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SEU Simple Habits to Improve Your Critical Thinking Article Discussion

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Question Description

I need support with this Business question so I can learn better.

(Great English is a must)

(Read the case and answer questions APA format)

(The article is short – 5 pages)


Subject of the paper:  Question and Answers Based on an Article. 

Requirement: I attached to this message an article entitled “3 Simple habits to improve your critical thinking” by Helen Lee Bouygues, published in Harvard Business Review”. In a paper answer the following question (please use headlines to state which question is answered)

  1. Question 1: Summarize      the article and explain the main issues discussed in the article. (In 600-700 words)
  2. Question 2: What do you think about the article in relations to what you have learned in the course about how to improve your critical thinking? Use additional reference to support you argument. (In 200-400 words)
  3. Quetsion 3: What do you      understand by groupthink? According to the article how we can prevent      people from engaging in groupthink. Use additional reference to support you      argument. (In 150-300 words)
  4. Question 4: “Critical thinking      is the opposite of creative thinking.” Do you agree? Provide examples of      why you agree or disagree. (In 200-300      words)

Additional Information: 

  • you must mention question      number clearly in their answer.
  • Avoid plagiarism.
  • All answered must be typed      using Times New Roman (size 12, double-spaced) font in      word format.

*Article Attached to this message* 

*** The work will be checked for plagiarism through Turnitin by the professor. It is essential for everything to be free of plagiarism otherwise sanctions will be imposed***


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STRATEGIC THINKING 3 Simple Habits to Improve Your Critical Thinking by Helen Lee Bouygues MAY 06, 2019 DANIEL DAY/GETTY IMAGES A few years ago, a CEO assured me that his company was the market leader. “Clients will not leave for competitors,” he added. “It costs too much for them to switch.” Within weeks, the manufacturing giant Procter & Gamble elected not to renew its contract with the firm. The CEO was shocked — but he shouldn’t have been. COPYRIGHT © 2019 HARVARD BUSINESS SCHOOL PUBLISHING CORPORATION. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 2 For more than 20 years, I’ve helped struggling organizations. Sometimes they reach out because they have been mismanaged. Sometimes they have not stayed in front of changing technologies. In a few cases, members of the senior team were simply negligent. But in my experience, these organizational problems shared a root cause: A lack of critical thinking. Too many business leaders are simply not reasoning through pressing issues, taking the time to evaluate a topic from all sides. Leaders often jump to the first conclusion, whatever the evidence. Even worse, C-suite leaders will just choose the evidence that supports their prior beliefs. A lack of metacognition — or thinking about thinking — is also a major driver, making people simply overconfident. The good news is that critical thinking is a learned skill. To help people get better at it, I recently started the nonprofit Reboot Foundation. Based on my personal experience as well some of the work of our researchers, I’ve pulled together three simple things that you can do to improve your critical thinking skills: 1. Question assumptions 2. Reason through logic 3. Diversify thought Now, you might be thinking, “I do that already.” And you probably do, but just not as deliberately and thoroughly as you could. Cultivating these three key habits of mind go a long way in helping you become better at an increasingly desired skill in the job market. Question assumptions When I work to turn around an organization, I’ll typically start by questioning the firm’s assumptions. I once visited dozens of stores of a retail chain, posing as a shopper. I soon discovered that the company had presumed that its customers had far more disposable income than they really had. This erroneous belief made the company overprice its clothing. They would have made millions more each year if they had sold lower-priced shirts and pants. Of course, it’s hard to question everything. Imagine going through your day asking yourself: Is the sky really blue? What if the person next to me isn’t my colleague but her twin sister? How do I really know that the economy won’t implode tomorrow? The first step in questioning assumptions, then, is figuring out when to question assumptions. Turns out, a questioning approach is particularly helpful when the stakes are high. So if you are in a discussion about long-term company strategy upon which years of effort and expense will be based, be sure to ask basic questions about your beliefs: How do you know that business will increase? What does the research say about your expectations about the future of the COPYRIGHT © 2019 HARVARD BUSINESS SCHOOL PUBLISHING CORPORATION. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 3 market? Have you taken time to step into the figurative shoes of your customers as a “secret shopper”? Another way to question your assumptions is to consider alternatives. You might ask: What if our clients changed? What if our suppliers went out of business? These sorts of questions help you gain new and important perspectives that help hone your thinking. Reason through logic Years ago, I took on the task of turning around the division of a large lingerie company. The growth of one of its major product lines had been declining for years. No one could figure out why. It turned out that the company had made the reasoning mistake of over-generalization, drawing a sweeping conclusion based on limited or insufficient evidence. Namely, the company believed that all of their international customers had similar preferences in lingerie. So it shipped the same styles of brassieres to every store across Europe. When my team started talking to staff and consumers, we realized that customers in different countries reported very distinct tastes and preferences. British women, for example, tended to buy lacy bras in bright colors. Italian women preferred beige bras, with no lace. And those in the United States led the world in sports bra purchases. For this lingerie company, improving their reasoning helped the firm dramatically improve its bottom line. The good news is that the formal practice of logic dates back at least 2,000 years to Aristotle. Over those two millennia, logic has demonstrated its merit by reaching sound conclusions. So at your organization, pay close attention to the “chain” of logic constructed by a particular argument. Ask yourself: Is the argument supported at every point by evidence? Do all the pieces of evidence build on each other to produce a sound conclusion? Being aware of common fallacies can also allow you to think more logically. For instance, people often engage in what’s known as “post hoc” thinking. In this fallacy, people believe that “because event Y followed event X, event Y must have been caused by event X.” So, for instance, a manager may believe that their sales agents rack up more sales in the spring because they’re fired up by the motivational speeches offered at the annual sales conference in February — but until that assumption is tested, there’s no way the manager can know if their belief is correct. Seek out diversity of thought and collaboration For years, I was the only female partner on McKinsey’s transformation team. And today, while I serve on more than a half-dozen corporate boards, I am typically the only Asian and the only woman in the room during meetings. COPYRIGHT © 2019 HARVARD BUSINESS SCHOOL PUBLISHING CORPORATION. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 4 By virtue of my background and life experiences, I tend to see things differently from the people around me. This has often played to my advantage. But I’m not immune to groupthink, either. When I’m around people similar to me for whatever reason — age, politics, religion— I try to solicit different points of view. It makes me a better thinker. It’s natural for people to group themselves together with people who think or act like them. This happens especially readily online, where it’s so easy to find a specific cultural niche. Social media algorithms can narrow our perspectives further, serving up only news that fits our individual beliefs. This is a problem. If everyone in our social circles thinks as we do, we become more rigid in our thinking, and less likely to change our beliefs on the basis of new information. In fact, the more people listen to people who share their views, research shows the more polarized their views become. It’s crucial to get outside your personal bubble. You can start small. If you work in accounting, make friends with people in marketing. If you always go to lunch with senior staff, go to a ball game with your junior colleagues. Training yourself this way will help you escape your usual thinking and gain richer insights. In team settings, give people the chance to give their opinions independently without the influence of the group. When I ask for advice, for instance, I typically withhold my own preferences and ask team members to email me their opinions in separate notes. This tactic helps prevent people from engaging in groupthink. While these simple tactics may sound easy or even obvious, they’re rare in practice, particularly in the business world, and too many organizations don’t take the time to engage in robust forms of reasoning. But the important work of critical thinking pays off. While luck plays a role — sometimes small, sometimes large — in a company’s successes, the most important business victories are achieved through thinking smart. Helen Lee Bouygues is the president of the Paris-based Reboot Foundation. A former partner at McKinsey & Company, she has served as interim CEO, CFO, or COO for more than one dozen companies. COPYRIGHT © 2019 HARVARD BUSINESS SCHOOL PUBLISHING CORPORATION. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 5 Copyright 2019 Harvard Business Publishing. All Rights Reserved. Additional restrictions may apply including the use of this content as assigned course material. Please consult your institution's librarian about any restrictions that might apply under the license with your institution. For more information and teaching resources from Harvard Business Publishing including Harvard Business School Cases, eLearning products, and business simulations please visit ...
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1. Summarize the article and explain the main issues discussed in the article.
This article by Helen Lee Bouygues covers on three simple habits that can be employed
by someone/organizations or in the business world to improve their critical thinking about
daily life problems. The article points out that an excessive number of business pioneers are
mostly not thinking through issues that need to be addressed, setting aside the effort to assess
a subject from all sides. Leaders frequently bounce to the first end, whatever the proof. Thus
a lack of metacognition is what is majorly prompting people to be overconfident. According
to Helen Lee Bouygues, he states that although critical thinking is a knowledgeable
proficiency, for people to get enhanced at it perfectly, they ought to perfectly take heed of
three phases to develop their critical thinking abilities. These phases include question
presumptions, reason through rationale, and segregate thoughts.
First of all, Question assumptions involve figuring out when to question assumptions.
According to Bouygues, the questioning approach is especially useful when a lot is on the
line. Besides, these inquiries; how would you realize that business will increment? What does
the examination state about your assumptions regarding the fate of the market? Have you
stepped into the non-literal shoes of your clients as a "mystery customer"? Are basic in a
conversation about the long haul organization system. Different choices to scrutinize your
suppositions is to think about other options. You may ask: What if our customers changed?
Imagine a scenario where our providers left th...

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