Humanities
PSC 309 UCF Social Welfare Theory and Hypothesis Research Paper

psc 309

University of Central Florida

PSC

Question Description

I need support with this Political Science question so I can learn better.

professor feedback,

I looked over your paper and have a few suggestions. Stylistically, the hypotheses should always come after the theory. That way, the paper flows better and the theory and hypotheses are in logical order.

Similar to your first paper, I'm still struggling to find the main point that you're interested in studying. Your hypotheses talk about partisanship interacting with social welfare and corporate power, but these are extremely broad categories. If you want to stay with these two policies, I would order your theory to talk about what's known about social welfare/ corporate policies and partisanship at the state level. It's already there, but it should be ordered (potentially add subheadings?) for readability. I would also be very clear about what, exactly, your theory is outright. I find myself digging around to find your main argument. Finally, you don't need the research design-- we're doing that for the 3rd paper!

I hope this is helpful to you.

Unformatted Attachment Preview

1 Khalaf Alkaabi Hypothesis, Theory, and Research Design Hypothesis 1: States that have a majority of their influential politicians as liberals have policies that seek to enhance the social welfare of the people, try to limit the power of the government in decision making, and also seek to reduce the power of corporates. Hypothesis 2: States that have their politics polarized towards conservatism tend to prefer lesser government regulation on corporates and lower the cost of social welfare. Theory Holyoke, & Cummins' (2019) article on "Interest Group and Political Party Influence on Growth in State Spending and Debt" looks into state spending and debt as influenced by political competition at the state level. According to the study, the absence of significant party competition and greater policy diversity among interest groups leads to greater state spending and debt (Holyoke, & Cummins, 2019). This is because a single candidate with support from several interest groups seeks an opportunity to spend as advised by each of the interest groups. If the interest groups have diverse opinions on how the state should spend, the successful candidate ends up with more areas to spend in. Secondly, the authors suggest that increased diversity in interest groups policy reduces their influence on spending and debt when the party competition is higher (Holyoke, & Cummins, 2019). The authors suggest that higher party competition leads to opposition against overspending and high debts. This implies that, as opposed to lobbying opposition, political opposition keeps the states' spending in check. The party polarization, on the other hand, may influence the direction of policies. 2 Policy directions majorly depend on the partisan politics of a given state. Liberal states in the United States seem to focus on enhancing the welfare of the residents of the state. Some states that have been labeled as liberal states include, but are not limited to District of Columbia, California, Hawaii, Oregon, Massachusetts, Vermont, and Maine among others (Fox, Feng, & Yumkham, 2017). Most of the policies in such states seem to follow the same direction. Smoking policies, for instance, are stricter in such states. All of the aforementioned states rose the age of smoking from 18 to 21 years (Fox, Feng, & Yumkham, 2017). As a result, these states have experienced a reduction in the number of adult smokers due to this and other policies. Clearly, a smoking policy is aimed at enhancing the physiological wellbeing of people residing in these states. The laws apply to citizens and immigrants alike. On the other hand, Indiana, Arkansas, Kentucky, and West Virginia have the highest smoking rates in the United States. The states are also republican stronghold with conservative policy directions (Fox, Feng, & Yumkham, 2017). It is clear that the conservatives are less concerned about the welfare of the people residing in their states and have policies that are not as strict as those that control welfare in liberal states. Even in the consideration of justice and support for movements such as the Black Lives Matters (BLM) initiative an opposing view exists between the liberal and the conservatives. Liberals seem to support the initiative than the conservatives do (Updegrove, Cooper, Orrick, & Piquero, 2020). A study done to establish the support of the BLM initiative realized more support of the initiative in states that voted in a republican candidate in 2012. Considering support from individuals, the majority of elderly white seemed to oppose the black lives matters initiative. The majority of the elderly white US citizens identify themselves as conservatives (Updegrove, Cooper, Orrick, & Piquero, 2020). Red states show little support for black lives matter initiative while blue states show more support for the initiative (Hobbs, 2019). Blue states which are made 3 up of a liberal majority support justice and welfare for all thus see black lives matter as an essential policy. However, the red states are mainly conservative and believe in the principles of a free market and lesser government power, endorsing strategies where people are supposed to take care of their own lives without any affirmative action (Hobbs, 2019). Policies related to LGBTQ+ rights and equality are a priority in blue states than it is in red states. According to Rosky's (2016) research, red states and swing states have delayed the progress in enhancing the equality and non-discrimination policies that should protect LGBTQ+. The research finds out that blue states (liberal) are enhancing the LGBTQ+ rights and nondiscriminatory policies to enhance equality for these minority groups (Rosky, 2016). Democratic states believe that climate change is due to human activities; republicans oppose the view saying that the sea level is rising regardless of the reason; and they also mention that there is no sufficient evidence that human activities cause the rising ocean waters levels (Beatley, 2018). Philip Levine, a former Miami city democratic party mayor spent city resources raising the level of city structures such as roads and enhancing the city's drainage system. It clearly indicates the fact that democrats believe in enhancing the environmental topography of the region, and people who face the danger of floods might end up supporting republican politicians (Lambert, 2018). Clearly, if democrats are allowed to spend, they may spend heavily on environmental concerns while democrats might do little to nothing as they believe in a free market where corporates and individuals resolve their environmental concerns at private levels. However, States such as Maine and Nebraska are sway states (Ross, 2000). Their policies cannot be categorized according to the red state or blue state policy direction. Nebraska, for instance, decided to embrace a unicameral government since 1937 (Hankins, 2020). A unicameral government is seen to be a free market and smaller government policy which is in accordance with 4 republicans (conservatives) policies. The same state also increased the drinking age from 18 to 19, a policy associated with blue states (Hankins, 2020). This implies that there may be other factors, other than the partisan politics that affect policy directions at the state level. Research Design While conducting research related to policies a qualitative research design embracing case studies gives a desirable result (Creswell, & Creswell, 2017). In order to investigate the effects of partisan politics on states' policy directions, this paper will embrace a case study research design. Multiple case studies of policies in states will be related to the state's partisan polarization. The study will use California and the District of Columbia as blue states and Florida and Mississippi as red states. Maine and Nebraska have been considered as sway states and will make a control experiment for the study. The policies that will be considered include smoking policies; health insurance policies; and corporate tax policies. The research will embrace a qualitative research design. Data collection will include the use of a literature review. The literature review sources will be from scholarly sources and trusted popular sources. The sources will include primary sources such as policy reports from states' chambers and census data. The secondary sources will include scholarly sources investigating partisan polarization at state levels and policy direction in the aforementioned policies. 5 References Beatley, T. (2018). Planning for the Balance of Danger and Delight. In Blue Biophilic Cities (pp. 19-38). Palgrave Macmillan, Cham. Creswell, J. W., & Creswell, J. D. (2017). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approach. Sage publications. Fox, A. M., Feng, W., & Yumkham, R. (2017). State political ideology, policies and health behaviors: the case of tobacco. Social Science & Medicine, 181, 139-147. Hankins, W. B. (2020). Finally, Nebraska: A Synthetic Control Analysis of Legislative Structure. State Politics & Policy Quarterly, 20(1), 3-22. Hobbs, L. (2019). The matter of black lives. A Companion to the Biopic, 415. Holyoke, T. T., & Cummins, J. (2019). Interest Group and Political Party Influence on Growth in State Spending and Debt. American Politics Research, 1532673X19875695. Lambert, C. (2018). Winds of change: Al Gore's mission in an inconvenient. Screen Education, (88), 48. Rosky, C. (2016). Still not equal: A report from the red states. Ross, F. (2000). 'Beyond left and right': The new partisan politics of welfare. Governance, 13(2), 155-183. Updegrove, A. H., Cooper, M. N., Orrick, E. A., & Piquero, A. R. (2020). Red states and Black lives: Applying the racial threat hypothesis to the Black Lives Matter movement. Justice Quarterly, 37(1), 85-108. 1 Hypothesis, Theory, and Research Design Hypothesis 1: States that have a majority of their influential politicians as liberals have policies that seek to enhance the social welfare of the people, try to limit the power of the government in decision making, and also seek to reduce the power of corporates. Hypothesis 2: States that have their politics polarized towards conservatism tend to prefer lesser government regulation on corporates and lower the cost of social welfare. Theory Holyoke, & Cummins' (2019) article on "Interest Group and Political Party Influence on Growth in State Spending and Debt" looks into state spending and debt as influenced by political competition at the state level. According to the study, the absence of significant party competition and greater policy diversity among interest groups leads to greater state spending and debt (Holyoke, & Cummins, 2019). This is because a single candidate with support from several interest groups seeks an opportunity to spend as advised by each of the interest groups. If the interest groups have diverse opinions on how the state should spend, the successful candidate ends up with more areas to spend in. Secondly, the authors suggest that increased diversity in interest groups policy reduces their influence on spending and debt when the party competition is higher (Holyoke, & Cummins, 2019). The authors suggest that higher party competition leads to opposition against overspending and high debts. This implies that, as opposed to lobbying opposition, political opposition keeps the states' spending in check. The party polarization, on the other hand, may influence the direction of policies. Policy directions majorly depend on the partisan politics of a given state. Liberal states in the United States seem to focus on enhancing the welfare of the residents of the state. Some states 2 that have been labeled as liberal states include, but are not limited to District of Columbia, California, Hawaii, Oregon, Massachusetts, Vermont, and Maine among others (Fox, Feng, & Yumkham, 2017). Most of the policies in such states seem to follow the same direction. Smoking policies, for instance, are stricter in such states. All of the aforementioned states rose the age of smoking from 18 to 21 years (Fox, Feng, & Yumkham, 2017). As a result, these states have experienced a reduction in the number of adult smokers due to this and other policies. Clearly, a smoking policy is aimed at enhancing the physiological wellbeing of people residing in these states. The laws apply to citizens and immigrants alike. On the other hand, Indiana, Arkansas, Kentucky, and West Virginia have the highest smoking rates in the United States. The states are also republican stronghold with conservative policy directions (Fox, Feng, & Yumkham, 2017). It is clear that the conservatives are less concerned about the welfare of the people residing in their states and have policies that are not as strict as those that control welfare in liberal states. Even in the consideration of justice and support for movements such as the Black Lives Matters (BLM) initiative an opposing view exists between the liberal and the conservatives. Liberals seem to support the initiative than the conservatives do (Updegrove, Cooper, Orrick, & Piquero, 2020). A study done to establish the support of the BLM initiative realized more support of the initiative in states that voted in a republican candidate in 2012. Considering support from individuals, the majority of elderly white seemed to oppose the black lives matters initiative. The majority of the elderly white US citizens identify themselves as conservatives (Updegrove, Cooper, Orrick, & Piquero, 2020). Red states show little support for black lives matter initiative while blue states show more support for the initiative (Hobbs, 2019). Blue states which are made up of a liberal majority support justice and welfare for all thus see black lives matter as an essential policy. However, the red states are mainly conservative and believe in the principles of a free 3 market and lesser government power, endorsing strategies where people are supposed to take care of their own lives without any affirmative action (Hobbs, 2019). Policies related to LGBTQ+ rights and equality are a priority in blue states than it is in red states. According to Rosky's (2016) research, red states and swing states have delayed the progress in enhancing the equality and non-discrimination policies that should protect LGBTQ+. The research finds out that blue states (liberal) are enhancing the LGBTQ+ rights and nondiscriminatory policies to enhance equality for these minority groups (Rosky, 2016). Democratic states believe that climate change is due to human activities; republicans oppose the view saying that the sea level is rising regardless of the reason; and they also mention that there is no sufficient evidence that human activities cause the rising ocean waters levels (Beatley, 2018). Philip Levine, a former Miami city democratic party mayor spent city resources raising the level of city structures such as roads and enhancing the city's drainage system. It clearly indicates the fact that democrats believe in enhancing the environmental topography of the region, and people who face the danger of floods might end up supporting republican politicians (Lambert, 2018). Clearly, if democrats are allowed to spend, they may spend heavily on environmental concerns while democrats might do little to nothing as they believe in a free market where corporates and individuals resolve their environmental concerns at private levels. However, States such as Maine and Nebraska are sway states (Ross, 2000). Their policies cannot be categorized according to the red state or blue state policy direction. Nebraska, for instance, decided to embrace a unicameral government since 1937 (Hankins, 2020). A unicameral government is seen to be a free market and smaller government policy which is in accordance with republicans (conservatives) policies. The same state also increased the drinking age from 18 to 19, 4 a policy associated with blue states (Hankins, 2020). This implies that there may be other factors, other than the partisan politics that affect policy directions at the state level. Research Design While conducting research related to policies a qualitative research design embracing case studies gives a desirable result (Creswell, & Creswell, 2017). In order to investigate the effects of partisan politics on states' policy directions, this paper will embrace a case study research design. Multiple case studies of policies in states will be related to the state's partisan polarization. The study will use California and the District of Columbia as blue states and Florida and Mississippi as red states. Maine and Nebraska have been considered as sway states and will make a control experiment for the study. The policies that will be considered include smoking policies; health insurance policies; and corporate tax policies. The research will embrace a qualitative research design. Data collection will include the use of a literature review. The literature review sources will be from scholarly sources and trusted popular sources. The sources will include primary sources such as policy reports from states' chambers and census data. The secondary sources will include scholarly sources investigating partisan polarization at state levels and policy direction in the aforementioned policies. 5 References Beatley, T. (2018). Planning for the Balance of Danger and Delight. In Blue Biophilic Cities (pp. 19-38). Palgrave Macmillan, Cham. Creswell, J. W., & Creswell, J. D. (2017). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approach. Sage publications. Fox, A. M., Feng, W., & Yumkham, R. (2017). State political ideology, policies and health behaviors: the case of tobacco. Social Science & Medicine, 181, 139-147. Hankins, W. B. (2020). Finally, Nebraska: A Synthetic Control Analysis of Legislative Structure. State Politics & Policy Quarterly, 20(1), 3-22. Hobbs, L. (2019). The matter of black lives. A Companion to the Biopic, 415. Holyoke, T. T., & Cummins, J. (2019). Interest Group and Political Party Influence on Growth in State Spending and Debt. American Politics Research, 1532673X19875695. Lambert, C. (2018). Winds of change: Al Gore's mission in an inconvenient. Screen Education, (88), 48. Rosky, C. (2016). Still not equal: A report from the red states. Ross, F. (2000). 'Beyond left and right': The new partisan politics of welfare. Governance, 13(2), 155-183. Updegrove, A. H., Cooper, M. N., Orrick, E. A., & Piquero, A. R. (2020). Red states and Black lives: Applying the racial threat hypothesis to the Black Lives Matter movement. Justice Quarterly, 37(1), 85-108. Research Design: Paper #2 In paper 1, you laid out the gap in the literature/ puzzle that we don’t quite understand as it pertains to state politics. For this assignment, you will be developing your theory (the argument) and your hypotheses. Drawing on your literature review, you should explain your argument clearly and fully. Theories must provide three characteristics: 1.) A discussion of cause 2.) Be generalizable to a class of events beyond those you study 3.) Be falsifiable The best theories explain more with less. Inference and falsifiability are all enhanced as you find more and more observable implications of your argument. Identify all of the implications of your theory that you can think of—when does it apply, and when might it not apply? Additionally, leave no term undefined. If you are arguing that your occupation prior to becoming a state legislator determines legislative success, define exactly what you mean by “occupation” (what qualifies? Which types are more successful?) and exactly what you mean by “success.” Bill passage rates? Cooperation? Prime committee assignments? Be as concrete and specific as possible in defining your terms and identifying your causal mechanisms. A causal mechanism is what links your independent variable (occupation) to your dependent variable (legislative success). For instance, my mechanism in this case might be job skills. The former occupation of a state legislator affects legislative success as some occupations foster job skills appropriate for a legislative setting (such as law) while others do not (such as welding). Naturally, your argument should lead you to one or more hypotheses. Hypotheses specify an expected relationship between an independent variable and a dependent variable. Be specific. Use the following template to create your hypotheses: In comparing [units of analysis here], those having [one value on the IV] will be more/less likely to have [one value on the DV] than will those having [a different value on the IV] Example: In comparing state legislators, those having legal occupational experience will be more likely to experience higher bill passage rates than those having non-legal occupational experience. Your theory will likely require additional sources. You may use the ...
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Final Answer

It is ready! See the attached response. I decided to go about it more specifically as required. Looking into the partisan politics and how they affect taxes and social welfare (as recommended by the prof). See the attached file and get back if you need assistance with edits.

RUNNING HEAD: RESEARCH DESIGN PAPER 2

Research Design Paper 2:
Theory and Hypothesis
Student's Name
Professor
Course
Date

1

POLITICAL POLARIZATION AND POLICY DIRECTION

2

Theory and Hypothesis
Theory
Social welfare includes policies concerning the wellbeing of the people and the
environment. State governments collect limited revenues that are boosted by federal government
disbursements to support the state’s economy. The limited revenues that the state government
collects include taxes from the people working within the state’s jurisdiction and the corporates
operating in the states. States have the power to decide whether they will levy taxes on the
people and corporates working or operating within the state’s jurisdiction. There is a relationship
that exists between the tax levied to the people and the corporates working or operating within
the state and social welfare. In most cases, states that impose a PAYE on the people working
within the states seem to be less concerned about the people’s welfare. However, states that
collect more taxes from corporates and fewer taxes from the employees seem to be less more
concerned about the social welfare of the people. It is important to note that these taxes are an
added liability to what the federal government levies.
Red states are states that show more support for Republican candidates at the state and
federal levels. The red states are said to have a conservative policy basis as most of the
republican policy direction seems to be conservative (Cooper, 2020). The Republican Party was
started in the mid-19th century to aid in abolishing the slave trade. The main founders of the party
were the black community, the northern white Protestants, and other advocates of human rights,
including farmers, factory workers, and ...

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