University of Georgia Personality Types Discussion

University of Georgia

Question Description

I’m working on a Management exercise and need support.

Classify yourself as competitors, cooperators, or individualists based upon the explanations from the textbook (Chapter 5) and identify which of these personality types best defines you; provide details. What are the main differences between each of these three personality types? How does personality affect each person’s attitudes toward teamwork and how s/he tends to behave in groups?

Attached PP slide for Chapter 5 and pdf of textbook. Chapter 5 located on page 84.

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10 Ways Effective Leaders Build Trust Developing Self-Awareness: How Do You Stack Up? Posted Aug 20, 2012 Ways Trust Flourishes Nan S. Russell Trust: The New Workplace Currency First, leaders who build trust operate with three trust basics: they give trust first, they effectively communication, and they authentically show up. Second, effective leaders understand workplace trust that thrives and creates these pockets of excellences goes beyond the basics. Here are 10 ways effective leaders, with or without titles, grow authentic trust at work. How many apply to you? 1. They're good at what they do. Content may be king on the internet, but competence is king at work. Competence builds performance trust. The competent performance of your job is a litmus test for believability. 2. They're passionate about their work. Passion isn't about cheerleading, platitudes, or crankit-up faux enthusiasm. It comes from an inner desire, determination, and drive. For many, it's about making a difference or contributing to the whole. It shows up softly in some leaders; loudly in others, but it's easily discernible by anyone around them. 3. They operate with self-awareness. They pay attention to their words and actions, operating with self-alignment and behavioral integrity. They don't commit what they can't control, make promises they can't keep, or fail to own their mistakes or shortcomings. 4. They care about people. They're kind and considerate, operating with a compassionate heart. They see people as individuals, not with gender, generational, or stereotypical biases. 5. They want the best for you. They bring out the best in others, help them apply and develop their strengths and reach their goals. These are the people who help provide challenges and opportunities to help you go where you want to go. They're working to make a bigger pie where everyone can be successful. 6. They listen. They don't listen so they can talk; they listen so they can learn. By withholding their judgment, being present, and engaging real dialogue, they embrace differences, create openness, and facilitate connection. 7. They have perspective. In the real-world of what matters in life, trust-building leaders have perspective. Certainly there are crises at work, but they don't yell "fire" with every hiccup or problem. They step back before sounding the alarm, put setbacks in context, and understand things don't always turn out despite big efforts. 8. They manage direction and work, not people. They paint word-pictures to help people see the end vision, or "what it looks like" to hit the target. They leave the fun in work by setting direction, not dictating details. They clear hurdles, reduce bureaucracy and make it easier, not harder, for people to get their work done. 9. They say thank you. They appreciate, value, and acknowledge the efforts and contributions of those they work with. In the words of Arnold H. Glasgow, "A good leader takes a little more than his share of blame; a little less than his share of credit." They do both. 10. They see beyond self. It's not about their promotion, bonus, or achievement; it's about something bigger. They link the why behind the what, and help others view the landscape of purpose. We all need a reason to get up in the morning. These are the people who enable us see why and how our work, does indeed, matter. Chapter 5: Cooperation and Competition Teamwork as a Mixed-Motive Situation • Mixed-Motive Situations Cooperative and competitive situations simultaneously – Cooperation encouraged by: – • • • • Belief contributions are valuable Belief others will act cooperatively Team size Trust Levi, Group Dynamics for Teams: Fifth Edition, © SAGE Publications 2016 Why Are People in Teams Competitive? • Culture – Individualist • • • – Example: United States More competitive Believe individual > team Collectivist • • • Example: Japan Combine cooperation and capitalism Strong inside-outside perspective Levi, Group Dynamics for Teams: Fifth Edition, © SAGE Publications 2016 Why Are People in Teams Competitive? Levi, Group Dynamics for Teams: Fifth Edition, © SAGE Publications 2016 Why Are People in Teams Competitive? • Organizational Rewards Performance evaluations – Unhealthy competition – • – Organizational resources Managers model competition Levi, Group Dynamics for Teams: Fifth Edition, © SAGE Publications 2016 Problems with Competition • Communication and Goal Confusion – – • Individual & team goals may conflict Distrust → reduced communication Intergroup Competition – – Sherif (1966) Social Identity Theory • – In-group bias Long run problems • • Winning teams: ignore problems, stifle creativity Losing teams: blame and scapegoat Levi, Group Dynamics for Teams: Fifth Edition, © SAGE Publications 2016 Problems with Competition • When is Competition Appropriate? – Competition between organizations • – Improves productivity Competition within organizations • May be positive if jobs are independent Levi, Group Dynamics for Teams: Fifth Edition, © SAGE Publications 2016 Benefits of and Problems With Cooperation • Benefits of Cooperation – – – – – All members are motivated Supportive communication Improved coordination, satisfaction, performance Less tension and fewer conflicts Greater cohesion Levi, Group Dynamics for Teams: Fifth Edition, © SAGE Publications 2016 Benefits of and Problems with Cooperation • Problems with Cooperation – Conformity • – Resistance to change and outside influence Unhealthy Agreement • • Abilene Paradox Symptoms: – – – – Team members feel angry about the decisions the team is making. Team members feel angry in private that the team is making bad decisions. The team is breaking up into subgroups that blams others for the team’s problems. People fail to speak up in meetings or to communicate their real opinions. Levi, Group Dynamics for Teams: Fifth Edition, © SAGE Publications 2016 Benefits of and Problems With Cooperation • Competitive Versus Cooperative Rewards – Competitive • • – Motivate individual performance Better for speed Cooperative • • • • Promote trust, cohesiveness, and mutual support May improve accuracy but slow speed Effective when coordinated effort is needed May encourage social loafing Levi, Group Dynamics for Teams: Fifth Edition, © SAGE Publications 2016 Application: Encouraging Cooperation Levi, Group Dynamics for Teams: Fifth Edition, © SAGE Publications 2016 Application: Encouraging Cooperation • Common Goals – • Superordinate goals Rebuilding Trust and Communication – Trust • – Communication • – Constructive controversy Encouraging Altruistic Norms • • Cognitive and emotional Develops and spreads through social interactions Negotiating Cooperation – – Signal desire to act cooperatively Respond in-kind to competitors’ moves Levi, Group Dynamics for Teams: Fifth Edition, © SAGE Publications 2016 Levi, Group Dynamics for Teams: Fifth Edition, © SAGE Publications 2016 Levi, Group Dynamics for Teams: Fifth Edition, © SAGE Publications 2016 Levi, Group Dynamics for Teams: Fifth Edition, © SAGE Publications 2016 Group Dynamics for Teams 5th Edition SAGE was founded in 1965 by Sara Miller McCune to support the dissemination of usable knowledge by publishing innovative and high-quality research and teaching content. Today, we publish more than 850 journals, including those of more than 300 learned societies, more than 800 new books per year, and a growing range of library products including archives, data, case studies, reports, and video. SAGE remains majority-owned by our founder, and after Sara’s lifetime will become owned by a charitable trust that secures our continued independence. Los Angeles | London | New Delhi | Singapore | Washington DC Group Dynamics for Teams 5th Edition Daniel Levi California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo Los Angeles London New Delhi Singapore Washington DC Copyright © 2017 by SAGE Publications, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. FOR INFORMATION: SAGE Publications, Inc. 2455 Teller Road Thousand Oaks, California 91320 E-mail: order@sagepub.com SAGE Publications Ltd. 1 Oliver’s Yard 55 City Road London, EC1Y 1SP United Kingdom SAGE Publications India Pvt. Ltd. B 1/I 1 Mohan Cooperative Industrial Area Mathura Road, New Delhi 110 044 India SAGE Publications Asia-Pacific Pte. Ltd. 3 Church Street #10–04 Samsung Hub Singapore 049483 Acquisitions Editor: Lara Parra Development Editor: Nathan Davidson Editorial Assistant: Morgan McCardell Production Editor: Veronica Stapleton Hooper Copy Editor: Janet Ford Typesetter: Hurix Systems Pvt. Ltd. Proofreader: Dennis W. Webb Indexer: Sheila Bodell Cover Designer: Rose Storey Marketing Manager: Shari Countryman Leading Virtual Teams icon from iStock 16635106. Printed in the United States of America ISBN: 978-1-4833-7834-3 This book is printed on acid-free paper. 15 16 17 18 19 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Brief Contents 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Acknowledgments About the Author Introduction PART I: CHARACTERISTICS OF TEAMS 1. Chapter 1. Understanding Teams 2. Chapter 2. Defining Team Success PART II: PROCESSES OF TEAMWORK 1. Chapter 3. Team Beginnings 2. Chapter 4. Understanding the Basic Team Processes 3. Chapter 5. Cooperation and Competition 4. Chapter 6. Communication PART III: ISSUES TEAMS FACE 1. Chapter 7. Managing Conflict 2. Chapter 8. Power and Social Influence 3. Chapter 9. Decision Making 4. Chapter 10. Leadership 5. Chapter 11. Problem Solving 6. Chapter 12. Creativity 7. Chapter 13. Diversity PART IV: ORGANIZATIONAL CONTEXT OF TEAMS 1. Chapter 14. Team, Organizational, and International Culture 2. Chapter 15. Virtual Teamwork 3. Chapter 16. Evaluating and Rewarding Teams 4. Chapter 17. Team Building and Team Training Appendix: Guide to Student Team Projects References Index Detailed Contents Acknowledgments About the Author Introduction PART I: CHARACTERISTICS OF TEAMS Chapter 1. Understanding Teams Learning Objectives 1.1 Defining Groups and Teams 1.2 Purposes and Types of Teams How Teams Are Used by Organizations Classifying Teams 1.3 Why Organizations Use Teams Job Characteristics Organizational Characteristics 1.4 History of Teams and Group Dynamics Foundations of Teamwork Foundations of Group Dynamics Leading Virtual Teams: Virtual Meetings and Virtual Collaboration—Selecting Technologies to Use for Your Team Summary Team Leader’s Challenge 1 Survey: Attitudes Toward Teamwork Activity: Working in Teams Chapter 2. Defining Team Success Learning Objectives 2.1 Nature of Team Success Completing the Task Developing Social Relations Benefiting the Individual 2.2 Conditions for Team Success Team Composition Characteristics of the Task Group Process Organizational Context 2.3 Characteristics of Successful Teams 2.4 Positive Psychology View of Team Success 2.5 Using Teams in the Workplace Benefits of Teamwork Problems of Teamwork When the Use of Teams Becomes a Fad Summary Team Leader’s Challenge 2 Activity: Understanding Team Success PART II: PROCESSES OF TEAMWORK Chapter 3. Team Beginnings Learning Objectives 3.1 Stages of Teamwork Group Development Perspective Project Development Perspective Cyclical Perspective Implications of Team Development Stages 3.2 Group Socialization 3.3 Team Goals Value and Characteristics of Goals Hidden Agendas 3.4 Team Norms How Norms Are Formed Impact of Team Norms 3.5 Application: Jump-Starting Project Teams Team Warm-Ups Project Definitions and Planning Team Contract Leading Virtual Teams: Starting a Virtual Team Summary Team Leader’s Challenge 3 Activity: Observing Team Norms Activity: Developing a Team Contract Chapter 4. Understanding the Basic Team Processes Learning Objectives 4.1 Motivation Social Loafing Increasing Team Motivation 4.2 Group Cohesion How Cohesion Affects the Team’s Performance Building Group Cohesion 4.3 Team Roles Role Problems Types of Team Meeting Roles 4.4 Task and Social Behaviors Value of Social Behaviors 4.5 Team Adaptation and Learning Reflexivity Using Feedback Group Process Observations Leading Virtual Teams: Motivating Participation in Virtual Meetings Summary Team Leader’s Challenge 4 Activity: Observing Task and Social Behaviors Chapter 5. Cooperation and Competition Learning Objectives 5.1 Teamwork as a Mixed-Motive Situation 5.2 Why Are People in Teams Competitive? Culture Personality Organizational Rewards 5.3 Problems With Competition Communication and Goal Confusion Intergroup Competition When Is Competition Appropriate? 5.4 Benefits of and Problems With Cooperation Benefits of Cooperation Problems With Cooperation Competitive Versus Cooperative Rewards 5.5 Application: Encouraging Cooperation Common Goals Rebuilding Trust and Communication Encouraging Altruistic Norms Negotiating Cooperation Leading Virtual Teams: Building Trust and Social Relationships Summary Team Leader’s Challenge 5 Survey: Cooperative, Competitive, or Individualistic Orientation Activity: Understanding Competitive Versus Cooperative Goals Chapter 6. Communication Learning Objectives 6.1 Communication Process Verbal Communication Nonverbal Communication Communication Within Teams 6.2 Flow of a Team’s Communications Dysfunctional Information Processing Within the Team Gender and Communication Building Trust Psychological Safety Communication Climates 6.3 Emotional Intelligence 6.4 Facilitating Team Meetings 6.5 Communication Skills for Team Meetings Leading Virtual Teams: Running Virtual Meetings to Ensure Everyone Is Following the Agenda and People Arrive at the Same Understanding Summary Team Leader’s Challenge 6 Survey: Team Emotional Intelligence Activity: Observing Communication Patterns in a Team PART III: ISSUES TEAMS FACE Chapter 7. Managing Conflict Learning Objectives 7.1 Conflict Is Normal 7.2 Sources of Conflict 7.3 Impact of Conflict Benefits of and Problems With Conflict Conflict in Work Teams Conflict Management 7.4 Conflict Resolution Approaches Two Dimensions of Conflict Comparing Different Approaches to Conflict Resolution 7.5 Managing Team Conflicts Preparing for Conflicts Facilitating Conflicts Virtual Team Conflicts Negotiating Conflicts Leading Virtual Teams: Reducing Conflict and Developing Collaboration Summary Team Leader’s Challenge 7 Survey: Conflict Resolution Styles Activity: Observing Conflict Resolution Styles Chapter 8. Power and Social Influence Learning Objectives 8.1 Definitions of Power and Social Influence Conformity Obedience 8.2 Types of Power Bases of Power Influence Tactics 8.3 Power Dynamics Status and the Corrupting Effect of Power Unequal Power in a Team Minority Influence Impact of Interdependence 8.4 Empowerment Degrees of Empowerment Programs Successful Empowerment Programs 8.5 Application: Acting Assertively Power Styles Use of Power Styles Encouraging Assertiveness Leading Virtual Teams: Ensuring Dissenting Voices Are Heard and Empowering the Team Summary Team Leader’s Challenge 8 Activity: Using Power Styles—Passive, Aggressive, and Assertive Chapter 9. Decision Making Learning Objectives 9.1 Value of Group Decision Making Advantages and Disadvantages of Group Decision Making When Are Group Decisions Superior to Individual Decisions? 9.2 Approaches to Group Decision Making Evaluating Group Decision-Making Approaches Normative Decision-Making Theory 9.3 Decision-Making Problems Causes of Group Decision-Making Problems Group Polarization Groupthink 9.4 Decision-Making Techniques Nominal Group Technique Delphi Technique Ringi Technique Evaluation of Decision-Making Techniques 9.5 Application: Consensus Decision Making Leading Virtual Teams: Encouraging Agreement on a Decision Summary Team Leader’s Challenge 9 Activity: Making Consensus Decisions Activity: Group Versus Individual Decision Making Chapter 10. Leadership Learning Objectives 10.1 Alternative Designs of Leadership for Teams Characteristics of Team Leadership Shared Leadership Leader Emergence 10.2 Approaches to Leadership Trait or Personality Approach Behavioral Approach Situational Approach Contingency Approach 10.3 Situational Leadership Theory 10.4 Self-Managing Teams Leading Self-Managing Teams Motivating Self-Managing Teams Success of Self-Managing Teams 10.5 Application: The Functional Approach to Leading Teams Providing a Context for Teams Facilitating Internal Operations Team Coaching Leading Virtual Teams: New Approaches to Leadership in Virtual Teams Summary Team Leader’s Challenge 10 Survey: Leadership Styles Activity: Observing the Leader’s Behavior Chapter 11. Problem Solving Learning Objectives 11.1 Approaches to Problem Solving 11.2 Descriptive Approach: How Teams Solve Problems 11.3 Functional Approach: Advice on Improving Team Problem Solving Factors That Improve Team Problem Solving Factors That Hurt Team Problem Solving 11.4 Prescriptive Approach: Rational Problem-Solving Model Problem Recognition, Definition, and Analysis Generating Alternatives and Selecting a Solution Implementation and Evaluation 11.5 Problem-Solving Teams 11.6 Application: Problem-Solving Techniques for Teams Problem Analysis Criteria Matrix Action Plans Force Field Analysis Summary Team Leader’s Challenge 11 Activity: Using Problem-Solving Techniques Chapter 12. Creativity Learning Objectives 12.1 Creativity and Its Characteristics 12.2 Individual Creativity 12.3 Group Creativity Problems With Group Creativity Brainstorming Strengths of Team Creativity Creativity as an Ongoing Team Process 12.4 Organizational Environment and Creativity 12.5 Application: Team Creativity Techniques Brainstorming Nominal Group Technique and Brainwriting Selecting a Solution Multiple-Stage Creativity Approaches Leading Virtual Teams: Virtual Creativity Summary Team Leader’s Challenge 12 Activity: Comparing Different Creativity Techniques Chapter 13. Diversity Learning Objectives 13.1 The Nature of Diversity Why Diversity Is Important Now Types of Diversity How Diversity Affects a Team 13.2 Problems of Diversity Misperception Emotional Distrust Failure to Use Team Resources 13.3 Causes of Diversity Problems Diversity as a Cognitive Process Team Leader Diversity as a Social Process 13.4 Effects of Diversity Research on the Effects of Diversity on Teams Cross-Functional Teams 13.5 Application: Creating a Context to Support Diversity Increasing Awareness Improving Group Process Skills Creating a Safe Environment Improving Organizational Issues Summary Team Leader’s Challenge 13 Survey: Attitudes Toward Diversity Activity: Understanding Gender and Status Differences in a Team PART IV: ORGANIZATIONAL CONTEXT OF TEAMS Chapter 14. Team, Organizational, and International Culture Learning Objectives 14.1 Team Culture 14.2 Defining Organizational Culture 14.3 Organizational Culture and Teamwork 14.4 Dimensions of International Culture Individualism Versus Collectivism Power and Status Uncertainty and Risk Avoidance Comparing the United States and Japan 14.5 International Differences in Teamwork 14.6 Transnational Teams Characteristics of Transnational Teams Creating Effective Transnational Teams Leading Virtual Teams: Dealing With Cultural Issues Summary Team Leader’s Challenge 14 Survey: Individualism–Collectivism Activity: Evaluating a Team’s Culture and Cultural Context Activity: Comparing United States and Japanese Teams Chapter 15. Virtual Teamwork Learning Objectives 15.1 Use of Communication Technologies Communication Technologies and Teams Characteristics of Communication Technologies 15.2 Communication ...
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Final Answer




Personality Types


Personality Types

One of the significant elements which define people is the nature and scope of their
personality. There are various ways of classifying an individual’s personality; however, as far as
organizational performance is concerned, there are three classes. These classes include
competitive, cooperative, and also individualists. The best personality type which defines be is
the collaborative type. The main reason for this definition is the fact that I approach every
situation from a cooperative perspective, especially in the workplace and also at school. Notably,
teamwork in my most preferred approach to finding solutions to a given situation, irrespective of
the scope or compl...

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