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Taxonomy Ecology concepts and population Ecology Lap Report

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( Taxonomy , Ecology concepts and population Ecology)

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BioLab3 Taxonomy Lab Report Name, date, course and section required for password: Important: To complete this lab report, download and refer to the Taxonomy Printable Document found at the bottom of the first page of the Taxonomy Lab. I. Unity 1. What three purposes does taxonomy serve? 2. Provide an example of the following levels of organization and rank them from smallest to most inclusive: community tissue molecule cell biosphere atom II. Diversity and Classification 1. What is taxonomy? 2. Refer to the Taxonomy Printable Document and to Lab, Section II, Exercise 1 to identify the phylum of each of the following specimens: starfish sponge Christmas tree 1 © 2016 Access Learning Systems A III. Cladistics 1. Complete the table below using information from Lab, Table 3 in the Taxonomy Printable Document for Section III, Exercise 2. All specimens are autotropic. Determine the outgroup using the following characters: vascular system (having xylem & phloem), reproduces with seeds, bears fruit and flowers. Refer to Lab, Table 4 in the printed document as an example and indicate characteristics as present (+) or absent (–). Autotrophic Sphagnum moss + Boston fern + Pine tree + Rose + Vascular Seeds Fruit Flowers 2. Complete a cladogram illustrating the phylogenetic relationships of the organisms using the table above. Sphagnum moss Vasculature Based on Lab, Section III, which group above would be considered the most derived? To which phylum does the rose belong? 2 © 2016 Access Learning Systems A IV. Dichotomous Identification Keys 1. Go to the Lab, Section IV, Exercise 3. Refer to the Taxonomy Printable Document and the table below to identify the class of the following organisms using a dichotomous key: bullfrog crocodile shark Domain-Eukarya Kingdom-Animalia Phylum-Chordata Subphylum-Vertebrata Specimen Characteristics warm-blooded, body hair, milk producer Key Steps Class 1a Mammalia feathers, hollow bones, egg-laying, endothermic fins, jaws, cartilage skeleton, exothermic fins, jaws, bony skeleton, exothermic fins, no jaws, gill slits, exothermic thin body, scales present, exothermic smooth skin, two life stages, exothermic 3 © 2016 Access Learning Systems A 2. List three characteristics of the class Agnatha. 3. What is the purpose of a dichotomous key? V. Binomial Nomenclature 1. Draw and label five leaf shapes or arrangements used to identify plants. Sign, date and prepare an image of your drawing and include it with this lab report. 2. Based on the Taxonomy Printable Document, and images found in Lab, Section V, Exercise 5 provide the scientific and common names for the following trees: Tree on slide 16 Tree on slide 17 Summary Questions 1. Explain what is meant by the binomial system of nomenclature. 2. Provide the scientific name of an endangered species. Explain the significance of the different parts of the scientific name. 3. What is the difference between traditional, Linnaean classification and phylogenetics? 4. Explain how a cladogram is organized. 5. List the levels of Linnaean classification from most specific to most inclusive. 6. Why does the diversity of life make a system of nomenclature necessary? 7. How are dichotomous keys organized? 8. Explain the preference for scientific names over common names. 4 © 2016 Access Learning Systems A BioLab3 Ecology Concepts Lab Report Name, date, course and section required for password: I. Producers 1. Distinguish between a community and a population. Provide two specific examples. 2. Describe the anatomy and ecology of Volvox. Why is it a producer? 3. What are the spherical green structures in leaf cytoplasm? What is their function? II. Consumers 1. Go to Lab, Section II, Exercise 2 and provide a definition and example of each of the following: secondary consumer herbivore 2. What is a Paramecium? III. Decomposers 1. Provide the scientific name of two decomposers. 2. What is a detritivore? 3. Give an example of a detritivore. 4. What is the difference between basidiospores and a basidiocarp? 5. What are rhizoids? © 2016 Access Learning Systems A 1 6. Based on Lab, Section III, Exercise 3 record the name of each organism, its distinguishing characteristics, and why it is a decomposer. Organism Characteristics Why is this a decomposer? IV. Abiotic Material 1. Name the molecules that cycle through living systems. 2. What is abiotic material? V. Relationships Between Organisms 1. Summarize in one paragraph the relationship between photosynthesis and cellular respiration. 2. What role does ATP play in the metabolism of organisms? 3. Draw and label a food web containing at least four trophic levels. Use specific organisms and identify each trophic level. Indicate which organisms are competitors and list three abiotic components associated with the food web. Sign, date and prepare an image of your drawing and include it with this lab report. © 2016 Access Learning Systems A 2 VI. Flow of Energy 1. Explain how vegetarians obtain energy in the energy pyramid. 2. Draw an energy pyramid and label each part. Sign, date and prepare an image of your drawing and include it with this lab report. Summary Questions 1. What is the difference between an autotroph and a heterotroph? Give an example of each. 2. All the organisms of the same species in a given location make up a 3. What is the term for the place where an organism lives? 4. Define and give an example of a parasite. 5. Define and give an example of a producer. 6. Name two groups of decomposers in an ecosystem and provide examples. 7. What term is used to describe a primary consumer? 8. What term is used to describe a secondary consumer? 9. Explain how energy enters, flows, and exits an ecosystem. © 2016 Access Learning Systems A 3 BioLab3 Population Ecology Lab Report Name, date, course and section required for password: I. Population Growth 1. Go to Lab, Section I, Exercise 1 to review an investigation of natural population growth. What variable is measured in this investigation? 2. Enter the number of yeast cells for each time interval in the table below. 3. Total the columns and divide by 5 to determine the average number of yeast cells for the samples. Reminder: all average counts after 15 hours must be multiplied by 10 to account for the dilution factor. Age of Culture Hours Population Density 1 2 3 4 5 Total Average Population Density 0 3 6 9 12 15 18 21 Average Multiplied by 10 24 27 30 Population density data 4. Construct a line graph of the average yeast population density at 3-hour intervals. Sign, date and prepare an image of your graph and include it with this lab report. 5. Why was each culture agitated before pipetting the sample? © 2016 Access Learning Systems A 1 6. Why was yeast used in this experiment? 7. Which flask served as a control in the yeast experiment? 8. In Lab, Section I, Exercise 2 you will complete an activity pertaining to theoretical population growth. Fill in the table below by doubling each population to find each population size. Use the formula Y = 2 x-1 where Y is the population size and X is the generation. For example, 20 = 1. Generation 1 2 3 4 5 Population Size 20 = 1 Generation 6 7 8 9 10 Population Size 9. Construct a line graph of theoretical population growth by plotting generation on the X-axis and population size on the Y-axis. Sign, date and prepare an image of your graph and include it with this lab report. 10. How does the actual population growth curve compare with the theoretical growth curve? 11. Compare the average consumption of an American to someone who lives in Cambodia. 12. Approximately how many people currently live in the United States? II. Population Dynamics 1. Differentiate between natality and mortality. 2. According to Lab, Section II, how is population growth calculated? © 2016 Access Learning Systems A 2 3. Based on Lab, Section II, Exercise 3, if dad and mom (first generation) have two children (second generation), how many descendants will be in the following eight generations if each child has the same number of children as their parents (22)? Complete the table, then construct a line graph. Sign, date and prepare an image of your drawing and include it with this lab report. Generation 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Descendants 1 2 4. A second family includes dad, mom, and four children. How many descendants will be in the following eight generations if each child in each generation has 4 children? Calculate the family size for each generation, then construct another line graph. Sign, date, and prepare an image of your graph and include it with this lab report. Generation 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 III. Family Size 1 4 Carrying Capacity 1. Describe three factors that could influence the carrying capacity of a song bird population. 2. In Lab, Section III, examine the human population growth curve and determine when the Black Death or plague occurred. © 2016 Access Learning Systems A 3 IV. Technology and the Ecosystem 1. Based on Lab, Section IV, Exercise 5 describe the areas bordering the village. 2. Describe how the various environmental zones of the area contributed to ecological stability. Summary Questions 1. Describe the biological principles that control population growth. 2. Is it beneficial to make a prediction before conducting an experiment? Why or why not? 3. Why were the flasks of yeast incubated? 4. Why was a hemacytometer used in the yeast experiment? 5. What is the difference between theoretical and actual population growth? 6. What factors stabilize population size? 7. How does a dilution series make cell counting easier and more accurate? 8. Suggest ways to increase the growth rate of a field of daisies. © 2016 Access Learning Systems A 4 ...
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Final Answer

Attached.

BioLab3
Ecology Concepts Lab Report
Name, date, course, and section required for a password:

I. Producers
1. Distinguish between a community and a population. Provide two specific examples.
Community entails all diverse species that dwell in one area while the population
involves members of the same species that dwell in one area. An example of a
community is a forest of trees and the population is monodominance.
2. Describe the anatomy and ecology of Volvox. Why is it a producer?
Volvox is motile colonial green algae. However, the colonies are
photosynthetic and it appears as green spheres.
3. What are the spherical green structures in the leaf cytoplasm? What is their function?
The green structures are chloroplasts. The function is to perform
photosynthesis.
II. Consumers
1. Go to Lab, Section II, Exercise 2 and provide a definition and example of each of the
following:
Secondary consumers are organisms that consume primary consumers for
energy. An example is carnivores or omnivores.
Herbivore is a primary consumer that eats plants such as grass for energy.
An example is a gazelle.
2. What is Paramecium?
Paramecium is a unicellular organism that belongs to the kingdom Protista and
lives in the freshwater environment.
III.

Decomposers

1. Provide the scientific name of two decomposers.
Bacteria and fungi as Saprobes.
2. What is a detritivore?
Detritivore is an animal that feeds on dead organic matter.
© 2016 Access Learning Systems A

1

3. Give an example of a detritivore.
Earthworms
4. What is the difference between basidiospores and a basidiocarp?
Basidiospores is a sexually reproductive spore that is acquired from phylum
Basidiomycota fungi while basidiocarp is a mushroom that contains basidia.
5. What are rhizoids?
Rhizoid is a root hair located in the basement of the thallus in some lower
plants such as liverworts.
6. Based on Lab, Section III, Exercise 3 records the name of each organism, its
distinguishing characteristics, and why it is a decomposer.
Organism

Characteristics

Why is this a decomposer?

Bacteria

Single-celled, have a
plasma membrane,
and cell walls

Bacteria recycle dead animals and
plants into chemical nutrients

Mushroom

Eukaryotic and no
chlorophyll

Mushroom absorbs nutrients and
releases enzymes that decompose
dead animals and plants.

Mold

Multicellular and
filamentous fungi

Mold acquires nutrients from the
organic matter the spores deposit on
through decomposition of dead
vegetation.

Worms

Bilateral symmetrical
Lack of scales and
true limbs

Worms eat dead plants and animals
and deposit wastes into a soil that is
rich in nitrogen and phosphorus.

Springtails

Soft-bodied and ovalshaped

Springtails break down organic
matter and convert valuable nutrients
to the soil.

IV. Abiotic Material
1. Name the molecules that cycle through living systems.
Water, phosphate IV, and carbon dioxide
2. What is the abiotic material?
Abiotic material is a non-living component in the environment. An
example is a temperature, climate, and oxygen.
V. Relationships Between Organisms
1. Summarize in one paragraph the relationship between photosynthesis and cellular
respiration.
© 2016 Access Learning Systems A
2

Photosynthesis creates glucose that is involved in cellular respiration to
make ATP. Photosynthesis uses carbon dioxide and releases oxygen while
cellular respiration uses oxygen and releases carbon dioxide.
2. What role does ATP play in the metabolism of organisms?
ATP is a high energy molecule, which supplies energy for all the chemical
processes that occur in cells.
3. Draw and label a food web containing ...

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