Writing
The University of Chicago Acoustic Levitation How it Works Research paper

The University of Chicago

Question Description

I’m working on a Physics question and need guidance to help me study.

I needed to finish this research paper about acoustic levitation and how it works and all. I have already done the setup of the project and will upload what I have on the paper so far and I added photos of my apparatus I took so you can move it around in the paper and use it in the paper along with the script for code i used. This is for a display in my Univeristy so just needed to have the research paper done along side with it. I have added some webiste in the end of the document which you can grab ideas from to complete the paper.

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1. Abstract: In our research study, we were able to demonstrate how acoustic levitation works. Using ultrasonic sensors, we were able to generate an acoustic field in space between the two mounting points of the sensors. Using Arduino coding we were able to obtain a controlled environment within the space of region which was outputting 40kHz of frequency in the full wave. Conducting this apparatus, we were able to get few node points between that region of space where small objects that aren’t too heavy cant levitate. To account for the limited amount of weight an object can be levitated, future work would be to determine ___________. 2. Introduction Stationary wave, which is also another name for standing wave using sound waves is how this all works. The ingredients for acoustic levitation will be explained in depth throughout this paper The vibration that propagates as an acoustic wave is what the determination of sound. These waves carry momentum that has an impact on the particles because of acoustic radiation forces. The particles can be levitated when the forces are exerted on an object from all directions opposing it in a focal point. These focal points are concentrated in the focal point of the passing waves. The node is a point that goes through the standing wave, where the wave has minimum amplitude. Magnetic levitations have one downside which is the weight that can be used to levitate. The sound waves are combined, they add when they are on top of each other and subtract when they aren’t. The places where they are not moving at all are known as nodes. In 3 dimensions, we can create 3d wave profile with nodes. 3. Setup For this project, most of the setup for the apparatus are purchasable, we were able to build off from it and have a full setup to visually show how this application works. When thinking about mounting locations for the ultrasonic sensors, they must be a convex shape opposing each other so that it will have a controlled focal point. Putting this setup on a flat surface it won’t work because the shape is important where it focuses on the point of where the particle can levitate. 72 transducers are needed, with 36 on the top and 36 on the base of the setup. In the setup when the particle is put at the node then it will levitate, and if it’s at any other locations then it won’t levitate. The transducers that are used in the study is putting out 40k Hz, which is above twice the frequencies of the human hearing. Coming out of the package, some of these transducers were showing reversed polarity even though they were marked the positive side, so all of them had to be tested out individually. Once they are double checked, place them down on each of their housings inside the 3D printed piece. Using hot glue secure them in place. Have soldering wires going through the pins connecting all the ones in the same orbit. Secure a good connection among these by using a soldering gun and soldering the pin to the wires. The next step is adding the jumper wires connecting all the positives connected and the negatives as well. Once those connections are made, have one positive and negative wire leading out of the housing from each side the top and bottom. The project setup for the levitator is shown in Figure 1. Figure 1. Apparatus for Levitator Table 1. Equipment’s needed for the setup -- Procedure Standing Wave: Sound wave Helmholtz equation: apply boundary conditions. Doesn’t require a control loop to stabilize the hovering object. cad Drawing: Calculations: Code used (ardiuno Uno): (Copy Paste) byte TP = 0b10101010; // Every other port receives the inverted signal void setup() { DDRC = 0b11111111; // Set all analog ports to be outputs // Initialize Timer1 noInterrupts(); // Disable interrupts TCCR1A = 0; TCCR1B = 0; TCNT1 = 0; OCR1A = 200; // Set compare register (16MHz / 200 = 80kHz square wave -> 40kHz full wave) TCCR1B |= (1 << WGM12); // CTC mode TCCR1B |= (1 << CS10); // Set prescaler to 1 ==> no prescaling TIMSK1 |= (1 << OCIE1A); // Enable compare timer interrupt interrupts(); // Enable interrupts } ISR(TIMER1_COMPA_vect) { PORTC = TP; // Send the value of TP to the outputs TP = ~TP; // Invert TP for the next run } void loop() { // Nothing left to do here :) } Screenshot of code: Photos of the Setup… Just the bare setup before adding the casing… (Fully assembled with the cad drawing case mounted. References: Paper Reference: https://aip.scitation.org/doi/full/10.1063/1.4989995 Coding this setup: https://makezine.com/projects/micro-ultrasonic-levitator/ Purchase of the apparatus: https://www.makerfabs.com/index.php?route=product/product&product_id=508 https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/8094247 https://www.instructables.com/id/Acoustic-Levitator/ Technical Report Writing Guide for Students in Mechanical Engineering The University of Texas at Tyler Fall 2019. Version 1.0 This student Technical Report writing guide contains the adopted examples, approved for the reuse by the original author, Dr. William Durfee, from the Department of Mechanical Engineering (ME) at the University of Minnesota (http://www.me.umn.edu/education/undergraduate/writing/MESWGLab.1.5.pdf). The adopted examples were further modified by Dr. Shih-Feng Chou, Dr. Nelson Fumo, and Dr. Hussain Rizvi from the ME Department at the University of Texas at Tyler (UT Tyler). The ME Department at UT Tyler approves the following guidelines on 8/22/2019 for courses required technical writing. Table of Contents 1. Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................. 1 2. Writing a Report ......................................................................................................................................................... 1 2.1. Report Elements ................................................................................................................................................. 2 2.1.1. Title Page .............................................................................................................................................................. 2 2.1.2. Abstract................................................................................................................................................................. 2 2.1.3. Introduction ......................................................................................................................................................... 3 2.1.4. Setup and Procedures/Methodology ............................................................................................................... 4 2.1.5. Results ................................................................................................................................................................... 6 2.1.6. Discussion ............................................................................................................................................................ 8 2.1.7. Conclusions ........................................................................................................................................................10 2.1.8. References ..........................................................................................................................................................10 2.1.9. Appendix ............................................................................................................................................................10 3. Writing Tips ............................................................................................................................................................... 10 4. Common Mistakes .................................................................................................................................................... 11 5. Examples of Grading Rubrics ................................................................................................................................ 12 6. Example Reports ...................................................................................................................................................... 12 i 1. Introduction Technical writing is both science and art. No matter how good an experiment or how brilliant a discovery is, it is worthless unless the information is communicated to other people. This communication must be as clear and unambiguous as possible. Usually, the general objective of a report, or a technical paper, in Engineering and Science disciplines is to communicate the ideas and information gained in an experimental work. The care and skill with which the discussion and conclusion are drawn will determine the overall success of the report. An old rule in army communication always applies in report writing, which is: Tell them what you are going to tell them; tell them; and then tell them what you have told them. There are many methods and techniques available and accepted for technical writing. The method provided in this document is a very common one and is recommended as a guideline for technical report writing involving specific parts in a technical report. There can be other format and methods for technical writing based on the requirements of the organization receiving or sponsoring the written material. In that case, the writer should follow the writing guidelines set by the entity to which the communication material is intended. In addition, a course instructor might choose to keep or eliminate portions of this document, or select a completely different method, as a requirement in written material submitted by students in that particular course. 2. Writing a Report The severity of any task is lessened when you take a moment to understand the purpose of your work. Before you begin writing, establish the issues you are going to address, who you are going to address them to, and why you need to do it at all. • A lab report is: a detailed account of an experiment, its methods, results, and conclusions, which answers an engineering or scientific question. • Define your engineering or scientific question by: write down one or two primary “big picture” questions your report addresses, which become the focal point as you write your report. For example, an engineering or scientific question can be “What size of electric heating element is installed in a given water heater?” • Your audience is/are expecting the lab report to have the following purpose: Explanations Audience a. Engineers (peers): Engineers interested in similar work will base their experiment on yours. b. Instructors: Supervisors want to know about the work you have done. c. TA(s): If TA(s) is/are involved in grading, he/she can also be your audience. Purpose a. To inform: People on want you have done and what you know or have learned. b. To persuade: The audience with your answer to the engineering or scientific question by using raw data. If raw data do c. not support the answer, you must convince your audience scientifically on why the data are unexpected (avoid using “human error”). • According to the mission statement of the Mechanical Engineering Department at UT Tyler (https://www.uttyler.edu/me/chairmessage.php), the reason for our students to write the technical report well is to understand the importance on how to sell the work/results. Students sometimes have difficulty understanding what needs to be explained to the audience and what does not. Most of the time, students assume the audience knows what they know. • In addition, your instructors expect you to write technical reports not as students but with an Engineering mindset as of those who are writing it in a company. The training is to help you write better after graduation without having the need to create a bridge between college and industry writing. 1 2.1. Report Elements The following subsections show example of the elements that a lab report should consider † . In each example, BLUE indicates the required components, YELLOW are suggestions to successfully write those parts, RED are common mistakes. 2.1.1. Title Page Include course name, title of experiment, your name(s), date, where the work was performed, etc. Please consult with your Instructor on the format/template of the title page. 2.1.2. Abstract‡ • • • • • • The abstract’s purpose is to summarize the information contained in the report for someone who doesn’t have the time or resources to read the full report. In many ways, the abstract is a document all on its own; it should contain parts from each major section of your report and its major findings. 25% of the abstract should focus on the Introduction part by identifying the object of the lab and its importance; 25% on the Methods to describe what you did in the lab; 35% on the Results, which is the most important part of the abstract, containing some quantitative data; and 15% of the abstract on the implication of the results or linking its significance to other applications. Check with your instructor on format requirement of the word limit in abstract. Example: Things that can be improved from the example: (1) A more generalized sentence can be placed at the beginning to guide the reader, such as “The first law of thermodynamics deals with energy conservation for a closed volume system, which can be applied to the design and engineering of various mechanical systems.” (2) For some lab activities, information of uncertainty analysis will not be available. Students are encouraged to make effort to discuss the experimental results and the topics/theories learned in the class. (3) Statement for future work might not be needed as often time students justified human error on equipment. Rather, it is better to round up with statements on how current findings (outcomes of the experiment) answer the engineering or scientific question and/or show potential implications on other similar mechanical systems (link the significance of the results to other applications). (4) It is better to reword the ideas/statements than copy-paste them from different parts of the report. The contents in the example element are adopted from the University of Minnesota Mechanical Engineering Student Writing Guide (http://www.me.umn.edu/education/undergraduate/writing/MESWG-Lab.1.5.pdf). Comments on the example elements are generated by the ME writing committee at the University of Texas at Tyler. ‡ Abstract: Some engineering reports are required to have an abstract or an executive summary. The rule is: there can be either an executive summary or an abstract in the report but not both. The abstract describes the nature of the project/experiment, major tasks, and outcomes. It should include some background information and the circumstances leading to the project/experiment. Check with your instructor on the requirement of the abstract and its format, if applicable. † 2 2.1.3. Introduction In this section: • Describe the purposes of the lab exercise, including objectives/background/motivations. For example, describe what you are trying to find and why it is important. • Background and motivation are used to provide the reader(s) with a reason to read the report further. • Use present tense. • Example: • Things that can be improved from the example: (1) For background/theory, start from general statements then move to specific statements related to the experiment. Use only background/theory information that are supportive and/or can be justified to the experiment. Students are encouraged to do literature search to support background/theory. (2) The hypothesis that answers the engineering or scientific question may not be a specific solution (a number), but could be a specific question/statement. For example, we hypothesize that adding sodium chloride in deionized water will increase the conductivity of the solution. 3 2.1.4. Setup and Procedures/Methodology In this section: • Identify equipment and material used by name, manufacturer, and model number. A list of equipment and material in a table is acceptable, but there must be some narrative to support it. • Describe how equipment was set up and used. • Include Diagrams, Figures and Digital Photos as necessary. • Describe conditions under which the work was performed. • Describe how the results were recorded and analyzed. • Use past tense and passive voice. • Example: • Things that can be improved from the example: (1) Figure and table captions can be more detailed. For example, “Figure 1. Schematic representation of the experimental apparatus used in demonstration of the first law of thermodynamics.” and “Table 1. Equipment used in the experiment, including their corresponding manufacturer, model, and uncertainty.” (2) Hand-sketch of apparatus is not recommended. If schematic representations are required, such as a flow chart, it is expected that students work on computer-aided art designs. 4 (3) When using digital pictures for equipment, it is recommended that students work on format editing (array them) rather than just inserting a bunch of pictures and making the report extremely long. (4) Pictures should be placed if they help someone to replicate the experiment. Therefore, pictures of ancillary apparatuses such as a multimeter are not needed. (5) Avoid mentioning tools and materials that are not relevant to what is the experiment; for example, you do not have to say that you used wires (at least that is a special kind that without it the lab cannot be completed), calipers, etc. 5 2.1.5. Results In this section: • Present experimental data and results of data reduction. Include a Sample Calculation for data reduction. • Tabulate and/or graph raw and reduced/processed data (if extensive, summarize). • Just talk about your data here, Do NOT discuss data here. • Use past tense. • Example: 6 • Things that can be improved from the example: (1) This result section has several drawbacks, especially in the Table/Figure captions. For example, Table 2 caption is missing and Figure 2 caption, missing a dot at the end, can be more detailed. In addition, the results are not clearly mentioned (by value) in the text, whereas there appears to be a discussion portion at the end of the section (line 24 – 27). (2) Students are recommended to work carefully on plots done in Excel before importing them to the Word document. Use clear markers and avoid lines. Remove the frame and title generated automatically by Excel. Do not forget labels and units for the variables used in X and Y axes. 7 2.1.6. Discussion In this section: • Discussion refers to the discussion of the Results. • Review and analyze the data presented in Results section (may include additional graphical presentation). • Describe meaning, significance, and importance of the results. • Present theory, principles, relationships, equations, and generalizations supported by the results (as outlined in the Introduction). • Compare with expected results or results of others in literature (as outlined in the Introduction). • Point out exceptions or lack of correlation (explain). • Describe difficulties (if any) encountered in the experiment. • Use present tense in the discussion, past tense when describing what was done. • Example: 8 • Things that can be improved from the example: (1) In Materials Science & Manufacturing, instructor is looking for discussion/explanation of the results with understanding of the course materials, which is the science behind what you see experimentally. For example: The trend in Figure X can be explained by XYZ. Also, students are encouraged to compare the results to the literature values (e.g. our findings are consistent with X’ ...
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