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American Winds Embraer and The Wild Ride of The Brazilian Real Case Questions

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Reread the closing case: embraer and the wild ride of the Brazilian real and answer the questions:

1)What does the recent economic history of Brazil tell you about the relationship between price inflation and exchange rates? What other factors might determine exchange rates for the Brazilian real?

2)Is a decline in value of the real against the U.S. dollar good for Embraer, bad for Embraer, or a mixed bag? Explain your answer.

3)What kind of foreign exchange rate risks is Embraer exposed to? Can Embraer reduce these risks? How?

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International Business 11e By Charles W.L. Hill Copyright © 2017 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. Chapter 10 The Foreign Exchange Market Copyright © 2017 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. Why Is The Foreign Exchange Market Important? ➢ The foreign exchange market 1. is used to convert the currency of one country into the currency of another 2. provides some insurance against foreign exchange risk - the adverse consequences of unpredictable changes in exchange rates ➢ The exchange rate is the rate at which one currency is converted into another ➢ events in the foreign exchange market affect firm sales, profits, and strategy Copyright © 2017 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. 10-3 When Do Firms Use The Foreign Exchange Market? ➢ International companies use the foreign exchange market when ➢ the payments they receive for exports, the income they receive from foreign investments, or the income they receive from licensing agreements with foreign firms are in foreign currencies ➢ they must pay a foreign company for its products or services in its country’s currency ➢ they have spare cash that they wish to invest for short terms in money markets ➢ they are involved in currency speculation - the shortterm movement of funds from one currency to another in the hopes of profiting from shifts in exchange rates Copyright © 2017 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. 10-4 How Can Firms Hedge Against Foreign Exchange Risk? ➢The foreign exchange market provides insurance to protect against foreign exchange risk ➢ the possibility that unpredicted changes in future exchange rates will have adverse consequences for the firm ➢A firm that insures itself against foreign exchange risk is hedging Copyright © 2017 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. 10-5 What Is The Difference Between Spot Rates And Forward Rates? ➢ The spot exchange rate is the rate at which a foreign exchange dealer converts one currency into another currency on a particular day ➢ spot rates change continually depending on the supply and demand for that currency and other currencies ➢ Spot exchange rates can be quoted as the amount of foreign currency one U.S. dollar can buy, or as the value of a dollar for one unit of foreign currency Copyright © 2017 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. 10-6 What Is The Difference Between Spot Rates And Forward Rates? ➢To insure or hedge against a possible adverse foreign exchange rate movement, firms engage in forward exchanges ➢ two parties agree to exchange currency and execute the deal at some specific date in the future ➢A forward exchange rate is the rate used for these transactions ➢ rates for currency exchange are typically quoted for 30, 90, or 180 days into the future Copyright © 2017 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. 10-7 What Is A Currency Swap? ➢ A currency swap is the simultaneous purchase and sale of a given amount of foreign exchange for two different value dates ➢ Swaps are transacted ➢ between international businesses and their banks ➢ between banks ➢ between governments when it is desirable to move out of one currency into another for a limited period without incurring foreign exchange rate risk Copyright © 2017 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. 10-8 What Is The Nature Of The Foreign Exchange Market? ➢ The foreign exchange market is a global network of banks, brokers, and foreign exchange dealers connected by electronic communications systems ➢ the average total value of global foreign exchange trading in March, 1986 was just $200 billion, in April, 2010 it hit $4 trillion per day ➢ the most important trading centers are London, New York, Zurich, Tokyo, and Singapore ➢ the market is always open somewhere in the world—it never sleeps Copyright © 2017 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. 10-9 Do Exchange Rates Differ Between Markets? ➢High-speed computer linkages between trading centers mean there is no significant difference between exchange rates in the differing trading centers ➢If exchange rates quoted in different markets were not essentially the same, there would be an opportunity for arbitrage ➢ the process of buying a currency low and selling it high Copyright © 2017 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. 10-10 Do Exchange Rates Differ Between Markets? ➢Most transactions involve dollars on one side—it is a vehicle currency ➢ 85% of all foreign exchange transactions involve the U.S. dollar ➢ other vehicle currencies are the euro, the Japanese yen, and the British pound ➢ China’s renminbi is still only used for about 0.3% of foreign exchange transactions Copyright © 2017 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. 10-11 How Are Exchange Rates Determined? ➢ Exchange rates are determined by the demand and supply for different currencies ➢ Three factors impact future exchange rate movements 1. A country’s price inflation 2. A country’s interest rate 3. Market psychology Copyright © 2017 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. 10-12 How Do Prices Influence Exchange Rates? ➢The law of one price states that in competitive markets free of transportation costs and barriers to trade, identical products sold in different countries must sell for the same price when their price is expressed in terms of the same currency ➢ otherwise there is an opportunity for arbitrage until prices equalize between the two markets Copyright © 2017 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. 10-13 How Do Prices Influence Exchange Rates? ➢Purchasing power parity theory (PPP) argues that given relatively efficient markets (a market with no impediments to the free flow of goods and services) the price of a “basket of goods” should be roughly equivalent in each country ➢ predicts that changes in relative prices will result in a change in exchange rates Copyright © 2017 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. 10-14 How Do Prices Influence Exchange Rates? ➢ A positive relationship exists between the inflation rate and the level of money supply ➢ when the growth in the money supply is greater than the growth in output, inflation will occur ➢ PPP theory suggests that changes in relative prices between countries will lead to exchange rate changes, at least in the short run ➢ a country with high inflation should see its currency depreciate relative to others Copyright © 2017 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. 10-15 How Do Prices Influence Exchange Rates? Macroeconomic Data for Bolivia, April 1984 to October 1985 Copyright © 2017 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. 10-16 How Do Prices Influence Exchange Rates? ➢ Question: How well does PPP work? ➢ Empirical testing of PPP theory suggests that ➢ it is most accurate in the long run, and for countries with high inflation and underdeveloped capital markets ➢ it is less useful for predicting short term exchange rate movements between the currencies of advanced industrialized nations that have relatively small differentials in inflation rates Copyright © 2017 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. 10-17 How Do Interest Rates Influence Exchange Rates? ➢ The International Fisher Effect states that for any two countries the spot exchange rate should change in an equal amount but in the opposite direction to the difference in nominal interest rates between two countries ➢ In other words: [(S1 - S2) / S2 ] x 100 = i $ - i ¥ ➢ where i$ and i¥ are the respective nominal interest rates in two countries (in this case the U.S. and Japan), S1 is the spot exchange rate at the beginning of the period and S2 is the spot exchange rate at the end of the period Copyright © 2017 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. 10-18 How Does Investor Psychology Influence Exchange Rates? ➢ The bandwagon effect occurs when expectations on the part of traders turn into selffulfilling prophecies - traders can join the bandwagon and move exchange rates based on group expectations ➢ investor psychology and bandwagon effects greatly influence short term exchange rate movements ➢ government intervention can prevent the bandwagon from starting, but is not always effective Copyright © 2017 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. 10-19 Should Companies Use Exchange Rate Forecasting Services? ➢ There are two schools of thought 1. The efficient market school - forward exchange rates do the best possible job of forecasting future spot exchange rates, and, therefore, investing in forecasting services would be a waste of money 2. The inefficient market school - companies can improve the foreign exchange market’s estimate of future exchange rates by investing in forecasting services Copyright © 2017 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. 10-20 Should Companies Use Exchange Rate Forecasting Services? 1. An efficient market is one in which prices reflect all available information ➢ if the foreign exchange market is efficient, then forward exchange rates should be unbiased predictors of future spot rates ➢ Most empirical tests confirm the efficient market hypothesis suggesting that companies should not waste their money on forecasting services Copyright © 2017 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. 10-21 Should Companies Use Exchange Rate Forecasting Services? 2. An inefficient market is one in which prices do not reflect all available information ➢ in an inefficient market, forward exchange rates will not be the best possible predictors of future spot exchange rates and it may be worthwhile for international businesses to invest in forecasting services ➢ However, the track record of forecasting services is not good Copyright © 2017 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. 10-22 How Are Exchange Rates Predicted? ➢ Two schools of thought on forecasting: 1. Fundamental analysis draws upon economic factors like interest rates, monetary policy, inflation rates, or balance of payments information to predict exchange rates 2. Technical analysis charts trends with the assumption that past trends and waves are reasonable predictors of future trends and waves Copyright © 2017 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. 10-23 Are All Currencies Freely Convertible? ➢ A currency is freely convertible when a government of a country allows both residents and non-residents to purchase unlimited amounts of foreign currency with the domestic currency ➢ A currency is externally convertible when non-residents can convert their holdings of domestic currency into a foreign currency, but when the ability of residents to convert currency is limited in some way ➢ A currency is nonconvertible when both residents and non-residents are prohibited from converting their holdings of domestic currency into a foreign currency Copyright © 2017 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. 10-24 Are All Currencies Freely Convertible? ➢ Most countries today practice free convertibility ➢ but many countries impose restrictions on the amount of money that can be converted ➢ Countries limit convertibility to preserve foreign exchange reserves and prevent capital flight ➢ when residents and nonresidents rush to convert their holdings of domestic currency into a foreign currency ➢ most likely to occur in times of hyperinflation or economic crisis Copyright © 2017 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. 10-25 Are All Currencies Freely Convertible? ➢ When a currency is nonconvertible, firms may turn to countertrade ➢ barter-like agreements where goods and services are traded for other goods and services ➢ was more common in the past when more currencies were nonconvertible, but today involves less than 10% of world trade Copyright © 2017 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. 10-26 Imagine that you are the CEO of a major consumer electronics manufacturer based in the United States. Over the past decade, your company has seen a sharp rise in demand from consumers in oil-exporting nations in South America, Africa, and Eastern Europe. As such, a significant portion of your revenues are in foreign currencies. Evaluate your exposure to foreign exchange risk. What factors might influence the profits you receive from foreign sales? How might you hedge against these risks? Copyright © 2017 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. 10-27 What Do Exchange Rates Mean For Managers? ➢ Managers need to consider three types of foreign exchange risk 1. Transaction exposure - the extent to which the income from individual transactions is affected by fluctuations in foreign exchange values ➢ includes obligations for the purchase or sale of goods and services at previously agreed prices and the borrowing or lending of funds in foreign currencies Copyright © 2017 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. 10-28 What Do Exchange Rates Mean For Managers? 2. Translation exposure - the impact of currency exchange rate changes on the reported financial statements of a company ➢ concerned with the present measurement of past events ➢ gains or losses are “paper losses” ➢ they are unrealized Copyright © 2017 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. 10-29 What Do Exchange Rates Mean For Managers? 3. Economic exposure - the extent to which a firm’s future international earning power is affected by changes in exchange rates ➢ concerned with the long-term effect of changes in exchange rates on future prices, sales, and costs Copyright © 2017 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. 10-30 How Can Managers Minimize Exchange Rate Risk? ➢ To minimize transaction and translation exposure, managers should 1. buy forward 2. use swaps 3. lead and lag payables and receivables ➢ lead and lag strategies can be difficult to implement Copyright © 2017 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. 10-31 How Can Managers Minimize Exchange Rate Risk? ➢ Lead strategy - attempt to collect foreign currency receivables early when a foreign currency is expected to depreciate and pay foreign currency payables before they are due when a currency is expected to appreciate ➢ Lag strategy - delay collection of foreign currency receivables if that currency is expected to appreciate and delay payables if the currency is expected to depreciate Copyright © 2017 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. 10-32 How Can Managers Minimize Exchange Rate Risk? ➢ To reduce economic exposure, managers should 1. Distribute productive assets to various locations so the firm’s long-term financial well-being is not severely affected by changes in exchange rates 2. Ensure assets are not too concentrated in countries where likely rises in currency values will lead to increases in the foreign prices of the goods and services the firm produces Copyright © 2017 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. 10-33 How Can Managers Minimize Exchange Rate Risk? ➢ In general, managers should 1. Have central control of exposure to protect resources efficiently and ensure that each subunit adopts the correct mix of tactics and strategies 2. Distinguish between transaction and translation exposure on the one hand, and economic exposure on the other hand 3. Attempt to forecast future exchange rates 4. Establish good reporting systems so the central finance function can regularly monitor the firm’s exposure position 5. Produce monthly foreign exchange exposure reports Copyright © 2017 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. 10-34 ...
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Final Answer

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Running Head: EMBRAER AND THE WILD RIDE OF THE BRAZILIAN REAL

Embraer and the Wild Ride of the Brazilian Real
Student’s Name
Institutional Affiliation
Date

1

EMBRAER AND THE WILD RIDE OF THE BRAZILIAN REAL

2

Response to Questions
1) What does the recent economic history of Brazil tell you about the
relationship between price inflation and exchange rates? What other factors
might determine exchange rates for the Brazilian real?
Recently, Brazil has encountered mixed outcomes in both inflation and the rate of
exchange in comparison to the U.S dollar. In 2004, the economy of Brazil began to rise since the
Brazilian real had appreciated against the U.S dollar. This improvement resulted due to low
inflation rates. At that time, one Brazilian real was bought at $0.3121, while in 2...

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