Humanities
HIST 140 Palomar College Columbus Cataclysm Caribbean Case Study

HIST 140

Palomar College

HIST

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Read the articles Aboriginal Spanish Main and What Became of the Taino and answer the following questions:

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Lecture: Aboriginal Spanish Main/ The Caribbean Case Study. Read the articles Aboriginal Spanish Main1 and What Became of the Taino2 and answer the following questions: 1. What is the significance of the island of Espanola and what two modern countries reside in that island today? [Figure 5] 2. How was the society of the island Arawaks “strongly stratified” according to the article? [pg.50] 3. Where the islanders known to drink alcoholic drinks and why is this significant in relation to other Native American cultures? [pg. 51] 4. How would the Spaniards calculate the amount of tribute in food that Natives had to pay to them? [52] 5. What was the staple food among Natives in the Caribbean? A major advantage of these crops is that they suffered the least damage from natural disasters such as hurricanes. [53] 6. What is casaba? 7. What type of tobacco (scientific name) was consumed by all major civilizations in the America from Chile to Quebec? [56] 8. Why do you think Tobacco consumption was so widespread throughout the American continent? 9. The Journal of Columbus in October 13 talks about how the Caribbean people traveled through the oceans. What were they using, how many people could travel? Explain. [58] Also view on the presentation slides the map titled: Mayan routes of Mayan commerce. 10. On November 30 the journal describes canoes “95 palms in which 150 people could fit” What were these canoes used for? What trees were used in their making? 11. Up to how many people lived in a household according to Las Casas? [62]. 1 http://www.slideshare.net/henrylesperancealvarez/aboriginal-spanish-main 2 http://www.slideshare.net/henrylesperancealvarez/what-became-of-the-taino 12. “After the pacification of the 1495, Columbus decreed that the Indians should pay a per capita tribute in gold to be collected through their caciques.”[66] By 1530’s how many natives were paying tribute? [60] [What became of the Taino] 13. Identify where the Orinoco Delta is and explain how this place is of significance to the natives of the Caribbean? 14. How is the Creole culture a hybrid culture? 15. Where did the Taiano’s believe the world began? 16. What is Cohoba and how was it used among natives? 17. Did any pure Taino survive and how is this question wrongly framed? 18. How is the nonprofit group Guaki Taina-Ke, promote native studies? How is that better than catering to the tourist industry? How do you think the new tourist industry in the Caribbean continues to perpetuate some of the inequalities created by colonization? 19. How has Taiano identity changed from 2000 to 2010 in Puerto Rico? 20. Why do some people view this renewed Indian identification in Puerto Rico with skepticism? 21. How does Francisco “Panchito” Ramirez Rojas know when it is noon? Lecture: The Columbus Cataclysm. Read Chapter 3 of B.W. Higman Book. A Concise History of the Caribbean. Cambridge Press, 2011. Consequently answer the following questions to the best of your ability. 1. According B.W. Higman3 “Social inequality was taken to a height far beyond anything achieved in the hierarchical complex societies that had gone before.” (53) Explain how. 2. Who were the first Europeans to arrive to the Americas according to Higman? And what is the significance of Newfoundland? 3 B.W. Higman. A Concise History of the Caribbean. Cambridge Press, 2011. https://www.slideshare.net/henrylesperancealvarez/colombus-cataclysm-66610064 3. Name 4 colonial powers seeking to extend their influence outside of Europe at the time? 4. Who was Vasco de Gama and what was significant about his voyage around Cape of Good Hope? 5. Columbus first impression of natives was that they were “naked”, explain how his observation is representative of a Eurocentric gaze? 6. The people in the Caribbean were referred by the Spanish as “Caribs.” Why? 7. Which plants were a failure and which a success in the Caribbean and why? 8. Explain the legal system of repartimiento and encomienda and how they relate to the first question? 9. Explain the Treaty of Tordesillas and its signficance. 10. In what year would gold mining peak in the Antilles and to what type of commerce would it yield? 11. What native people were “best equipped to resist changes to their social practices” brought about the Spanish? 12. By the 16th century the population of enslaved Africans in Hispaniola was perhaps 30,000.(77). Why was there a need for this forced migration into the Caribbean? 13. According to Higman race was not a well-defined concept at the time. What were some of the determining factors that upheld a colonial narrative that placed people as “outsiders?” 14. What was the significance of the island of Trinidad Tobago in 1592? And what is El Dorado? 15. How would the Protestant Reformation of the 1520’ and 30’s challenge Spanish authority in the Americas? 16. What was the objective of pirates such as John Hawkins, or Frances Drake, who finance them and supported their ventures? 17. Name 6 resources that drove European interests to colonize the Caribbean? Ex. Gold and what other ones? 18. Read the term Capitalism and explain what it means that Europe had developed vibrant capitalist economies by the sixteenth century? ...
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Running head: ABORIGINAL SPANISH MAIN/ THE CARIBBEAN CASE STUDY

Aboriginal Spanish Main/ The Caribbean Case Study & Columbus Cataclysm
Name
[Institutional Affiliation(s)]

1

ABORIGINAL SPANISH MAIN/ THE CARIBBEAN CASE STUDY

2

Aboriginal Spanish Main/ The Caribbean Case Study & Columbus Cataclysm
1.

What is the significance of the island of Espanola and what two modern countries
reside in that island today? [Figure 5]
The island of Espanola had the significance of a place where people found life
overseas (Sauer, 2008). The gold fields of Espanola had become a profitable
enterprise. Th island is present shared by two countries Haiti and Dominican Republic.
Haiti occupies a third of the western part while the Dominican republic occupies the
rest.

2.

How was the society of the island Arawak’s “strongly stratified” according to the
article? [pg.50]
At the very top of the Arawak society , there were caciques . the caciques were

hereditary rulers. Although their descent is not exactly known they have been deemed as
matrilineal. The greatest of the cacique were often referred to as kings. Next to them in rank
were the chiefs of district (Sauer, 2008). The third group in the stratification were the nobles
who were locally referred to as “nitainos”. The commoners followed and at the very bottom
were the “naborias” who were the unfree. This stratification resembled that of Spain , making
European class terms applicable.
3.

Where the islanders known to drink alcoholic drinks and why is this significant in
relation to other Native American cultures? [pg. 51]

The islanders drank no alcoholic drinks, the articles points out that there was no evidence of
alcoholic beverages no alcoholic festivals. There libation was water (Sauer, 2008). In sharp
contrast the south and central Americans were known to take fermented drinks on ceremonial
activities.

ABORIGINAL SPANISH MAIN/ THE CARIBBEAN CASE STUDY

4.

3

How would the Spaniards calculate the amount of tribute in food that Natives had to
pay to them? [52]

The Spaniards calculated the amount by taking the calculation of the mounds each native was
required to plant. The cultivated land was not well demarcated this made it impossible to
measure the area. Leaving the only method to quantify the amount to be paid being to
calculate the mounds.
5.

What was the staple food among Natives in the Caribbean? A major advantage of these
crops is that they suffered the least damage from natural disasters such as hurricanes.
[53]

The native’s staple food was starch based this was commonly got from planted root crops.
Most of the planting was as a result of vegetative reproduction which involved stem cutting
especially for the sweet potatoes and yuca. The bitter yuca was the greater staple food. Since
the staple foods were mostly root based they were least affected in the event of natural
disasters such as hurricanes.
6.

What is casaba?

7.
Casaba is a type of melon , which can be eaten in cooked soups or fresh. They have a golden
yellow in color with a wrinkled exterior. It has a creamy green flesh which is very juicy but
mildly sweet.
8.

What type of tobacco (scientific name) was consumed by all major civilizations in the
America from Chile to Quebec? [56]
The Nicotiana rustica

ABORIGINAL SPANISH MAIN/ THE CARIBBEAN CASE STUDY
9.

4

Why do you think Tobacco consumption was so widespread throughout the American
continent?

Tobacco originat...

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