Business Finance
MGT 301 SEU Leadership In Organizational Behavior Questions Discussion

MGT 301

Saudi electronic university

MGT

Question Description

I’m studying for my Management class and don’t understand how to answer this. Can you help me study?

Assignment Question(s):

1.Define leadership and explain the difference between being a manager and being a leader. Which boss would you rather have? Why?

2.The leadership style theories, which you have learned in the chapter 13 & 14 based on that determine which leadership styles are suitable for managers who are managing workers ( both Blue collar & White collar) in the organizations.

3.Describe directive leadership and supportive leadership, Explain their importance.

4.How organizations are benefitted from supportive leadership? Give an example of such organization which you might have come across.

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What are power and influence? What are the key sources of power and influence? What is empowerment? What is organizational politics? Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 12-2 Power ➢ The ability to get someone to do something you want done. ➢ The ability to make things happen in the way you want. Influence ➢ Expressed by others’ behavioral response to the exercise of power. Interdependence ➢ Employee’s are closely connected with the individuals in their workgroup, those in other departments they work with, and their supervisors. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 12-3 Legitimacy – an understood and unwritten set of social mores and conventions that serve to maintain societal order. Obedience – tendency for individuals to comply and be obedient—to switch off their emotions and merely do exactly what they are told to do. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 12-4 Acceptance of authority (‘consent of the governed’) is the concept that subordinates will accept or follow a managerial directive only if the subordinate : ➢ Understands the directive. ➢ Is mentally and physically capable of carrying out the directive. ➢ Believes the directive is consistent with organization’s purpose and personal interests. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 12-5 Zone of indifference ➢ Range of requests to which a person is willing to respond without subjecting the directives to critical evaluation or judgment. ▪ Psychological contract – unwritten set of expectations about a person’s exchange of inducements and contributions with an organization. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 12-6 Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 12-7 Two primary sources of power: Position ➢ Derives from a person’s position in the organization. Personal ➢ Resides in the individual. ➢ Independent of that individual’s position. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 12-8 TYPES OF POSITION POWER Legitimate Reward Coercive Process Information Representative Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 12-9 Legitimate power ➢ The extent to which a manager can use subordinates’ internalized values or beliefs that the “boss” has a “right of command” to control their behavior. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 12-10 Reward power ➢ The extent to which a manager can use extrinsic and intrinsic rewards to control other people. Coercive power ➢ The extent to which a manager can deny desired rewards and administer punishments to control other people. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 12-11 Process power ➢ The control that a manager has over methods of production and analysis. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 12-12 Information power ➢ The access to and/or control of information. Representative power ➢ The formal right conferred to an individual by the firm to speak for a potentially important group. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 12-13 Expert Rational Persuasion Ability to control another’s behavior through the possession of knowledge, experience or judgment. Ability to control another’s behavior because of accepted desirability of an offered goal and a way of achieving it. Referent Ability to control another’s behavior because the person wants to identify with the power source. Coalition Ability to control another’s behavior indirectly because of a reciprocal obligation to you or the larger group. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 12-14 Building influence ➢ Power-oriented behavior is action directed primarily at developing relationships in which other people are willing to defer to one’s wishes. ➢ Downward, upward, lateral. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 12-15 Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 12-16 Build Position Power › Demonstrate to others that work unit is relevant to organizational goals (centrality). Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. › Demonstrate to others the ability to respond to urgent organizational need (criticality).  Managers make part of their job responsibilities unique.  Managers may expand their network of communication contacts and also increase task 12-17 relevance. Enhance likeability   Build expertise through advanced training and education. by creating personal appeal in relationships with others. Includes pleasant personality traits, agreeable behavior patterns, and attractive appearance. Enhance political savvy  by learning ways to negotiate, persuade.   Participate in professional associations, and early stages of projects. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Understand goals and means that most are willing to accept.  12-18 Which personal power would you likely use to request a promotion? a. Coalition b. Rational persuasion c. Expertise Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 12-19 Ways that managers increase the visibility of their job performance in organizations ➢ Expand contacts with senior people. ➢ Make oral presentations of written work. ➢ Participate in problem-solving task forces. ➢ Send out notices of accomplishment. ➢ Seek additional opportunities to increase personal name recognition. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 12-20 Controlling decision premises ➢ Defining a problem in terms of your own expertise in solving it. ➢ Stating goals and needs clearly and bargaining effectively. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 12-21 Strengthening influence techniques through: ➢ Reason - use facts and data to support a logical argument. ➢ Friendliness - use flattery, goodwill and favorable impressions. ➢ Coalition – use relationships, with others, for support. ➢ Bargaining – use exchange of benefits as a basis for negotiation. ➢ Assertiveness – use direct and forceful approach. ➢ Higher authority – gain higher level support for requests. ➢ Sanctions – organizational rewards/punishments. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 12-22 Empowerment ➢ The process by which managers help others to acquire and use the power needed to make decisions affecting themselves and their work. ➢ One view considers power to be something that can be shared by everyone working in flatter and more collegial structures. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 12-23 Changing position power ➢ Moving power down the hierarchy alters the existing pattern of position power. ➢ Changing this pattern raises the following important questions: ▪ Can “empowered” individuals give rewards and sanctions based on task accomplishment? ▪ Has their new right to act been legitimized with formal authority? Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 12-24 Power as an expanding pie ➢ The key is to change from a view stressing power over others to one emphasizing the use of power to get things done. ➢ Requires leader support, training, coaching, individual supervision and clear, re-stated definitions of roles and responsibilities. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 12-25 Two traditions of organizational politics: ➢ Machiavellian – focuses on self interest and the use of nonsanctioned means philosophy. ➢ Art of creative compromise among competing interests - view that states the firm is more than just an instrument for accomplishing a task or a mere collection of individuals with a common goal. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 12-26 Effects of organizational politics ➢ Enhances the achievement of organizational goals and survival. ➢ Can serve a number of important work functions. ➢ Provides a mechanism for circumventing inadequacies and getting the job done. ➢ Helps identify problems and move ambitious, problem-solving managers. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 12-27 Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 12-28 The Politics of Self Protection ➢ Avoidance – employee must risk being wrong or where actions may yield a sanction. ▪ Working to the rules ▪ Playing dumb ▪ Depersonalization ▪ Stalling Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 12-29 ➢ Redirecting accountability and responsibility ▪ Passing the buck ▪ Rewriting history ▪ Redirecting (scapegoating, blaming the problem on someone or some group that has difficulty defending itself, and blaming problem on uncontrollable events,) ▪ Escalating commitment Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 12-30 Defending turf is a common political dynamic when: ▪ Managers seek to improve their power attempt by expanding the jobs their groups perform. ▪ Competing interests exist among various departments and groups. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 12-31 Agency theory ➢ Suggests that public corporations can function effectively even though their managers are self-interested and do not automatically bear the full consequences of their managerial actions. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 12-32 Key arguments of agency theory ➢ All of society’s interests are served by protecting stockholder interests. ➢ Stockholders have a clear interest in greater returns. ➢ Managers are self-interested and must be controlled. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 12-33 Types of controls instituted for agents ➢ Pay plan incentives that align the interests of management and stockholders. ➢ The establishment of a strong, independent board of directors. ➢ Stakeholders with a large stake in the firm take an active role one the board. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 12-34 Resource dependencies ➢ The firm’s need for resources that are controlled by others. The dependencies increase as: ➢ Needed resources become more scarce. ➢ Outsiders have more control over needed resources. ➢ There are fewer substitutes for a particular type of resource controlled by a limited number of outsiders. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 12-35 Organizational governance ➢ The pattern of authority, influence, and acceptable managerial behavior established at the top of the organization. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 12-36 What is leadership? What are situational contingency approaches to leadership? What are follower-centered approaches to leadership? What are inspirational leadership perspectives? Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 13-2 Role of management is to promote stability or to enable the organization to run smoothly. Role of leadership is to promote adaptive or useful changes. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 13-3 Leadership ➢ Process of influencing others to understand and agree about what needs to be done and how to do it; and ➢ Process of facilitating individual and collective efforts to accomplish shared objectives. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 13-4 “Great leaders are almost always great simplifiers, who can cut through argument, debate and doubt, to offer a solution everybody can understand.” - Colin Powell Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 13-5 Formal leadership Exerted by persons appointed (or elected) to positions of formal Informal leadership Exerted by persons who become influential because they have special skills that meet authority in the resource needs of organizations. others. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 13-6 Approaches to leadership 1. Trait and behavioral theory perspectives. 2. Cognitive and symbolic perspectives. 3. Transformational and charismatic perspectives. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 13-7 Trait leadership perspective ➢ Assume that personality traits play a central role in differentiating between leaders and non-leaders, in that leaders must have the “right stuff.” Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 13-8 Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 13-9 Behavioral leadership perspectives ➢ Assumes that leadership is central to performance and other outcomes. ➢ Focuses on leader behaviors rather than traits. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 13-10 Michigan studies ➢ Employee-centered supervisors: ▪ Place strong emphasis on subordinate’s welfare. ➢ Production-centered supervisors: ▪ More concerned with getting the work done. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 13-11 Ohio State studies ➢ Consideration o Sensitive to people’s feelings and making things pleasant for the followers. ➢ Initiating structure o Concerned with defining task requirements and other aspects of the work agenda. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 13-12 Situational Contingency Leadership ➢ The effects of leader traits are enhanced by their relevance to situational contingencies. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 13-13 Prosocial power motivation, or power oriented toward benefitting others, is likely to be most important in situations where decision implementation requires lots of persuasion and social influence. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 13-14 Fiedler’s Leadership contingency view ➢ Situational control ▪ The extent to which a leader can determine what his or her group is going to do, as well as the outcomes of the group’s actions and decisions. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 13-15 The least –preferred coworker (LPC) scale, used by Fiedler, asks respondents to describe the person with whom they have been able to work least well. ➢ Instrument measures a person’s leadership style. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 13-16 Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 13-17 Fiedler’s Situation Control Variables Leader /Member Relations (good/poor): Task Structure (high/low): Position Power (strong/weak): Members support for leader. Spells out leader’s task goals and procedures. Leader’s task expertise, and reward/punishment authority Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 13-18 House’s path-goal theory of leadership ➢ Assumes that a leader’s key function is to adjust his or her behaviors to complement situational contingencies. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 13-19 Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 13-20 Directive leadership ➢ Spelling out the what and how of subordinates’ tasks. Supportive leadership ➢ Focuses on subordinate needs, well-being , and promotion of a friendly work environment. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 13-21 Achievement oriented leadership ➢ Emphasizes setting challenging goals, stressing excellence in performance, and showing confidence in people’s ability to achieve high standards of performance. Participative leadership ➢ Focuses on consulting with subordinates, and seeking and taking their suggestions into account before making decisions. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 13-22 Hersey and Blanchard Situational Situational Leadership Theory ➢ There is no single best way to lead. ➢ Assess Readiness ▪ The extent to which the people have the ability and willingness to accomplish a specific task. ➢ Implement appropriate leadership response. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 13-23 Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 13-24 In your current or former job, did your manager behave the same way with each of the people he/she managed? ➢A=Yes, B=No If no, what was different about the relationships between the manager and each employee? Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 13-25 Substitutes for leadership ➢ Makes a leader’s influence either unnecessary or redundant in that they replace a leader’s influence. Romance of leadership ➢ People attribute romantic, almost magical, qualities to leadership. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 13-26 Leadership categorization theory ➢ Implicit leadership theories - preconceived notions about the attributes (e.g., traits and behaviors) associated with leaders. ▪ They reflect the structure and content of “cognitive categories” used to distinguish leaders from nonleaders. ▪ Attributes or leadership prototypes are mental images of the characteristics that make a “good” leader, that a “real” leader would possess. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 13-27 Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 13-28 Followership ➢ The behaviors of individuals acting in relation to leaders. Implicit followership theories (IFT) ➢ Preconceive notions about prototypical and antiprototypical followership behaviors and characteristics. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 13-29 Social construction approaches ➢ Individual behavior is “constructed” in context, as people act and interact in situations. ▪ Passive followership beliefs - beliefs that followers should be passive, deferent and obedient to authority. ▪ Proactive followership beliefs - beliefs that followers should express opinions, take initiative, and constructively question and challenge leaders. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 13-30 Charismatic leaders ➢ Leaders who, by force of their personal abilities, are capable of having a profound and extraordinary effect on followers. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 13-31 Transactional leadership ➢Involves leader-follower exchanges necessary for achieving routine performance that is agreed upon by leaders and followers. •Uses various kinds of rewards in exchange for mutually agreed-upon accomplishment. •Watches for deviations from rules and standards and taking corrective action. •Intervenes only if standards not met. •Laissez faire style – avoids making decisions. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 13-32 Dimensions of transformational leadership ➢ Charisma ➢ Inspiration ➢ Intellectual stimulation ➢ Individualized consideration Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 13-33 Charismatic/transformational leadership is not uniformly better ➢ Approaches with special emphasis on vision often emphasize training. ➢ Dark-side charismatic leaders can have negative effects on followers. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 13-34 Leadership-Membership Exchange Theory ➢ Shows that leaders develop differentiated relationships with subordinates in their work groups. ➢ Leadership is generated when leaders and followers are able to develop “incremental influence” with one another that produces behavior above and beyond what is required by the work contract. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 13-35 College of Administrative and Financial Sciences Assignment 2 Deadline: 28/03/2020 @ 23:59 Course Name: Organizational Behavior Student’s Name: Course Code: MGT301 Student’s ID Number: Semester: II CRN: Academic Year: 1440/1441 H For Instructor’s Use only Instructor’s Name: Dr xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx Students’ Grade: 00/10 Level of Marks: High/Middle/Low Instructions – PLEASE READ THEM CAREFULLY • The Assignment must be submitted on Blackboard (WORD format only) via allocated folder. • Assignments submitted through email will not be accepted. • Students are advised to make their work clear and well presented, marks may be reduced for poor presentation. This includes filling your information on the cover page. • Students must mention question number clearly in their answer. • Late submission will NOT be accepted. • Avoid plagiarism, the work should be in your own words, copying from students or other resources without proper referencing will result in ZERO marks. No exceptions. • All answered must be typed using Times New Roman (size 12, double-spaced) font. No pictures containing text will be accepted and will be considered plagiarism). • Submissions without this cover page will NOT be accepted. Course Learning Outcomes-Covered 1 Develop the problem-solving ...
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Final Answer

Attached.

Assignment 2 – Outline
I. Leadership and its distinction from management
II. Suitable leadership style
III. Directive leadership
IV. Supportive leadership
V. Benefits of supportive leadership


College of Administrative and Financial Sciences

Assignment 2
Deadline: 28/03/2020 @ 23:59
Course Name: Organizational Behavior

Student’s Name:

Course Code: MGT301

Student’s ID Number:

Semester: II

CRN:
Academic Year: 1440/1441 H

For Instructor’s Use only
Instructor’s Name: Dr xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
Students’ Grade: 00/10
Level of Marks: High/Middle/Low
Instructions – PLEASE READ THEM CAREFULLY
• The Assignment must be submitted on Blackboard (WORD format only) via
allocated folder.
• Assignments submitted through email will not be accepted.
• Students are advised to make their work clear and well presented, marks may
be reduced for poor presentation. This includes filling your information on the
cover page.
• Students must mention question number clearly in their answer.
• Late submission will NOT be accepted.
• Avoid plagiarism, the work should be in your own words, copying from
students or other resources without proper referencing will result in ZERO
marks. No exceptions.
• All answered must be typed using Times New Roman (size 12, doublespaced) font. No pictures containing text will be accepted and will be
considered plagiarism).

• Submissions without this cover page will NOT be accepted.

Course Learning Outcomes-Covered
1 Develop the problem-solving skills for teamwork especially if the problem relates to the
task (Lo 3.2).
2 Ability to communicate and share information within the team and organization in
professional manner (Lo 4.4).

Assignment 2
Reference Source: Book-Ch:-13 & 14
Marks)

(10

Critical thinking:-Leadership
Use at least 3 scientific references to support your answers. Follow APA-style when
referencing.
Assignment Question(s):

1. Define leadership and explain the difference between being a manager and being a
leader. Which boss would you rather have? Why? (02 Marks)
2. The leadership style theories, which you have learned in the chapter 13 & 14 based on
that determine which leadership styles are suitable for managers who are managing
workers ( both Blue collar & White collar) in the organizations.(03 Marks)
3. Describe directive leadership and supportive leadership, Explain their importance. (02
Marks)
4. How organizations are benefitted from supportive leadership? Give an example of
such organization which you might have come across. (03 Marks)

Question 1

Though distinct in terms of scope, direction, short-term objectives, leadership, and
management are critical in the running of any organization, business, or otherwise. For the
provision of goods and services, management and leadership are relevant. By definition,
leadership is the process of influencing followers to get things done by both the leader and
the subordinates. Good leadership needs to possess evidence and an association going both
ways to work efficiently. Managers realize their missions through planning and budgetmaking. To fulfill its purpose— or the intent of the organization — an organization must
have policies in place and assign capital to the crucial operations described in those plans. To
accomplish these particular objectives, funds need to be designated as part of the operation’s
practical accomplishment. Management is accountable for maintaining track of the
expenditure and ensuring that funds are used in contexts that carry out administrative and
strategic policies. This operation is an aspect of a firm’s day-to-day schedule.
On the other hand, and unlike managers, leadership function creates vision rather than
making plans. Re...

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