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CMN 457 University of New Hampshire Unit 5 Racial Profiling Reaction Paper

cmn 457

University of New Hampshire


Question Description

I’m working on a Social Science exercise and need support.

irst complete all readings. Then, write up a Reaction Paper responding to those readings and the material you have learned in class during that Unit by:

  • demonstrating engagement with the readings for that Unit (e.g., mentioning key concepts);
  • connecting something you have learned from this course during that Unit to something you have observed/experienced in your own everyday life;[1] and
  • composing an open-ended question that could guide/lead to further investigation into some issue from that Unit.

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On Being Sane in Insane Places Author(s): D. L. Rosenhan Source: Science, New Series, Vol. 179, No. 4070 (Jan. 19, 1973), pp. 250-258 Published by: American Association for the Advancement of Science Stable URL: Accessed: 17/11/2009 11:42 Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of JSTOR's Terms and Conditions of Use, available at JSTOR's Terms and Conditions of Use provides, in part, that unless you have obtained prior permission, you may not download an entire issue of a journal or multiple copies of articles, and you may use content in the JSTOR archive only for your personal, non-commercial use. Please contact the publisher regarding any further use of this work. Publisher contact information may be obtained at Each copy of any part of a JSTOR transmission must contain the same copyright notice that appears on the screen or printed page of such transmission. JSTOR is a not-for-profit service that helps scholars, researchers, and students discover, use, and build upon a wide range of content in a trusted digital archive. We use information technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new forms of scholarship. For more information about JSTOR, please contact American Association for the Advancement of Science is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve and extend access to Science. The Geographical Distribution of Animals (Wiley, New York, 1957); B. Rensch, Evolution Above the Species Level (Methuen, London, 1959); V. Grant, The Origin of Adaptations (Columbia Univ. Press, New York, 1963). 5. S. Wright, Genetics 16, 97 (1931). 6. , ibid. 28, 114 (1943); ibid. 31, 39 (1946); Evolution and the Genetics of Populations, vol. 2, The Theory of Gene Frequencies (Univ. of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1969); F. J. Rohlf and G. D. Schnell, Amer. Natur. 105, 295 (1971). 7. J. B. S. Haldane, J. Genet. 48, 277 (1948). 8. R. A. Fisher, Biometrics 6, 353 (1950); M. Kimura, Annu. Rep. Nat. Inst. Genet. Mishima-City, Japan 9, 84 (1958). 9. M. Kimura and G. H. Weiss, Genetics 49, 561 (1964); M. Kimura and T. Maruyama, Genet. Res. 18, 125 (1971). 10. P. R. Ehrlich and P. H. Raven, Science 165, 1228 (1969). 11. For example, J. Maynard-Smith, Amer. Natur. 100, 637 (1966). 12. J. M. Thoday, Nature 181, 1124 (1958); -and T. B. Boam, Heredity 13, 204 (1959); E. Millicent and J. M. Thoday, Ibid. 16, 219 (1961); J. M. Thoday and J. B. Gibson, Amer. Natur. 105, 86 (1971). 13. F. A. Streams and D. Pimentel, ibid. 95, 201 (1961); Th. Dobzhansky and B. Spassky, Proc. Roy. Soc. London Ser. B. 168, 27 (1967); , J. Sved, ibid. 173, 191 (1969); Th. Dobzhansky, H. Levene, B. Spassky, ibid. 180, 21 (1972). 14. M. Slatkin, thesis, Harvard University (1971). 15. S. K. Jain and A. D. Bradshaw, Heredity 21, 407 (1966). 16. Parapatric divergence is divergence between adjacent but genetically continuous populations. See H. M. Smith, Syst. Zool. 14, 57 (1965); ibid. 18, 254 (1969); M. J. D. White, R. E. Blackith, R. M. Blackith, J. Cheney, Aust. J. Zool. 15, 263 (1967); M. J. D. White, Science 159, 1065 (1968); K. H. L. Key, Syst. Zool. 17, 14 (1968). 17. J. S. Huxley, Nature 142, 219 (1938); Bijdr. Dierk. Leiden 27, 491 (1939). 18. F. B. Sumner, Bibliogr. Genet. 9, 1 (1932). 19. F. Salomonsen, Dan. Biol. Medd. 22, 1 (1955). 20. E. B. Ford, Biol. Rev. Cambridge Phil. Soc. 20, 73 (1945). 21. Examples of morph-ratio clines include: H. B. D. Kettlewell and R. J. Berry, Heredity 16, 403 (1961); ibid. 24, 1 (1969); H. B. D. Kettlewell, R. J. Berry, C. J. Cadbury, G. C. Phillips, Ibid., p. 15; H. N. Southern, J. Zool. London Ser. A 138, 455 (1966); A. J. Cain and J. D. Currey, Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. London Ser. B. 246, 1 (1962); A. P. Platt and L. P. Brower, Evolution 22, 699 (1968); 0. Halkka and E. Mikkola, Hereditas 54, 140 (1965); B. C. Clarke, in Evolution and Environment, E. T. Drake, Ed. (Yale Univ. Press, New Haven, 1968), p. 351; B. C. Clarke and J. J. Murray, in Ecological Genetics and Evolution, R. Greed, Ed. (Blackwells, Oxford, 1971), p. 51; J. A. Bishop and P. S. Harper, Heredity 25, 449 (1969); J. A. Bishop, J. Anim. Ecol. 41, 209 (1972); G. Hewitt and F. M. Brown, Heredity 25, 365 (1970); G. Hewitt and C. Ruscoe, J. Anim. Ecol. 40, 753 (1971); H. Wolda, ibid. 38, 623 (1969); F. B. Livingstone, Amer. J. Phys. Anthropol. 31, 1 (1969). 22. C. P. Haskins, E. F. Haskins, J. J. A. McLaughlan, R. E. Hewitt, in Vertebrate Speciation, W. F. Blair, Ed. (Univ. of Texas Press, Austin, 1961), p. 320. 23. A. J. Bateman, Heredity 1, 234, 303 (1947); ibid. 4, 353 (1950); R. N. Colwell, Amer. J. Bot. 38, 511 (1951); M. R. Roberts and H. Lewis, Evolution 9, 445 (1955); C. P. Haskins, personal communication; K. P. Lamb, E. Hassan, D. P. Scoter, Ecology 52, 178 (1971). For localized distribution and problem of establishment see also: W. F. Blair, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 44, 179 (1943); Evolution 4, 253 (1950); L. R. Dice, Amer. Natur. 74, 289 (1940); P. Labine, Evolution 20, 580 (1966); H. Lewis, ibid. 7, 1 (1953); W. Z. Lidicker, personal communication; J. T. Marshall, Jr., Condor 50, 193, 233 (1948); R. K. Sealander, Amer. Zool. 10, 53 (1970); P. Voipio, Ann. Zool. Fenn. 15, 1 (1952); P. K. Anderson, Science 145, 177 (1964). 24. N. W. Timofeeff-Ressovsky, in The New Systematics, J. S. Huxley, Ed. (Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford, 1940), p. 73. 25. The null point is the position at which selection changes over from favoring one type to favoring another. 26. J. A. Endler, in preparation. 27. L. M. Cook, Coefficients of Natural Selection (Hutchinson Univ. Library, Biological Sciences No. 153, London, 1971); F. B. Livingstone, Amer. J. Phys. Anthropol. 31, 1 (1969). 28. W. C. Allee, A. E. Emerson, 0. Park, T. Park, K. P. Schmidt, Principles of Animal Ecology (Saunders, Philadelphia, 1949); H. C. Andrewartha and L. C. Birch, The Distribution and Abundance of Animals (Univ. of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1954); G. L. Clarke, Elements of Ecology (Wiley, New York, 1954); R. Geiger, The Climate Near the Ground (translation, Harvard Univ. Press, Cambridge, 1966). 29. Results for autosomal and sex-linked systems do not differ for the models to be discussed, except that, for a given amount of selection, the sex-linked system is loss sensitive to On Being Sane in Insane Places D. L. Rosenhan If sanity and insanity exist, how shall we know them? The question is neither capricious nor itself insane. However much we may be personally convinced that we can tell the normal from the abnormal, the evidence is simply not compelling. It is commonplace, for example, to read about murder trials wherein eminent psychiatrists for the defense are con250 tradicted by equally eminent psychiatrists for the prosecution on the matter of the defendant's sanity. More generally, there are a great deal of conflicting data on the reliability, utility, and meaning of such terms as "sanity," "insanity," "mental illness," and "schizophrenia" (1). Finally, as early as 1934, Benedict suggested that normality and abnormality are not universal (2). the effects of gene flow. This is because the effective gene selection on males in sex-linked loci makes the net selection stronger, compared to autosomal loci, for the population as a whole. See C. C. Li, Population Genetics (Univ. of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1955) for a good discussion of sex-linkage and selection. 30. The equilibrium configurations are not significantly altered if the emigrants from the end demes do not return, unless the number of demes (d) is very small (J. A. Endler, unpublished data). 31. See, for example, the models of B. C. Clarke [Amer. Natur. 100, 389 (1966)] and those in (14). 32. This model incorporates Clarke's model of frequency-dependence; see B. C. Clarke, Evolution 18, 364 (1964). 33. R. A. Fisher and F. Yates, Statistical Tables for Biological, Agricultural, and Medical Research (Oliver & Boyd, Edinburgh, 1948); R. R. Sokal and F. J. Rohlf, Biometry (Freeman, San Francisco, 1969). 34. See, for example, C. G. Johnson, Migration and Dispersal of Insects by Flight (Methuen, London, 1969); J. Antonovics, Amer. Sci. 59, 593 (1971). 35. E. C. Pielou, An Introduction to Mathematical Ecology (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1969). 36. W. F. Blair, Contrib. Lab. Vertebrate Biol. Univ. Mich. No. 36, 1 (1947). 37. P. A. Parsons, Genetica 33, 184 (1963). 38. G. Hewitt and B. John, Chromosoma 21, 140 (1967); Evolution 24, 169 (1970); G. Hewitt, personal communication; H. Wolda, J. Anim. Ecol. 38, 305, 623 (1969). 39. L. R. Dice, Contrib. Lab. Vertebrate Genet. Univ. Mich. No. 8 (1939), p. 1; ibid. No. 15 (1941), p. 1. 40. I. C. J. Galbraith, Bull. Brit. Mus. Natur. Hist. Zool. 4, 133 (1956). 41. I am grateful to the National Science Foundation for a graduate fellowship in support of this study. I thank Prof. Alan Robertson and the Institute of Animal Genetics, University of Edinburgh, for the Drosophila, and for kindly providing me with fresh medium throughout the study. Criticism of the manuscript by Professors John Bonner and Jane Potter, Dr. Philip Ashmole, Peter Tuft, Dr. David Noakes, Dr. John Godfrey, Dr. Caryl P. Haskins, and M. C. Bathgate was very welcome. In particular, I thank my supervisor, Professor Bryan C. Clarke, for help and criticism throughout this study. Any errors or omissions are entirely my own. I thank the Edinburgh Regional Computing Center and the Edinburgh University Zoology Department for generous computer time allowances. I will supply the specially written IMiP language program upon request. What is viewed as normal in one culture may be seen as quite aberrant in another. Thus, notions of normality and abnormality may not be quite as accurate as people believe they are. To raise questions regarding normality and abnormality is in no way to question the fact that some behaviors are deviant or odd. Murder is deviant. So, too, are hallucinations. Nor does raising such questions deny the existence of the personal anguish that is often associated with "mental illness." Anxiety and depression exist. Psychological suffering exists. But normality and abnormality, sanity and insanity, and the diagnoses that flow from them The author is professor of psychology and law at Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305. Portions of these data were presented to colloquiums of the psychology departments at the University of California at Berkeley and at Santa Barbara; University of Arizona, Tucson; and Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts. SCIENCE, VOL. 179 may be less substantivethan many believe them to be. At its heart, the question of whether the sane can be distinguishedfrom the insane (and whether degrees of insanity can be distinguishedfrom each other) is a simple matter: do the salient characteristicsthat lead to diagnoses reside in the patients themselves or in the environments and contexts in which observers find them? From Bleuler, throughKretchmer,throughthe formulators of the recently revised Diagnostic This article describessuch an experiment. Eight sane people gained secret admissionto 12 differenthospitals (6). Their diagnostic experiences constitute the data of the first part of this article; the remainder is devoted to a description of their experiences in psychiatric institutions. Too few psychiatrists and psychologists, even those who have worked in such hospitals, know what the experience is like. They rarely talk about it with former patients, perhaps because they distrust information comand Statistical Manual of the American ing from the previously insane. Those Psychiatric Association, the belief has who have worked in psychiatric hospibeen strong that patients present symp- tals are likely to have adapted so thortoms, that those symptomscan be cate- oughly to the settings that they are gorized, and, implicitly, that the sane insensitive to the impact of that expeare distinguishable from the insane. rience. And while there have been ocMore recently, however, this belief has casional reports of researchers who been questioned.Based in part on theo- submittedthemselvesto psychiatrichosretical and anthropological considera- pitalization (7), these researchershave tions, but also on philosophical, legal, commonly remainedin the hospitalsfor and therapeutic ones, the view has short periods of time, often with the grown that psychological categorization knowledge of the hospital staff. It is of mental illness is useless at best and difficult to know the extent to which downright harmful, misleading, and they were treated like patients or like pejorative at worst. Psychiatric diag- research colleagues. Nevertheless, their noses, in this view, are in the minds of reports about the inside of the psychithe observers and are not valid sum- atric hospital have been valuable. This maries of characteristics displayed by article extends those efforts. the observed (3-5). Gains can be made in decidingwhich of these is more nearly accurate by Pseudopatientsand Their Settings getting normal people (that is, people The eight pseudopatients were a who do not have, and have never sufvaried serious of fered, symptoms psychiatric group. One was a psychology disorders) admitted to psychiatric hos- graduate student in his 20's. The repitals and then determining whether maining seven were older and "estabthey were discoveredto be sane and, if lished." Among them were three psyso, how. If the sanity of such pseudo- chologists, a pediatrician,a psychiatrist, patients were always detected, there a painter, and a housewife. Three would be prima facie evidence that a pseudopatientswere women, five were sane individual can be distinguished men. All of them employed pseudofrom the insane context in which he is nyms, lest their alleged diagnoses emfound. Normality (and presumablyab- barrassthem later. Those who were in normality) is distinct enough that it mental health professions alleged ancan be recognized wherever it occurs, other occupation in order to avoid the for it is carried within the person. If, special attentions that might be acon the other hand, the sanity of the corded by staff, as a matter of courtesy pseudopatients were never discovered, or caution, to ailing colleagues (8). serious difficultieswould arise for those With the exception of myself (I was the who support traditional modes of psy- first pseudopatientand my presencewas chiatric diagnosis. Given that the hospi- known to the hospital administratorand tal staff was not incompetent, that the chief psychologist and, so far as I can pseudopatient had been behaving as tell, to them alone), the presence of sanely as he had been outside of the pseudopatientsand the natureof the rehospital, and that it had never been search program was not known to the previously suggested that he belonged hospitalstaffs (9). in a psychiatric hospital, such an unThe settings were similarlyvaried. In likely outcome would support the view order to generalize the findings, admisthat psychiatric diagnosis betrays little sion into a variety of hospitals was about the patient but much about the sought. The 12 hospitals in the sample environmentin which an observerfinds were located in five different states on him. the East and West coasts. Some were 19 JANUARY 1973 old and shabby, some were quite new. Some were research-oriented, others not. Some had good staff-patientratios, others were quite understaffed. Only one was a strictly private hospital. All of the others were supported by state or federal funds or, in one instance, by universityfunds. After calling the hospital for an appointment,the pseudopatientarrived at the admissions office complaining that he had been hearingvoices. Asked what the voices said, he replied that they were often unclear, but as far as he could tell they said "empty,""hollow," and "thud."The voices were unfamiliar and were of the same sex as the pseudopatient. The choice of these symptoms was occasioned by their apparent similarity to existential symptoms. Such symptoms are alleged to arise from painful concerns about the perceived meaninglessnessof one's life. It is as if the hallucinatingperson were saying, "My life is empty and hollow." The choice of these symptoms was also determined by the absence of a single report of existential psychoses in the literature. Beyond alleging the symptoms and falsifying name, vocation, and employment, no further alterationsof person, history, or circumstances were made. The significant events of the pseudopatient's life history were presented as they had actually occurred. Relationships with parents and siblings, with spouse and children, with people at work and in school, consistent with the aforementioned exceptions, were described as they were or had been. Frustrations and upsets were described along with joys and satisfactions.These facts are important to remember. If anything, they strongly biased the subsequent results in favor of detecting sanity, since none of their histories or currentbehaviorswere seriously pathological in any way. Immediately upon admission to the psychiatric ward, the pseudopatient ceased simulatingany symptoms of abnormality. In some cases, there was a brief period of mild nervousness and anxiety, since none of the pseudopatients really believed that they would be admitted so easily. Indeed, their shared fear was that they would be immediately exposed as frauds and greatly embarrassed.Moreover, many of them had never visited a psychiatric ward; even those who had, nevertheless had some genuine fears about what might happen to them. Their nervousness, then, was quite appropriateto the nov251 elty of the hospital setting, and it abated rapidly. Apart from that short-lived nervousness, the pseudopatient behaved on the ward as he "normally" behaved. The pseudopatient spoke to patients and staff as he might ordinarily. Because there is uncommonly little to do on a psychiatric ward, he attempted to engage others in conversation. When asked by staff how he was feeling, he indicated that he was fine, that he no longer experienced symptoms. He responded to instructions from attendants, to calls for medication (which was not swallowed), and to dining-hall instructions. Beyond such activities as were available to him on the admissions ward, he spent his time writing down his observations about the ward, its patients, and the staff. Initially these notes were written "secretly," but as it soon became clear that no one much cared, they were subsequently written on standard tablets of paper in such public places as the dayroom. No secret was made of these activities. The pseudopatient, very much as a true psychiatric patient, entered a hospital with no foreknowledge of when he would be discharged. Each was told that he would have to get out by his own devices, essentially by convincing the staff that he was sane. The psychological stresses associated with hospitalization were considerable, and all but one of the pseudopatients desired to be discharged almost immediately after being admitted. They were, therefore, motivated not only to behave sanely, but to be paragons of cooperation. That their behavior was in no way disruptive is confirmed by nursing reports, which have been obtained on most of the patients. These reports uniformly indicate that the patients were "friendly," "cooperative," and "exhibited no abnormal indications." The Normal Are Not Detectably Sane Despite their public "show" of sanity, the pseudopatients were never detected. Admitted, except in one case, with a diagnosis of schizophrenia (10), each was discharged with a diagnosis of schizophrenia "in remission." The label "in remission" should in no way be dismissed as a formality, for at no time during any hospitalization had any question been raised about any pseudopatient's simulatio ...
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Running head: REACTION PAPER

Reaction Paper
Student’s Name

Reaction Paper
Racial profiling remains to be one of the significant challenges in modern society. The
contemporary society is quick to judge a person based on their skin color, and their gender
without knowing the person for who they are, their beliefs and perceptions. Racial profiling
based on skin color is the most common (Desmond, 2010). It is estimated to have started almost
2000 years ago when Europeans colonized the new world, America. A time, the Europeans used
the Native Americans as servants that offered free labor. However, the skin color of the
Americans allowed them to blend with Europeans, allowing them to take advantage and
disappear from servitude. It is ...

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