain two lists: Accepted and reject. (AS
EXPLAINED IN CLASS)
• Format: Cite the reference followed by links to its contents and to its evaluation in the
• Submit a SM of the reference lists, their contents, and their evaluation.
• Select a reference of the accepted and another of the rejected and present them.
Phase 4: Annotated Bibliography
• Cite each reference followed by three paragraphs to be explained later. Links should
be there as before.
• Submit: The SM will be as before with the annotated Bib added. Links are to the
content, evaluation, and annotated bibliography in the SM. Links are next to the
reference name per the format given to you in this document.
• Select a reference and present its annotation.
Phase 5: Literature Review (LR)
• Present an informed evaluation of the literature
• Organize information and relate it to the thesis or your research question
Phase 6: The final Report
• LR + Findings + Tools and their evaluation.
Phase 7: The final Exam
• To be discussed later
Steps of Research Process
Outline a simple and effective strategy for finding information for a research
report and documenting the sources you find.
Step 1: Identify a Topic
• State your topic.
• Identify the main concepts or keywords in your topic.
Step 2: Test your Topic
• Test the main concepts or keywords in your topic by looking them up in the
appropriate background sources or by using them as search terms
• If you are finding too much information and too many sources, narrow your topic
• Finding too little information may indicate that you need to broaden your topic
Step 3: Find Background Information
• Look up your keywords in the net, etc.
• Read related articles to set the context for your research.
• Note any relevant items in the bibliographies at the end of the articles.
• Additional background information may be found in your lecture notes, textbooks, and
• Use keyword searching for a narrow or complex search topic.
• Use subject searching for a broad subject.
• Print or write down the citation (author, title,etc.) and the location information (call
number and library).
• Scan the bibliography for additional sources.
This should set the stage for extensive literature review.
Step 4: Use Indexes to Find Periodical Articles
• Use periodical indexes and abstracts to find citations to articles. The indexes and
abstracts may be in print or computer-based formats or both.
Step 5: Find other Resources
• In IT you may need SW & HW.
Work from the general to the specific.
Find background information first, then use more specific and recent sources.
Record what you find and where you found it.
Write out a complete citation for each source you find; You may need it again later.
• a list of citations to books, articles, and documents
• 1. Mathkour, H., A. Touir, and G. Assasa. “An XML Medaitor”, Communication of
ACM, Vol. 13, No. 3, 1999, pp. 31-45.
• 2. Robin, M. Algorithms, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., new York, NY, 1966, 1st ed.
• Use Standard citation.
• MLA, APA, IEEE, Chicago, etc.
Examples of Citations
• You cite it in your report in different ways. Examples: Mathkour et.al.  points out
• The system described in  lacks…
• Several systems [1, 2] have been constructed
Use Standard citation.
MLA, APA, IEEE, Chicago, etc.
Form your bibliography by collecting appropriate references for your topic
Scrutinize each reference by analyzing your source of information]
Analyzing Information Resources (Here is the bibliography evaluation)
• Appraise a source by first examining the bibliographic citation.
• The bibliographic citation is the written description of a book, journal article, essay, or
some other published material that appears in a catalog or index.
Bibliographic citations characteristically have three main components: author, title,
and publication information. These components can help you determine the
usefulness of this source for your paper.
Initial Appraisal: Authors
• What are the author's credentials--institutional affiliation (where he or she works),
educational background, past writings, or experience?
Is the book or article written on a topic in the author's area of expertise?
You can use the various Who's Who publications and the biographical information
located in the publication itself to help determine the author's affiliation and
Has your instructor mentioned this author? Have you seen the author's name cited in
other sources or bibliographies? Look for authors who are cited frequently.
Is the author associated with a reputable institution or organization? What are the
basic values or goals of the organization or institution?
Initial Appraisal: Date of Publication
When was the source published? This date is often located on the face of the title
page below the name of the publisher. If it is not there, look for the copyright date
on the reverse of the title page. On Web pages, the date of the last revision is usually
at the bottom of the home page, sometimes every page.
Is the source current or out-of-date for your topic? Topic areas of continuing and
rapid development, such as sciences, demand more current information. On the other
hand, topics in the humanities often require material that was written many years
ago. At the other extreme, some news sources on the Web now note the hour and
minute that articles are posted on their site.
Initial Appraisal: Edition or revision
• Is this a first edition of this publication or not? Further editions indicate a source has
been revised and updated to reflect changes in knowledge, include omissions, and
harmonize with its intended reader's needs. Also, many printings or editions may
indicate that the work has become a standard source in the area and is reliable. If you
are using a Web source, do the pages indicate revision dates?
Initial Appraisal: Publisher
Who is the publisher? If the source is published by a university press, it is likely to be
scholarly. Although the fact that the publisher is reputable does not necessarily
guarantee quality, it does show that the publisher may have high regard for the source
Initial Appraisal: Title of Journal
Is this a scholarly or a popular journal? This distinction is important because it
indicates different levels of complexity in conveying ideas.
This is the second part of the reference evaluation
After initial appraisal, examine the body of the source.
Read the preface (abstract) to determine the author's intentions for the book.
Scan the table of contents and the index to get a broad overview of the material it
• Note whether bibliographies are included.
• Read the chapters that specifically address your topic.
• Scanning the table of contents of a journal or magazine issue is also useful.
The presence and quality of a bibliography at the end of the article may reflect the
care with which the authors have prepared their work.
What type of audience is the author addressing?
Is the publication aimed at a specialized or a general audience?
Is this source too elementary, too technical, too advanced, or just right for your needs?
Is the information covered fact, oinion, or propaganda?
Does the information appear to be valid and well-researched, or is it questionable and
unsupported by evidences?
Assumptions should be reasonable.
Note errors or omissions.
Are the ideas and arguments advanced more or less in line with other works you have
read on the same topic?
The more radically an author departs from the views of others in the same field, the
more carefully and critically you should scrutinize his or her ideas.
Is the author's point of view objective and impartial?
Does the work update other sources, substantiate other materials you have read, or
add new information?
Does it extensively or marginally cover your topic?
You should explore enough sources to obtain a variety of viewpoints.
• Is the material primary or secondary in nature?
Primary sources are the raw material of the research process. Secondary sources are
based on primary sources. Choose both primary and secondary sources when you
have the opportunity.
Is the publication organized logically?
Are the main points clearly presented?
Do you find the text easy to read, or is it stilted or choppy?
Is the author's argument repetitive?
Locate critical reviews of books in a reviewing source, such as Book Review Index, Book
Review Digest, OR Periodical Abstracts.
• Is the review positive?
Is the book under review considered a valuable contribution to the field?
Does the reviewer mention other books that might be better? If so, locate these
sources for more information on your topic.
• Do the various reviewers agree on the value or attributes of the book or has it
aroused controversy among the critics?
To this point you have finished what is required to evaluate a reference.
For references that are available only on the net, i.e., have been published only on the
Web, you need to evaluate the web site itself. This is done as follows.
Evaluating Web Sites
Step 1: identify the type of a page
Step 2: use appropriate checklist
Step 3: based on checklist criteria, determine relative quality of page
Step 1: Identify the Type of Web Page
Use the Appropriate Checklist
Answer questions with Yes or No
Is there a link to a page describing the purpose of the sponsoring organization?
Is it clear who is responsible for the contents of the page?
Is there a way of verifying the legitimacy of the page's sponsor? That is, is there a
phone number or postal address to contact for more information? (Simply an email
address is not enough.)
Is it clear who wrote the material and are the author's qualifications for writing on this
topic clearly stated?
If the material is protected by copyright, is the name of the copyright holder given?
Are the sources for any factual information clearly listed so they can be verified in
• Is the information free of grammatical, spelling, and typographical errors? (These
kinds of errors not only indicate a lack of quality control, but can actually produce
inaccuracies in information.)
• Is it clear who has the ultimate responsibility for the accuracy of the content of the
• If there are charts and/or graphs containing statistical data, are the charts and/or graphs
clearly labeled and easy to read?
• Is the information provided as a public service?
• Is the information free of advertising?
• If there is any advertising on the page, is it clearly differentiated from the
• Are there dates on the page to indicate:
• When the page was written?
• When the page was first placed on the Web?
• When the page was last revised?
• Are there any other indications that the material is kept current?
• If material is presented in graphs and/or charts, is it clearly stated when the data was
• If the information is published in different editions, is it clearly labeled what edition
the page is from?
Is there an indication that the page has been completed, and is not still under
• If there is a print equivalent to the Web page, is there a clear indication of whether the
entire work is available on the Web or only parts of it?
• If the material is from a work which is out of copyright (as is often the case with a
dictionary or thesaurus) has there been an effort to update the material to make it more
Step 3: Based on the Checklist Criteria, Determine the Relative Quality of the Web
The greater number of checklist questions answered yes, the more likely the page is of
higher informational quality
UP till Now
You should have two lists of references: Accepted and Rejected according to the
appraisal and various analysis pointed out so far
You are now ready to annotate your bibliography, I.e., the accepted list of references
describe the content (focus) of the item
describe the usefulness of the item
discuss any limitations that the item may have, e.g. grade level, timeliness etc.
describe what audience the item is intended for
evaluate reliability of the item
evaluate the methods of research used in the item
discuss any conclusions the author(s) may have made
describe your reaction to the item
describe the relationships to other refs
What Is the Purpose of an Annotated Bibliography?
May serve a number of purposes. Including but not limited to:
A review of the literature on a particular subject
Illustrate the quality of research that you have done
Provide examples of the types of sources available
Describe other items on a topic that may be of interest to the reader
Explore the subject for further research
Annotations Vs Abstracts
Abstracts are the purely descriptive summaries often found at the beginning of
scholarly journal articles or in periodical indexes.
Annotations are descriptive and critical; they expose the author's point of view, clarity
and appropriateness of expression, and authority.
A review of the literature is a classification and evaluation of what accredited scholars
and researchers have written on a topic, organized according to a guiding concept such
as your research objective, thesis, or the problem/issue you wish to address.
What to do
• Recognize relevant information.
• Integrate and evaluate them.
Your reader wants to know:
What literature exists
Your informed evaluation of the literature.
• Information seeking
• Critical appraisal
organize information and relate it to the thesis or your research question
synthesize your reading of texts into a summary
identify controversy when it appears in the literature
develop questions for further research.
• A description of what you have read
• A conceptually organized synthesis of the results of your search
What to Scrutinize?
Has the author formulated a problem/issue?
Is the problem/issue ambiguous or clearly articulated? Is its significance (scope,
severity, relevance) discussed?
What are the strengths and limitations of the way the author has formulated the
problem or issue?
Could the problem have been approached more effectively from another
What is the author's theoretical framework?
What is the relationship between the theoretical and research perspectives?
Has the author evaluated the literature relevant to the problem/issue? Does the
author include literature taking positions s/he does not agree with?
In a research study, how good are the three basic components of the study design
(i.e., population, intervention, outcome)? How accurate and valid are the
measurements? Is the analysis of the data accurate and relevant to the research
question? Are the conclusions validly based upon the data and analysis?
In popular literature, does the author use appeals to emotion, one-sided examples,
rhetorically-charged language and tone? Is the author objective, or is s/he merely
'proving' what s/he already believes?
How does the author structure his or her argument? Can you 'deconstruct' the flow
of the argument to analyze if/where it breaks down?
Is this a book or article that contributes to the understanding of the problem under
study, and in what ways is it useful for practice? What are the strengths and
How does this book or article fit into the thesis, report, or question you are
For the structure of your literature review, you may:
• Review the literature in chronological order evaluating each stage
• Compare one stream of literature with another
• Analyze each of the major theoretical positions in turn
Discuss and compare the thinking of the key writers in the field
Analyze and compare different methodological approaches to a topic or issue
Compare the way literature approaches a subject from different disciplines
Compare popular literature with the more scholarly.
Keep in Mind
Remember you write about what writers say and how they think about their subject:
how they reason, how they organize their ideas and the evidence they use to support
• When you are writing the review it is critical that you cite and reference correctly.
GOOD LUCK …It has been a pleasure. Thank you.
Student Name: AbdulAziz Hazazi
Social Media Personal Information Security
With the rapid proliferation of internet and Web 2.0 technologies, online social media networks
continue to increasingly gain popularity (Zhao and Shery). Almost every person from every corner of the
world can access some form of online social media platform. Through the social media platforms,
millions of people create and exchange user generated content, and connect with each other in ways never
imagined before. Though the use of social media presents new opportunities for socialization, it also
exposes its users to the increasing risk of cyberattacks (Zhao and Shery). Users of social media networks
are therefore expected to be constantly alert and implement strategies and tools that would safeguard them
from cyberattacks. Unfortunately, the field of cyber security is rapidly evolvin ...
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