Health Medical
UConn Emergency Preparedness for Children with Autism Disorder Annotation Bibliography

University of Connecticut

Question Description

I’m trying to learn for my Health & Medical class and I’m stuck. Can you help?

I need ALL work for the same topic:

the Topic is: EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS FOR CHILDREN WITH AUTISM DISORDER in disasters.

I have done the outline for the paper ( include 3 references) I will attach the outline. So follow the outline contents

1- Annotation bibliography of 10 references ( 3 are selected in the outline and need 7 more)

  • Annotation is simply a brief summary of the articles highlights, relevance to your paper etc.

2- Final paper ( 15-18 pages)

· Abstract - An overview of the paper topic, importance of the topic etc. Begin your abstract with "The purpose of this discussion is to..."

· Targeted topics - Sample paper subheadings, major areas to be covered in your paper. Use bullets to help separate each subheading.

· Selected references - cite at least three at this point (but will need to cite more in final paper). Also, see “Annotated Bibliography” below.

· Expected conclusions - what you expect at this point, recognizing that your final conclusions may be different; expect to discuss the difference(s) in your final paper.

3- Final paper presentation:

  1. 10-15 slide PowerPoint presentation specific to special needs populations based in their research paper. The PowerPoint is due to instructor by week of November 26. Presentation topic will be chosen by faculty. Grade will reflect individual effort in the final product. The Power Point should include:
    1. Topic under discussion
    2. Overview of the problem
    3. Literature Review
    4. Findings
    5. Areas for action
    6. Summary
    7. References



Unformatted Attachment Preview

Running head: EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS FOR CHILDREN WITH AUTISM1 EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS FOR CHILDREN WITH AUTISM DISORDER OUTLINE EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS FOR CHILDREN WITH AUTISM DISORDER 2 Emergency Preparedness for Children with Autism Disorder Abstract Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) comprise a cluster of disorders that usually impair the healthy development of the brain. Children diagnosed with autism often find it cumbersome to behave like peers, communicate, or even socialize. Unique challenges are faced by children diagnosed with asthma alongside their caregivers. The notable difficulties manifest primarily during emergencies. Hence, effective emergency preparedness is necessary for caregivers and vulnerable families, an aspect that can be attained through capacity building and training. The paper will cover the following: I. The behavior of an autistic child • Identifying the behavior of a child with autism is necessary for fathers, mothers, and other caregivers to offer the conditions that favor their wellbeing. All this considering that the child will be assisted by a specialist and a multidisciplinary team of therapists (Edmonds, 2017). • This monitoring aims at reducing symptoms and the search for autonomy, within the possibilities of each patient during emergencies • That is why it is essential to seek help and always be willing to provide solutions for children living with Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD). i. Eye contact from mother to child ii. Everyone knows that the first contacts occur in the eyes, usually from mother to child. iii. II. In the case of a child with autism, he does not fix his eyes for long. Helping children with autism disorder EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS FOR CHILDREN WITH AUTISM DISORDER • 3 The child with autism can and should play. However, it is necessary to know that her time is different, that is, the game can happen, but the little one will want to stop when something starts to bother him. • Any activity or gymkhana that causes a feeling of tightness tends to irritate an autistic child due to your hypersensitivity. • Caregivers and family members should be on the frontline to be trained to boost their capacity during emergencies III. Disaster preparedness for autistic children • Children with autism are prone to hypersensitivity i. The condition becomes worse when disasters strike ii. Hence, the hypersensitive condition should be a target of treatment during disasters • The degree of preparedness arouses some concern on the part of families and caregivers • Special care is needed during disasters i. However, families and caregivers are hardly equipped to handle emergencies triggered by autistic condition (Indriasari & Widyarani, 2018) ii. IV. An autistic child needs specific care when disasters strike. Suitable treatment during emergencies • A multidisciplinary team should assist autistic children. • The initial step should be the close involvement of family and caregivers (Nicholas et al., 2016). • Intervention and disaster preparedness measures should be adopted in advance EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS FOR CHILDREN WITH AUTISM DISORDER V. 4 Recommendations The paper will offer recommendations on how families and caregivers can be prepared to manage autistic children during emergencies VI. Conclusions The state of poor preparation during emergencies is a worrying trend for families and caregivers of children diagnosed with autism. While normal management procedure for autism is in place, the main challenge arises during disasters, both artificial and natural. There are growing gaps between autism in children and disaster preparedness. EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS FOR CHILDREN WITH AUTISM DISORDER 5 References Edmonds, C. O. (2017). Designing emergency preparedness resources for children with autism. International Journal of Disability, Development, and Education, 64(4), 404419. Indriasari, F. N., & Widyarani, L. (2018). Disaster Risk Reduction and Emergency Preparedness for Children With Autism in Facing Earthquake Disaster in Yogyakarta. Jurnal Medicoeticolegal dan Manajemen Rumah Sakit, 7(1), 52-59. Nicholas, D. B., Zwaigenbaum, L., Muskat, B., Craig, W. R., Newton, A. S., Cohen-Silver, J., ... & Kilmer, C. (2016). Toward practice advancement in emergency care for children with an autism spectrum disorder. Pediatrics, 137(Supplement 2), S205-S211. ...
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Final Answer

Attached.

Emergency Preparedness
for Children with Autism
Disorder
Name

Institution

Topic under Discussion


Exclusion of children with disabilities from disaster risk
reduction initiatives is a common trend in most countries.



The exclusion contributes to the amplification of children
experience during disasters



An autistic child is an example of children with special needs
who are excluded from disaster risk reduction initiatives.



Autistic children have sensory integration issues that make
them vulnerable during disasters (Ronoh, Gaillard, &
Marlowe, 2015).

Overview of the Problem


Children comprise one of the vulnerable groups to disasters
because of their inadequate knowledge about disasters



Autism pronounces the challenge further since autistic children
experience difficulties comprehending the situation facing
them.



Autistic children display communication problems that
heighten children's anxiety and increases misunderstanding
(Jacques et al., 2018).



Hypersensitivity and hyposensitivity of autistic children
increases their risks during disasters

Cont.


Children diagnosed with autism are reliant on their parents or
caregivers more than typical children.



Autistic children require emotional support, which the
parents or caregivers provide.



Autism is a condition that presents unprecedented challenges
during disasters, which is attributed to its hypersensitivity or
hyposensitivity (Dunfield, Best, Kelley, & Kuhlmeier, 2019).



Autism increases complexity to parents because of the need
to balance the needs and costs of helping autistic children.

Literature Review


Children with autism disorder have unique needs that require
additional accommodation to help them.



Children with cognitive impairments are vulnerable to disasters



Autistic children are generally hypersensitive and hyposensitive.



Their sensitivity means they can under-react or overreact to
issues facing them (Al Sharif & Ratnapalan, 2016).



Anxiety and confusion are the dangers that present themselves
among autistic children during disasters (Edmonds, 2017).

Cont.


Autistic children are vulnerable during disasters partly due to
the limited knowledge emergency personnel have about
disabilities



The other contributor to vulnerability is the failure by autistic
children to understand new surroundings.



Autistic children struggle to focus on the information they
receive about disasters.



It increases their difficulty to understand instructions, thus
increasing their vulnerabilities and dangers posed by disasters
(Indriasari & Widyarani, 2018).

Cont.


Disaster preparedness simulation reduces the vulnerabilities
of autistic children during disasters.



The simulation prepares the children mentally and physically
about what happens during disasters (Lou, Braun, & De Leon,
2013).



Children diagnosed with autism disorder are taken through
disaster preparedness simulation with family members.



Family involvement increases the active involvement of the
child during disaster preparedness simulation.

Findings


Parents and caregivers need to identify the problems facing
autistic children.



Identification of the problem makes it easy to help them
since one can understand the problem and develop an ideal
solution.



The primary goal of helping children diagnosed with autism
is preventing and protecting them from calamities (Lou,
Braun, & De Leon, 2013).

Cont.


During disaster preparedness simulation, instructors need to
factor in the time the whole simulation takes (Indriasari &
Widyarani, 2018).



Repetition of the process is essential to increase the
respondents' understanding of the content in the video.



Using audiovisual equipment during the simulation is vital since
it increases enthusiasm among autistic children

Cont.


Instead of focusing on reactionary measures, the government
should advocate for intervention and preparedness measures.



Preparedness entails forecasting events and providing the
public with timely warnings of an impending attack.



Adopting intervention measures and preparedness minimizes
threats posed by disasters.

Areas of Action


With the increasing cases of vulnerabilities of disabled children,
the government needs to increase its drive to minimize the
vulnerabilities



Increasing preparedness level is one way of addressing the issue



The use of Virtual Reality is one way of increasing children's
preparedness to disasters (Fino, Lin, Caballero, & Balahadia,
2017).



Virtual Reality catches the attention of the children and
improves awareness about disaster preparedness.

Cont.


The increased challenges posed to autistic children require more
effort to combat the challenges.



The primary need to address is the lack of specific materials and
resources for preparing and responding to disasters.



Another area to address is the limited education focused on
special needs to incorporate the physically and mentally
challenged individuals.



There is also the consideration of developing greater ASD
training for medical practitioners

Summary


Poor preparedness for emergencies worries most families with
autistic children.



Autistic children experience additional challenges during disasters
when compared to typical children.



Their social communication and interaction challenges increase
their vulnerability during disasters since they cannot communicate
well with others.



Increased challenges faced by autistic children during disasters
raises the need to establish measures to reduce the problems



Disaster preparedness using video simulation and Virtual Reality is
one of the ways of reducing the vulnerability of autistic children.



Educating the children and parents is another way of helping them
cope with the challenges associated with the disasters.

Summary


Improving the handling of autistic children require the
sharing of resources between specialized kits and focusing
on developing new kits.



Healthcare providers need to develop skills to intervene in
aggressive behaviors among autistic children.



There is also the need to increase follow-up resources

References
Al Sharif, S., & Ratnapalan, S. (2016). Managing children with autism spectrum disorders in
emergency departments. Pediatric emergency care, 32(2), 101-103.

Dunfield, K. A., Best, L. J., Kelley, E. A., & Kuhlmeier, V. A. (2019). Motivating moral
behavior: Helping, sharing, and comforting in young children with Autism Spectrum
Disorder. Frontiers in psychology, 10.
Edmonds, C. O. (2017). Designing emergency preparedness resources for children with
autism. International Journal of Disability, Development and Education, 64(4), 404-419.

Fino, R., Lin, M. J., Caballero, A., & Balahadia, F. F. (2017). Disaster awareness simulation
for children with autism spectrum disorder using android virtual reality. Journal of
Telecommunication, Electronic and Computer Engineering (JTEC), 9(2-6), 59-62.
Indriasari, F. N., & Widyarani, L. (2018). Disaster Risk Reduction and Emergency
Preparedness for Children With Autism in Facing Earthquake Disaster in Yogyakarta.
Jurnal Medicoeticolegal dan Manajemen Rumah Sakit, 7(1), 52-59.
Jacques, C., Courchesne, V., Meilleur, A. S., Mineau, S., Ferguson, S., Labbe, M. D., &
Mottron, L. (2018). What interests young autistic children? An exploratory study of
object exploration and repetitive behavior. PloS one, 13(12).

References
Lou, J., Braun, M., & De Leon, J. (2013). Emergency preparedness for children with
autism: A needs assessment for a vulnerable population. American Public
Health Association.
Nicholas, D. B., Zwaigenbaum, L., Muskat, B., Craig, W. R., Newton, A. S., CohenSilber, J., . . . Kilmer, C. (2016). Toward practice advancement in emergency
care for children with autism spectrum disorder. Pediatrics, 137(Supplement 2),
S205-S211.
Ronoh, S., Gaillard, J. C., & Marlowe, J. (2015). Children with disabilities and
disaster risk reduction: A review. International Journal of Disaster Risk Science,
6(1), 38-48.
Saito, A., Stickley, A., Haraguchi, H., Takahashi, H., Ishitobi, M., & Kamio, Y. (2017).
Association between autistic traits in preschool children and later emotional/
behavioral outcomes. Journal of autism and developmental disorders, 47(11),
3333-3346.

Attached.

Running head: EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS FOR CHILDREN WITH AUTISM
DISORDER

1

Emergency Preparedness for Children with Autism Disorder
Name
Institution

EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS FOR CHILDREN WITH AUTISM DISORDER

2

Abstract
The purpose of this discussion is to highlight the various challenges autistic children go
through during emergencies and propose the best recommendations to reduce the challenges
autistic children encounter during disasters. Autism spectrum disorder is a common condition
in the current generation, as witnessed with the increasing number of children diagnosed with
the condition. Children diagnosed with autism find it difficult to interact with other children
because of their inadequate social communication and interaction behaviors. Autistic children
experience added challenges during disasters when compared to other children, thus
prompting the need to establish the right levels of preparedness to reduce the challenges the
children go through. Disaster preparedness for autistic children entails the reduction of the
risks facing children during disasters. Improvement of disaster preparedness among children
includes the use of video simulation and Virtual Reality. Improved technological practices
help in the preparation of children to face adversities through the simulated practices of
disasters. The special care autistic children require during emergencies means the government
has to implement practices such as education programs to aid children and reduce the
challenges facing them.

EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS FOR CHILDREN WITH AUTISM DISORDER

3

Emergency Preparedness for Children with Autism Disorder
Introduction
The state of poor preparation during emergencies is a worrying trend for families with
children diagnosed with autism. Despite the considerable improvement in the past few years
regarding the improvement of disaster preparedness and handling, the vulnerable groups
remain the same. Children are vulnerable groups to any disaster since they have inadequate
knowledge or willpower to protect themselves from disasters. The vulnerability increases
among disabled children. Some of the factors, such as mobility difficulties and the existing
physical and social structures, as well as policies, contribute to the increased challenges
disabled children face during disasters. Children with disabilities can get additional
impairments from a disaster because of the inadequate shelters that do not meet their medical
needs. Autistic children, for instance, have sensory integration issues such as high sensitivity
to sounds, light, and odors that make them vulnerable during disasters (Ronoh, Gaillard, &
Marlowe, 2015). The challenges autistic children go through during disasters require the
development of measures to limit the challenges and ensure that the children get the best care
they deserve or get through the disasters without further medical damage. The improved
preparedness levels in recent years are not sufficient to cope with the challenges posed by
calamities, particularly among children diagnosed with autism. The growing gap between
autism in children and disaster preparedness requires the development of essential measures
to close the gap and ensure that autistic children get the necessary level of preparedness to
handle the calamities that befall them.
The Behavior of an Autistic Child
Autism continues to rise in the United States. Recent statistics estimate that 1 out of
88 children aged eight years have autism. The continued rise of autistic children means that

EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS FOR CHILDREN WITH AUTISM DISORDER

4

they are going to become part of the healthcare system. Autistic children develop different
characteristics and behaviors compared to typical children. Two categories of autism exist,
classic autism, and an autism spectrum disorder. Children with classic autism usually avoid
eye contact and do not understand the various social cues that exist within a particular society
(Saito et al., 2017). The other characteristics associated with autistic children are their failures
to seek comfort from others and their preference to stay alone instead of staying with other
children. Children with an autism spectrum disorder, on the other hand, display varying
degrees of social interactions. Such children experience difficulties developing and
maintaining relationships with other typical children. Children with autism spectrum disorder
usually find it confusing and stressful to interact with other children of their age.
Identification of an autistic child's behavior is necessary for parents and other
caregivers to ensure the provision of conditions that favor the wellbeing of the child. Autistic
children experience difficulties when communicating. Communication barriers exist among
autistic children, thus resulting in the children developing a particular set of behavior
according to their communication difficulties. Communication barriers and problems among
autistic children contribute to the heightening of anxiety and increment of misunderstanding.
Parents experience the sensitivities of the autistic children, which affect their functioning and
relationship with siblings or peers (Jacques et al., 2018). Their communication failures mean
autistic children find it hard to express their feelings or what they want from other people.
Communication impairments in autistic children are verbal and non-verbal
communications. Their communication difficulties make it hard for them to sustain
conversations. Other evident characteristics of autistic children are impairment in motor
development and stereotypical behaviors. There are also repetitive behaviors among autistic
children that take several forms ranging from simple motor movements to whole-body
movements s and complicated elaborate sequences. The other common behaviors of autistic

EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS FOR CHILDREN WITH AUTISM DISORDER

5

children are their hypersensitivity and hyposensitivity to touch. Their sensitivity to touch
means they can overreact or underreact to touch, unlike normal children. There is also the
depiction of tantrums and self-injury as well as aggressive behaviors when responding to
changes in routine or when they are asked to do something they do not like. Aggressive
behaviors can also arise among autistic children as a response to things they do not want or
when faced with something they did not anticipate and for no apparent reason in some
instances (Al Sharif & Ratnapalan, 2016). There is also the disregard of danger in some
instances by autistic children since they perceive some things differently to other children.
Helping Children with Autism Disorder
Autistic children have unique needs that require additional accommodation to help
them. Even during the delivery of care, children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) need
special attention from healthcare providers. The problems autistic children go through, such
as hypersensitivity and hyposensitivity, communication deficit, and other mental health
problems, means that medical practitioners have to be aware of them when helping autistic
children. Children with high-functioning ASD are at greater risk of developing sleep
disturbances and psychopathology (Nicholas et al., 2016). One of the ways of helping autistic
children is allowing children to play. Despite their conditions, autistic children need to have
the opportunity to play. However, parents need to understand that autistic children are
different from other chil...

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