Business Finance
MKT 4468 Troy University International Marketing Plan Discussion

mkt 4468

Troy University


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Chapter 8. International Market Planning (20 points)

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  1. (10 points) Read carefully Textbook Chapter 8, Power Points, and Lecture Supplement, and answer the following questions:
    • From Reading Chapter 8; Discuss briefly the different Business motives (See textbook p. 310 - 313) for Companies’ expansions abroad (Internalization).
    • Discuss Briefly your understanding of Ansoff’s Business Expansion (Market Growth) Model (textbook p. 308 – 310).

  1. (10 points) Explain (using a Theory in Chapter 8) how Google, Facebook, Twitter and – expanded their services globally (See textbook p. 328 – 329). What factors helped them to expand their services globally so quickly?


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Global Marketing Contemporary Theory, Practice, and Cases By Ilan Alon, Eugene Jaffe, Christiane Prange, and Donata Vianelli © Taylor & Francis 2016 Chapter 8 International Market Planning © Taylor & Francis 2016 Learning Objectives After reading this chapter you should be able to: • Understand what motivates a firm to expand abroad rather than in its domestic market. • Identify the drivers of international market expansion. • Understand measures of competitiveness. • Understand the fundamentals of internationalization theories. • Apply theories of internationalization to case studies of business firms. • Know more about “born global firms” and why they are different from traditional players. • Realize that there are many indicators that can be used to evaluate market attractiveness. © Taylor & Francis 2016 Internationalization INTERNATIONALIZATION: occurs when a firm makes a strategic decision to enter foreign markets and adapts its operations to international environments by committing both tangible and intangible assets, experiential knowledge, learning, and human resources to this effort. MOTIVATION FOR INTERNAL (domestic) vs. EXTERNAL (foreign) EXPANSION Example: Estée Lauder is focusing on cities with the biggest growth potential. As of 2014, after decades of doing business in South Africa and its neighboring countries, the company operates in a total of 14 markets on the continent. © Taylor & Francis 2016 The Ansoff Expansion Model Products Present New Market Penetration Product Development New Market Development Product / Market Diversification Markets Present Risk Source: Adapted from: Igor Ansoff, “The Firm of the Future,” Harvard Business Review, September–October 1965. © Taylor & Francis 2016 Ansoff Strategies 1. Present markets/present products: gain higher market share in existing markets using existing products. More resources are dedicated to marketing offering price discounts and better relationship with customers. 2. Present markets/new products: new products to current markets. It requires developing or acquiring new products or line expansion. These products need to be accepted by consumers and should not be too far away from the branding of the original product because this is what has created the product image in the past. 3. New markets/present products: New markets may be solely domestic or both domestic and global. 4. New markets/new products: With the increasing interest in emerging markets, companies have begun to target the specific needs of the emerging consumer. This strategy may not only result in new products for developed markets but may also benefit developed countries these innovations can be transferred back to. Companies now begin with their experience and knowledge of their customers in distant markets and use information to conceive, design and make a new, locally appropriate product from the ground up. © Taylor & Francis 2016 Motivation to Internationalize: Proactive and Reactive (1) PROACTIVE MOTIVES: stem from management’s beliefs that internationalization improves the current position of the firm. For instance, four main intentions drive Chinese companies to go abroad: 1) securing natural resources, 2) gaining access to new markets 3) buying strategic assets 4) improving domestic and overseas efficiency. Trade agreements are also motives for internationalization. An agreement that serves to reduce trade barriers will certainly encourage domestic firms to take advantage of lower tariffs in order to export. Other differences in the Outward Direct Investment (ODI) Motives of Chinese SOEs and Non-SOEs State Owned Enterprises (SOEs) Natural resource seeking Increasing international competitiveness Maintaining domestic leading position Non-State Owned Enterprises (SOEs) Strategic asset seeking Access to new markets Seeking technologies Diversification Seeking efficiency © Taylor & Francis 2016 Motivation to Internationalize: Proactive and Reactive (2) REACTIVE MOTIVES: Reactive motivated firms view internationalization as a necessary response to unfavorable conditions in their current markets. Such conditions may be increased competitive pressures, excess capacity given domestic market conditions, a declining domestic market, or saturation of the home market. There is some evidence to show that firms that engage in proactive planning are more successful than those that do not (reactive). A comparison between different international sportswear companies and their internationalization strategies: Foundation Date Employees (2013) Revenues (2013) US$ First Internationalization Internationalization Motive LiNing 1990 3,592 948.9 million 2001 : Spain Creation of trends and enhancement of the brand Adidas 1949 50,728 15.88 billion 1950 : First exports to Switzerland, Scandinavia, and Canada Ensure future growth Nike 1971 48,000 25.3 billion 1972: Canada; 1974: Australia Cost effective production © Taylor & Francis 2016 Theories of internationalization and Market Entry The criteria for determining whether to expand in an internal market, rather than a foreign market, are based on the transaction costs of information, opportunism, and asset specificity. Cost of information acquisition in foreign markets is far more expensive than acquiring information in internal markets. If transaction costs of operating abroad are higher, they cause market failure and serve as a barrier to internationalizing the firm. Internalization theorists suggest that foreign direct investment occurs when the benefits of internalization outweigh its costs. © Taylor & Francis 2016 Different Approaches for Internationalization Theoretical Perspective OLI Model Main Author(s) / Year Focus Dunning (1981, 1988, 2006) • Inside-out oriented asset exploitation. Modified OLI-paradigm with inward investment and more collaborative linkages Incremental Process Theory (Uppsala Model) Johanson and Vahlne (1977), (2009) (2013) • Inside-out orientation built on substantial home advantage as an antecedent to internationalization, sequential market entry Later focus on relationships, which connects to network approach Network Approach Johanson & Mattson (1988) • Transaction Cost Analysis Linkage, Leverage, Learning Model Hirsch (1976) • Mathews (2006) • International New Venture Theory Oviatt & McDougall (1994); Jones & Coviello (2005) • • Internationalization occurs within the network by making use of existing information and resource exchanges Internationalization is linked to the costs that occur in dealing with specific entry mode options Outside-in orientation with latecomer firms using overseas investments and global linkages to leverage their existing cost advantages and learn about new sources of competitive advantage Internationalization starts right after foundation by ignoring psychic and cultural distance © Taylor & Francis 2016 OLI Model Entry mode decisions are based on three conditions or advantages: 1. Ownership (who is going to produce abroad), 2. Location (where to produce) 3. Internalization (why to produce rather than license someone else) Foreign direct investment (FDI) will be the preferred mode when three conditions are fulfilled: • The firm must have net ownership advantages over competing firms. • It must be more profitable for the firm possessing these unique assets to use them itself rather than transfer the rights to others • It must be advantageous for the firm to exploit its unique assets through production outside its home country rather than by exporting. Critique: • In the framework, location advantages are treated independently from ownership advantages. However, there is a constant interplay between O, L, and I that the model doesn’t take into account • Further, the model is mainly valid for Western firms but may not be able to explain the reality of emerging market firms (EMFs), which tend to internationalize even if they do not necessarily have unique ownership advantages based on superior technology, competitive products, or management know-how. © Taylor & Francis 2016 Uppsala Model Explain the sequential steps in the direction of increased foreign dedication. Over time, firms gradually progress through a series of stages based on experiential learning and commitment of resources. 1. In the first stage, there are only sporadic exports, mostly from unsolicited orders. 2. Regular exporting is accomplished in the second stage, via contracts with established, independent distributors, and sales representatives abroad. 3. In the third stage, a foreign sales subsidiary is organized. 4. In the fourth stage, a manufacturing subsidiary is established. Firms first enter into markets that are psychically close to their home base and later enter more distant markets as their experiential knowledge increases. Critique: acquisition of knowledge is faster than indicated by the stage model © Taylor & Francis 2016 Uppsala Model Sources: Adapted from: Forsgren, M., & Johanson, J. (1975). Internationell företagsekonomi (International business economics). Stockholm: Norstedts; Dervilée, F., Rieche, M., & Zieske, A. (2004). Internationalization and foreign market entry choice: An alternative approach to the Kristianstad 30 Model [MBA thesis]. Högskolan: Kristianstad. © Taylor & Francis 2016 Uppsala Model: Critiques • Why can’t firms leapfrog stages? • Acquisition of knowledge is faster than indicated by the stage model. • Knowledge may be acquired by hiring experienced international managers, by attending seminars sponsored by export institutes and from consulting organizations. • The world has become flat and integrated, facilitated by rapid dissemination of information. • The model is uni-directional; it does not consider the possibilities of changing strategies at a given stage, e.g. divestment or choosing a cooperative mode such as a strategic alliance. • Especially born-global firms show a totally different internationalization behavior which opposes the insights of the Uppsala model • If companies sell products with a short life-cycle, incremental market entry may not be the optimum solution because the time available for return on investment is short and entering foreign markets in an accelerated way may be preferable. • Later developments of the theory have taken some of these aspects into account, for instance, by emphasizing the importance of network relations, the role of uncertainty, and a more dynamic perspective by emphasizing opportunity development capabilities, internationalization capabilities, and relational capabilities that all support the manner and extend of a firm’s venturing abroad. © Taylor & Francis 2016 Network Approach All different forms of networks have in common that they require complex strategies to ensure their viability and success. • An industrial network normally includes different players involved in production, distribution, and usage of services and products. • Financial networks are important for SMEs since these companies normally need to finance their expansion with external capital. Network participants are governed by exchange relationships rather than through the market. Because many small companies do not have infinite resources, network collaborations are seen as an important internationalization strategy. Network-based relationships Shared Knowledge Interdependent Consent Trust Learning Partners Scandinavia Market-based relationships Knowledge Serves Competitive Advantage Independent Contracts Price Power Customers UK, US, Australia © Taylor & Francis 2016 A Multinational Firm’s Network: An Example Internal Network of the MNC S3 S2 S4 S4 S1-5 = subsidiaries Subsidiary 1 External Network of the MNC = suppliers = non-business actors © Taylor & Francis 2016 Transaction Cost Approach A transaction cost is a cost of making an economic exchange. There are three sorts of costs: a. Search and information costs b. Bargaining costs c. Monitoring (governance) costs We can discern at least three scenarios of transaction costs by mode of entry: 1. Production at home for export involves local manufacturing costs, search and bargaining costs for distributors, and governance costs. 2. Licensing includes search and bargaining costs for a licensee, governance costs, and the risk of dissemination. 3. Production abroad involves manufacturing costs in the foreign country, possible bargaining costs if the subsidiary is not wholly owned, and some governance costs. © Taylor & Francis 2016 Transaction Cost Approach According to transaction cost theory, a firm will tend to export or license when transaction costs are low or shift production abroad when transaction costs are high. Producing at home for export determines: 1. Domestic production costs (Pd) 2. Export marketing costs (Md) 3. Domestic governance costs (Cd) Producing abroad incurs costs of: 1. Foreign production (Pf) 2. Local marketing (Mf) 3. Foreign governance (Cf) Pd + Md + Cd < ≥ Pf + Mf + Cf Pd < ≥ Pf + Mf—Md + Cf – Cd The difference between export marketing and domestic marketing costs (M) is defined as M = Mf – Md The difference between foreign and domestic governance costs (C) is defined as C = Cf – Cd The decision to export or produce abroad (FDI) is determined as: If Pd < Pf + M + C, then export If Pd ≥ Pf + M + C, then FDI © Taylor & Francis 2016 Transaction Cost Approach: Critiques • Transaction cost theory assumes that exporting and production are substitutes. In reality there are many examples where a firm both manufacturers abroad and exports from its home market, as well. • A firm may invest abroad in order to gain raw materials or know-how that are not available at home. This behavior is not explained by transaction costs. • It is difficult to measure transaction costs, especially in advance of choosing an entry mode. • Small and medium enterprises (SMEs) tend to reflexively rely on non-equity modes of entry (exporting, licensing, etc.) because they would rather preserve capital and avoid high risks when moving into international markets. SMEs can evaluate three specific transaction cost criteria: • Level of investment required for each asset. • Environmental factors of the target country • Status of internal control systems and processes. © Taylor & Francis 2016 Linkage Learning Leverage Model (LLL-Model) The LLL-model emphasizes that linking to foreign partners and building corporate capabilities by exploring external assets may greatly improve a firm’s market position at home. • Linkage: Firms use joint ventures and partnerships to internationalize new knowledge, which is a lot quicker than building their own subsidiaries in the foreign country. • Learning: may involve both cost-based efficiency improvement and operations as well as learning about technologies, brands, marketing and management issues, which is most often the predominant objective. • Leverage: means that knowledge acquired abroad can transferred back home and used to improve competitiveness in the local market. Critique: linkages that imply loose forms of collaboration may no longer be the preferred option to obtain knowledge and increase technological quality. Chinese car makers trying to catch up © Taylor & Francis 2016 International New Venture Theory This new stream of research started from the definition of international new ventures as: • business organizations that, from inception, derive their competitive advantage from the use of resources and the sale of output in multiple countries; • “born globals,” defined as firms that have reached at least 25 percent of foreign sales within three years after establishment. • As they are young and small in size, they have an entrepreneurial orientation, and have not established the hierarchical structures that we often find in larger organizations; they exhibit more flexibility and can thus more easily adapt to changes. • These firms possess a strong international marketing orientation and competency that allows them to focus intensely on the needs of customers in each new market and deliver high-quality, unique products. Critique: internationalizing at an earlier stage involves more risk-taking than the well-established internationalization processes of older firms. © Taylor & Francis 2016 Patterns of Internationalization Incremental Internationalization Major Driving Forces: Control, uncertainty avoidance, risk reduction. Internationalization is a process built upon knowledge accumulation and experience New Venture Internationalization Major Driving Force: Discovery and innovation: accelerated internationalization in new and unknown territories is based on the development of hitherto non-existing capabilities. Theoretical Model: Uppsala (Johanson & Vahlne, 1977, 1990) Theoretical Model: The New Venture theory (Oviatt & McDougall, 1994) Process: pPth dependent and incremental stages of internationalization. Slow and regular process with a limited number of targeted countries. Increasing commitment to foreign markets. Process: Speed, irregularity, geographic dispersion. Focus on the role of entrepreneurs. Risk-taking posture and international experiences encourage rapid internationalization at a young age. Different internationalization patterns Source: Adapted from: Verdier, S., Prange, C., Atamer, T., & Monin, P. (2010). Internationalization Performance Revisited—The Impact of Age and Speed on Sales Growth, Management International, 15(1): 19-31. © Taylor & Francis 2016 Speed of Internationalization Internationalization processes can be distinguished according to the time elapsed until a firm starts international activities, i.e. internationalization age and further to the speed of internationalization. Differences in these two parameters suggest new ways of accounting for different internationalization processes that are likely to entail performance differentials. Internationalization Speed Internationalization Age Young Slow Case 1—Aldi (7 years old, 0.84 percent internationalization speed) Fast Case 2 - International New Venture Theory - Metro (5 years old, 1.16 percent internationalization speed) Mature Case 3—The Uppsala Model Case 4—Casino (87 years old, 4.33 Tesco (74 years old, 0.34 percent percent internationalization speed) internationalization speed) Source: Adapted from: Verdier, S., Prange, C., Atamer, T., & Monin, P. (2010). Internationalization Performance Revisited—The Impact of Age and Speed on Sales Growth, Management International, 15(1): 19-31. • Speed is considered a time-based measure representing how fast a firm develops outlets abroad, changes in the ratio of foreign entities to total entities. • Slow internationalizers are firms that choose a gradual process with a low increase in the ratio of foreign stores to total stores during our period of observation. © Taylor & Francis 2016 Speed and Age of Internationalization In terms of performance consequences, different internationalization patterns also yield different results: • Young internationalizers that pursue a slow internationalization process enjoy higher international sales growth rates as compared to young internationalizers that pursue a fast internationalization process. • Mature internationalizers that pursue a fast internationalization process reach higher performance results than mature internationalizers that pursue a slow internationalization process. Patterns and internationalization can be distinguished according to: • Age • Speed • Rhythmic/non rhythmic expansion • Regular/non regular expansion Results show that firms with a constant, rhythmic pace are better able to benefit from foreign expansion than firms that expand in an irregular, ad hoc fashion. © Taylor & Francis 2016 Measures of Internationalizatio ...
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International Marketing Plan
Student’s Name
Institutional Affiliation



Ansoff model is a matrix technique that helps companies to be more profitable as well as
competitive- this is done through market penetration and development, divergence, as well as
product development. In market diffusion, organizations use present products to buy more shares
to remain relevant. Diversification involves providing in-demand products to consumers (Alon,
Jaffe, Prange, & Vianelli, 2016). As a result, the commercial risk rises while at the same time,
new products are introduced into the market...

Helenjones (4097)
University of Virginia

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