Business Finance
MGT 312 SEU 3 Simple Habits to Improve Your Critical Thinking Article Questions

mgt 312

Saudi electronic university

MGT

Question Description

I’m working on a Psychology exercise and need support.

Instructions:

  • you must mention question number clearly in their answer.
  • Avoid plagiarism.
  • All answered must be typed using Times New Roman (size 12, double-spaced) font in word format.

Questions:

  • Read the attached article titled as “3 Simple habits to improve your critical thinking” by Helen Lee Bouygues, published in Harvard Business Review, and answer the following Questions:
  1. Summarize the article and explain the main issues discussed in the article. (In 600-700 words)
  • What do you think about the article in relations to what you have learned in the course about how to improve your critical thinking? Use additional reference to support you argument. (In 200-400 words)
  • What do you understand by groupthink? According to the article how we can prevent people from engaging in groupthink. Use additional reference to support you argument. (In 150-300 words)
  • “Critical thinking is the opposite of creative thinking.” Do you agree? Provide examples of why you agree or disagree. (In 200-300 words)

Unformatted Attachment Preview

STRATEGIC THINKING 3 Simple Habits to Improve Your Critical Thinking by Helen Lee Bouygues MAY 06, 2019 DANIEL DAY/GETTY IMAGES A few years ago, a CEO assured me that his company was the market leader. “Clients will not leave for competitors,” he added. “It costs too much for them to switch.” Within weeks, the manufacturing giant Procter & Gamble elected not to renew its contract with the firm. The CEO was shocked — but he shouldn’t have been. COPYRIGHT © 2019 HARVARD BUSINESS SCHOOL PUBLISHING CORPORATION. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 2 For more than 20 years, I’ve helped struggling organizations. Sometimes they reach out because they have been mismanaged. Sometimes they have not stayed in front of changing technologies. In a few cases, members of the senior team were simply negligent. But in my experience, these organizational problems shared a root cause: A lack of critical thinking. Too many business leaders are simply not reasoning through pressing issues, taking the time to evaluate a topic from all sides. Leaders often jump to the first conclusion, whatever the evidence. Even worse, C-suite leaders will just choose the evidence that supports their prior beliefs. A lack of metacognition — or thinking about thinking — is also a major driver, making people simply overconfident. The good news is that critical thinking is a learned skill. To help people get better at it, I recently started the nonprofit Reboot Foundation. Based on my personal experience as well some of the work of our researchers, I’ve pulled together three simple things that you can do to improve your critical thinking skills: 1. Question assumptions 2. Reason through logic 3. Diversify thought Now, you might be thinking, “I do that already.” And you probably do, but just not as deliberately and thoroughly as you could. Cultivating these three key habits of mind go a long way in helping you become better at an increasingly desired skill in the job market. Question assumptions When I work to turn around an organization, I’ll typically start by questioning the firm’s assumptions. I once visited dozens of stores of a retail chain, posing as a shopper. I soon discovered that the company had presumed that its customers had far more disposable income than they really had. This erroneous belief made the company overprice its clothing. They would have made millions more each year if they had sold lower-priced shirts and pants. Of course, it’s hard to question everything. Imagine going through your day asking yourself: Is the sky really blue? What if the person next to me isn’t my colleague but her twin sister? How do I really know that the economy won’t implode tomorrow? The first step in questioning assumptions, then, is figuring out when to question assumptions. Turns out, a questioning approach is particularly helpful when the stakes are high. So if you are in a discussion about long-term company strategy upon which years of effort and expense will be based, be sure to ask basic questions about your beliefs: How do you know that business will increase? What does the research say about your expectations about the future of the COPYRIGHT © 2019 HARVARD BUSINESS SCHOOL PUBLISHING CORPORATION. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 3 market? Have you taken time to step into the figurative shoes of your customers as a “secret shopper”? Another way to question your assumptions is to consider alternatives. You might ask: What if our clients changed? What if our suppliers went out of business? These sorts of questions help you gain new and important perspectives that help hone your thinking. Reason through logic Years ago, I took on the task of turning around the division of a large lingerie company. The growth of one of its major product lines had been declining for years. No one could figure out why. It turned out that the company had made the reasoning mistake of over-generalization, drawing a sweeping conclusion based on limited or insufficient evidence. Namely, the company believed that all of their international customers had similar preferences in lingerie. So it shipped the same styles of brassieres to every store across Europe. When my team started talking to staff and consumers, we realized that customers in different countries reported very distinct tastes and preferences. British women, for example, tended to buy lacy bras in bright colors. Italian women preferred beige bras, with no lace. And those in the United States led the world in sports bra purchases. For this lingerie company, improving their reasoning helped the firm dramatically improve its bottom line. The good news is that the formal practice of logic dates back at least 2,000 years to Aristotle. Over those two millennia, logic has demonstrated its merit by reaching sound conclusions. So at your organization, pay close attention to the “chain” of logic constructed by a particular argument. Ask yourself: Is the argument supported at every point by evidence? Do all the pieces of evidence build on each other to produce a sound conclusion? Being aware of common fallacies can also allow you to think more logically. For instance, people often engage in what’s known as “post hoc” thinking. In this fallacy, people believe that “because event Y followed event X, event Y must have been caused by event X.” So, for instance, a manager may believe that their sales agents rack up more sales in the spring because they’re fired up by the motivational speeches offered at the annual sales conference in February — but until that assumption is tested, there’s no way the manager can know if their belief is correct. Seek out diversity of thought and collaboration For years, I was the only female partner on McKinsey’s transformation team. And today, while I serve on more than a half-dozen corporate boards, I am typically the only Asian and the only woman in the room during meetings. COPYRIGHT © 2019 HARVARD BUSINESS SCHOOL PUBLISHING CORPORATION. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 4 By virtue of my background and life experiences, I tend to see things differently from the people around me. This has often played to my advantage. But I’m not immune to groupthink, either. When I’m around people similar to me for whatever reason — age, politics, religion— I try to solicit different points of view. It makes me a better thinker. It’s natural for people to group themselves together with people who think or act like them. This happens especially readily online, where it’s so easy to find a specific cultural niche. Social media algorithms can narrow our perspectives further, serving up only news that fits our individual beliefs. This is a problem. If everyone in our social circles thinks as we do, we become more rigid in our thinking, and less likely to change our beliefs on the basis of new information. In fact, the more people listen to people who share their views, research shows the more polarized their views become. It’s crucial to get outside your personal bubble. You can start small. If you work in accounting, make friends with people in marketing. If you always go to lunch with senior staff, go to a ball game with your junior colleagues. Training yourself this way will help you escape your usual thinking and gain richer insights. In team settings, give people the chance to give their opinions independently without the influence of the group. When I ask for advice, for instance, I typically withhold my own preferences and ask team members to email me their opinions in separate notes. This tactic helps prevent people from engaging in groupthink. While these simple tactics may sound easy or even obvious, they’re rare in practice, particularly in the business world, and too many organizations don’t take the time to engage in robust forms of reasoning. But the important work of critical thinking pays off. While luck plays a role — sometimes small, sometimes large — in a company’s successes, the most important business victories are achieved through thinking smart. Helen Lee Bouygues is the president of the Paris-based Reboot Foundation. A former partner at McKinsey & Company, she has served as interim CEO, CFO, or COO for more than one dozen companies. COPYRIGHT © 2019 HARVARD BUSINESS SCHOOL PUBLISHING CORPORATION. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 5 Copyright 2019 Harvard Business Publishing. All Rights Reserved. Additional restrictions may apply including the use of this content as assigned course material. Please consult your institution's librarian about any restrictions that might apply under the license with your institution. For more information and teaching resources from Harvard Business Publishing including Harvard Business School Cases, eLearning products, and business simulations please visit hbsp.harvard.edu. ...
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Final Answer

Hello there,I hope you are having a great day. I just finished your requested work and I am attaching to this message the final world file which contains your answers. As you will be able to see, all the answers are based on your article as requested. I made sure that each question is answered clearly and in-depth.As you will be able to see, this is the number of words for each answer:Answer 1 - 600 wordsAnswer 2- 220 wordsAnswer 3- 193 wordsAnswer 4 - 279 words[ Based on your professor requests, this meets the number of words ]I know how important is to deliver quality and free of plagiarism paper. The work is fully original as I always focus on making sure that my papers are ready to be submitted. Based on the plagiarism result "Results: 0 matches in 0 sources" which means that the paper is original (I always write my own works)Looking forward to hearing from you. It would be a pleasure to offer my support in the near future too.

Outline
This file is intended for personal use. It does not represent the file that should be sent to the professor. Its only role
is to highlight general information about the paper or add any additional ones which were unsuitable for the essay
but might help the student have a better understanding of the topic.

1.General Information About the Paper
File Name: Strategic Thinking Article

Format: APA
Type : Questions & Answers
Number of Words: 1402 words
Pages: 7 pages (1 cover page + 5 content page + 1 reference page)
Subject: Q&A
References: Yes
In text citation: Yes

*The guideline given by your professor was correctly followed
*All the questions requested were answered and were included in the paper with
the suitable references.


Running head: STRATEGIC THINKING.

STRATEGIC THINKING.
First Name Last Name.
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STRATEGIC THINKING.
Article based answers
1. Summarize the article and explain the main issues discussed in the article.
This article by Helen Lee Bouygues covers on three simple habits that can be employed
by someone/organizations or in the business world to improve their critical thinking about
daily life problems. The article points out that an excessive n...

Robertmariasi (5695)
New York University

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