I’m studying for my Law class and don’t understand how to answer this. Can you help me study?
Directions: Fill-in-the-blank with the word, concept, or phrase that best completes each statement. Type your responses to the separate answer sheet you create per the instructions above. Each question is worth one point. For questions that require multiple answers, you must get all answers correct to get credit for the question. Again, all questions below were developed from Chapters 4 & 5 from the Abadinsky textbook.
1. In completing the Pre-Sentence Investigation report, because much of the necessary information is received from people, report quality is often dependent on the __________________ skills of probation and parole personnel.
2. A probation officer must always act professionally and must control his/her ___________________ when dealing with hostile defendants.
3. To determine an offender’s ability to pay fines, restitution, and probation fees, determining the __________________ of defendants has become important in preparing a pre-sentence investigation report.
4. Probation officers, during the pre-sentence investigation (PSI) interview, must work to lower the ________________ of their probationers who often equate the PSI interview to stressful interviews conducted by the police that were often unpleasant experiences.
5. _________________ officers often make sentencing recommendations to judges through the presentence investigation report particularly for or against probation.
6. Before recommending a sentence in the pre-sentence investigation report, the probation officer must ‘weigh” the following factors:
7. In several states and the federal government, sentencing guidelines have been imposed with the goals of limiting ______________________ and reducing ________________________.
8. ______________ is a period of conditional supervised release following a term of imprisonment.
9. Today’s indeterminate sentencing practices can be traced back to a person named _______________________, a formal naval officer and eventual superintendent of the remote British Penal colony on Norfork, Island who believed convicts should be punished for the past and trained for the future.
10. The first legislation authorizing parole in the United States was enacted in the state of ______________________ in the year _____________________.
11. Although most states had a mechanism in place for parole release prior to 1929, the impetus for the expansion of the use of parole was the ____________________ and the related demise of the __________________ system.
12. The _________________ approach seeks to explain crime and criminal behavior using the principles and methods of science.
13. ____________________ took the “rap” for the Attica uprising, prisons being seen as inhumane and ineffective, and the rise of intractable crime rates.
14. During the Just Desserts era, the political left and political right agreed on _____________________, ________________________, & ________________________, but for different reasons.
15. Some presume that parole is based on the medical model or some humanitarian effort gone astray, but the history of prisons and parole in the United States underscores the fact that that parole release has been used (and possibly abused) as a mechanism for maintaining prison _______________________ and reducing prison _____________________.