Mathematics
PSY 1110 Ohio University Main Campus Confidence Level Statistics Exam

PSY 1110

Ohio University - Main Campus

PSY

Question Description

I need an explanation for this Statistics question to help me study.

Attached are the final 60 questions for this Statistics Course. Modules 8,9, and 10. 8 is a different Assignment and 9 and 10 is combined. See attachments for assignments. If you need notes - let me know.

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Module 8: Submitted Homework Assignment **Module 8 Submitted Homework Assignment is worth 20 points (5% of your grade) Write answers for the following and submit them via email according to the schedule in the course syllabus. Be sure your answers are contained in the body of your message. Do NOT send them as attachments. Send your answers to Module 8 to the instructor: mccartc1@ohio.edu The questions are structured so that a single letter, word, or number will suffice. Computational questions are arranged so that partial credit can be given for each step answered correctly. Always use the following model to submit your answers to the questions. EXAMPLE: Your name: Module Number: Answers Q1 C Q2 B Q3 A, etc. If the question requires computation, do the calculations and then give the correct values as follows: (Always hold all decimal values through your computations, and round final answers to at least two decimal places)! Q4 7 Q5 4 Q6 22, etc. If the question is a fill in the blank, just put in the appropriate word(s) as follows: Q7 statistics Q8 dependent variable, etc. Module 8 Questions—Submit answers via email to mccartc1@ohio.edu according to above instructions: (There are 20 questions to be answered for Module 8) The following 4 questions (Q1 to Q4) are based on the following information: You and your friends have decided to go to The Kentucky Derby. There are 12 horses in the race. How many ways can the horses come in first, second, or third? Steps for Calculation: Q1: Is this an example of a combination or a permutation? Q2: What is N? Q3: What is r? Q4: What is the calculated value for this example? The following 4 questions (Q5 to Q8) are based on the following information: You have 16 friends that you want to invite to dinner. However, you dining room table only seats 6 people. Since, you will take up one seat, you can only have five friends at one time. How many different groups of guests can you have? Steps for Calculation: Q5: Is this an example of a combination or a permutation? Q6: What is N? Q7: What is r? Q8: What is the calculated value for this example? The following 2 questions (Q9 to Q10) are either “True” or “False” Q9: With a combination ‘order matters’. Q10: 5! is equal to 120. Q11: Which one of the following is NOT one of the major uses of the CPI? A. The CPI is used to evaluate and determine economic policy. B. The CPI is used to compare prices in different years. C. The CPI is used to determine salary and price adjustments. D. All of the above three answers are major uses of the CPI. Q12: Using the 1989 base as a base, the price index for computers is now 125. What does this index number mean? A. price of computers has decreased 25% since 1989 B. price of computers has increased 25% since 1989 C. price of computers has increased 125% since 1989 D. none of the above three answers are correct Q13: A _____________ economic indicator is one whose changes lag behind or follow changes in the economy. A. Lagging B. Coincidence C. Leading Q14: Some criticisms of the CPI include all of the following except: A. the market basket used in the CPI may not reflect current spending priorities B. the CPI does not adjust for changes in quality C. the CPI takes advantage of sale prices D. the CPI does not measure prices for rural Americans The following 2 questions (Q15 to Q16) are based on the following information: The CPI’s at the start of each decade from 1940 to 1990 were: Year 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 CPI 14.0 24.1 29.6 38.8 82.4 130.7 Q15: What was the rate of inflation for the 1950’s, as measured by the percentage change in the CPI? Q16: What was the rate of inflation for the 1970’s, as measured by the percentage change in the CPI? Q17: Name the major category added for the market basket of goods and services in 1998? Q18: Tuition at University Z was $1200 per quarter in 1985 (CPI = 107.6). How much should tuition be in 2001 adjusted for inflation (CPI = 175.1)? The following 2 questions (Q19 to Q20) are either “True” or “False” Q19: ‘Child care’ is one of the eight major categories of goods and services in the market basket. Q20: The current ‘base period’ that we are on is 1982-1984. Modules 9 and 10 (Combined): Submitted Homework Assignment **Modules 9 and 10 (Combined) Submitted Homework Assignment is worth 40 points (10% of your grade) Write answers for the following and submit them via email according to the schedule in the course syllabus. Be sure your answers are contained in the body of your message. Do NOT send them as attachments. Send your answers to Modules 9 and 10 (Combined) to the instructor: mccartc1@ohio.edu The questions are structured so that a single letter, word, or number will suffice. Computational questions are arranged so that partial credit can be given for each step answered correctly. Always use the following model to submit your answers to the questions. EXAMPLE: Your name: Module Number: Answers Q1 C Q2 B Q3 A, etc. If the question requires computation, do the calculations and then give the correct values as follows: (Always hold all decimal values through your computations, and round final answers to at least two decimal places)! Q4 7 Q5 4 Q6 22, etc. If the question is a fill in the blank, just put in the appropriate word(s) as follows: Q7 statistics Q8 dependent variable, etc. Modules 9 and 10 Questions—Submit answers via email to mccartc1@ohio.edu according to above instructions: (There are 40 questions to be answered for Modules 9 and 10) The following 13 questions (Q1 to Q13) are based on the following example: Patients recovering from an appendix operation normally spend an average of 6.3 days in the hospital. The distribution of recovery times is normal with a σ = 2.2 days. The hospital is trying a new recovery program designed to lessen the time patients spend in the hospital. The first 25 appendix patients in this new program were released from the hospital in an average of 5.5 days. On the basis of these data, can the hospital conclude that the new program has a significant reduction of recovery time. Test at the .01 level of significance. Q1: The appropriate statistical procedure for this example would be a A. z-test B. t-test Q2: Is this a one-tailed or a two-tailed test? A. one-tailed B. two-tailed Q3: The most appropriate null hypothesis (in words) would be A. There is no statistical difference in the amount of time appendix patients spend in the hospital when comparing the new recovery program to the population of patients on the traditional recovery program. B. There is a statistical difference in the amount of time appendix patients spend in the hospital when comparing the new recovery program to the population of patients on the traditional recovery program. C. The new appendix recovery program does not significantly reduce the number of days spent in the hospital when compared to the population of patients on the traditional recovery program. D. The new appendix recovery program does significantly reduce the number of days spent in the hospital when compared to the population of patients on the traditional recovery program. Q4: The most appropriate null hypothesis (in symbols) would be A. μnew program = 6.3 B. μnew program = 5.5 C. μnew program  6.3 D. μnew program  6.3 Q5: Set up the criteria for making a decision. That is, find the critical value using an alpha = .01. (Make sure you are sign specific: + ; - ; or  ) (Use your tables) Summarize the data into the appropriate test statistic. Steps: Q6: What is the numeric value of your standard error? Q7: What is the z-value or t-value you obtained (your test statistic)? Q8: Based on your results (and comparing your Q7 and Q5 answers) would you A. reject the null hypothesis B. fail to reject the null hypothesis Q9: The best conclusion for this example would be A. There is no statistical difference in the amount of time appendix patients spend in the hospital when comparing the new recovery program to the population of patients on the traditional recovery program. B. There is a statistical difference in the amount of time appendix patients spend in the hospital when comparing the new recovery program to the population of patients on the traditional recovery program. C. The new appendix recovery program does not significantly reduce the number of days spent in the hospital when compared to the population of patients on the traditional recovery program. D. The new appendix recovery program does significantly reduce the number of days spent in the hospital when compared to the population of patients on the traditional recovery program. Q10: Based on your evaluation of the null in Q8 and your conclusion is Q9, as a researcher you would be more concerned with a A. Type I statistical error B. Type II statistical error Calculate the 99% confidence interval. Steps: Q11: The mean you will use for this calculation is A. 5.5 B. 6.3 Q12: What is the new critical value you will use for this calculation? Q13: As you know, two values will be required to complete the following equation: __________    __________ The following 4 questions (Q14 to Q17) are based on the following situation: If α = .10, and β = .30, complete the following questions by inserting the appropriate probability of each. Q14: The statistical decision is to reject the null, and H0 is really true (ie: a Type I error) Q15: The statistical decision is to fail to reject null, and H0 is really true (ie: a correct decision) Q16: The statistical decision is to reject the null, and H0 is really false (ie: Power) Q17: The statistical decision is to fail to reject the null, and H0 is really false (ie a Type II error) The following 14 questions (Q18 to Q31) are based on the following example: A researcher wants to determine whether high school students who attend an SAT preparation course score significantly different on the SAT than students who do not attend the preparation course. For those who do not attend the course, the population mean is 1050 (μ = 1050). The 16 students who attend the preparation course average 1150 on the SAT, with a sample standard deviation of 300. On the basis of these data, can the researcher conclude that the preparation course has a significant difference on SAT scores? Set alpha equal to .05. Q18: The appropriate statistical procedure for this example would be a A. z-test B. t-test Q19: Is this a one-tailed or a two-tailed test? A. one-tailed B. two-tailed Q20: The most appropriate null hypothesis (in words) would be A. There is no statistical difference in SAT scores when comparing students who took the SAT prep course with the general population of students who did not take the SAT prep course. B. There is a statistical difference in SAT scores when comparing students who took the SAT prep course with the general population of students who did not take the SAT prep course. C. The students who took the SAT prep course did not score significantly higher on the SAT when compared to the general population of students who did not take the SAT prep course. D. The students who took the SAT prep course did score significantly higher on the SAT when compared to the general population of students who did not take the SAT prep course. Q21: The most appropriate null hypothesis (in symbols) would be A. μSATprep = 1050 B. μSATprep = 1150 C. μSATprep  1050 D. μSATprep  1050 Q22: Set up the criteria for making a decision. That is, find the critical value using an alpha = .05. (Make sure you are sign specific: + ; - ; or  ) (Use your tables) Summarize the data into the appropriate test statistic. Steps: Q23: What is the numeric value of your standard error? Q24: What is the z-value or t-value you obtained (your test statistic)? Q25: Based on your results (and comparing your Q24 and Q22 answers) would you A. reject the null hypothesis B. fail to reject the null hypothesis Q26: The best conclusion for this example would be A. There is no statistical difference in SAT scores when comparing students who took the SAT prep course with the general population of students who did not take the SAT prep course. B. There is a statistical difference in SAT scores when comparing students who took the SAT prep course with the general population of students who did not take the SAT prep course. C. The students who took the SAT prep course did not score significantly higher on the SAT when compared to the general population of students who did not take the SAT prep course. D. The students who took the SAT prep course did score significantly higher on the SAT when compared to the general population of students who did not take the SAT prep course. Q27: Based on your evaluation of the null in Q25 and your conclusion is Q26, as a researcher you would be more concerned with a A. Type I statistical error B. Type II statistical error Calculate the 99% confidence interval. Steps: Q28: The mean you will use for this calculation is A. 1050 B. 1150 Q29: What is the new critical value you will use for this calculation? Q30: As you know, two values will be required to complete the following equation: __________    __________ Q31: Which of the following is a more accurate interpretation of the confidence interval you just computed? A. We are 99% confident that the scores fall in the interval _____ to _____. B. We are 99% confident that the average score on the SAT by the students who took the prep course falls in the interval _____ to _____. C. We are 99% confident that the example above has correct values. D. We are 99% confident that the difference in SAT scores between the students who took the prep course and the students who did not falls in the interval _____ to _____. The following 2 questions (Q32 to Q33) are based on the following situation: The national average for the verbal section of the Graduate Record Exam (GRE) is 500 with a standard deviation of 100. A researcher uses a sampling distribution made up of samples of 100. Q32: According to the Central Limit Theorem, what is the mean of the sampling distribution of means? A. 10 B. 50 C. 100 D. 500 Q33: According to the Central Limit Theorem, what is the standard error of the mean? a. 10 b. 50 c. 100 d. 500 Q34: As you increase the number of subjects in your sample, the calculated value of a t-test will A. increase B. decrease C. remain the same Q35: As you decrease the true distance between the null and alternative hypotheses (μ1 – μ0), the likelihood of rejecting the null hypothesis A. increases B. decreases C. remains the same Q36: Keeping everything else the same, if you were to decrease your alpha level from .05 to .01, the likelihood of rejecting the null hypothesis A. increases B. decreases C. remains the same The following 4 questions (Q37 to Q40) are either “True” or “False” Q37: The single-most critical component of deciding whether you are to conduct a t-test versus a z-test for hypothesis testing is whether there is a ‘’. Q38: Predicting the characteristics of an entire group, after having measured a small group, is the major goal of inferential statistics. Q39: Degrees of freedom for a single sample z-test is/are ‘n-1’. Q40: Degrees of freedom for a single sample t-test is/are ‘n-1’. ...
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Final Answer

Attached.

9. Yes 5! =5*4*3*2*1=120
10. No, in combination the order does not matter
11. D is correct
12. B. price of computers has increased 25% since 1989
13. All are correct
14. C.the CPI takes advantage of sale prices

Q15)
Inflation rate in 1950s = % Change in CPI between 1940 & 1950 = (24.1 / 14) - 1 =
1.7214 - 1 = 0.7214 = 72.14%
(Q16)
Inflation rate in 1960s = % Chang...

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