Writing
University of Toronto Game Designing Essay

University of Toronto

Question Description

I’m studying for my Art class and need an explanation.

Please help me develop a introduction and conclusion for this essay. ( Based on what I wrote already)

each of them should be 400 words long. So 800 words in total.

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Intro Nowadays, video games are becoming the most popular entertainment all around the world. David Cage, a famous French video game designer, developed lots of videos games in his life. For example, Heavy Rain and Detroit: Become Human. These games are not only for people to kill their fragmented time, but also make them thinking and learning things from these stories. David cage provides lots of player agency to the players. The players can make decisions for the virtual characters. Their decisions will lead to different story-line and endings. The game will challenge the players’ comprehension of the story and also their moral standards. Moreover, his game is to convey the human connotation and love-oriented changes behind contradictions and conflicts. Player-centric design A game needs to be based on the principle of player-centric design to allow players to continuously make choices in the game, allowing them to overcome problems and resolve conflicts so that they can benefit from deep thinking after playing the game. Janaki Mythily Kumar and Mario Herger introducing the player-centric design states that a game should put the player at the center of the design and development process. And five principles of playercentric design know your player, identify the mission, understand human motivation, apply mechanics and manage and monitor and measure(Jason, 2020). David Cage's games perfectly meets the requirements of the player-centric design. First, targeting and knowing your players. Different from other battle video games, for those game designed by David Cage, including Detroit: Become Human and Heavy Rain, etc. are multi-role interactive games. A game in which players need to making choices from a firstperson perspective to advance the game. Its target audience is relatively narrow. However, David cage explicitly stated that for the players of his game, gamers could appreciate the game's atmosphere, the entire storyline, the impact of the decisions gamer make and explore what will happen in the next episode. Hopefully, the game will attract players who only play 3 or 4 games a year to enjoy it. He hopes that his audience can enjoy the feelings and reflections brought about by the plot of the game. He also made a point that men and women feel differently during games. Men can gain control over the process. However, women are more inclined to enjoy the experience in the game, just like watching a TV series (Kevin, ). Second, identifying the mission. This step needs to understand the current business scenario, recognizing the results of the target business, and to set up a mission for the game project appropriately(Jason, 2020). David cage knows very well that the game he wants to make is not just using weapons to fight, but more importantly, he is more willing than players could use different choices to promote different plots during the game. For example, in the FBI plotline of the game Heavy Rain, there is a scene in which the police are bleeding while solving a crime, and some players feel very depressed about it. It creates an atmosphere to make an impact on players. Besides, once the player pushes a game plot, there is no way to turn back to the original and play the game again. To some extent, let players think and understand humanity and morals in a role similar to the protagonist in the movie, which are deeper issues than games itself. David Cage talked about his other game Detroit in an interview with The Verge, “I think it's a game about us. Humans. It's about what it means to be human. It's about identity. It's about civil rights”(Megan, 2017). Thirdly, understanding the human motivation. For the game, the player's feeling in the game is crucial, which determines whether the player will continue the game. Traditional games tend to make players having fun, such as gaining a sense of accomplishment during the killing process. However, for David cage, the game Heavy Rain is driven by the storyline, which makes players less pleasure in the game. In the game, players do not need to have fun, do not need to ride a bike. In the game Heavy Rain, all they need to do is make choices, make them feel empathy, make them cry, make them laugh, and let them experience the character's real feeling, although it may be uncomfortable ( ). But David Cage is creating a new field for game design, meeting the daily emotional needs of players. Fourthly, applying game mechanics. The MDA frameworks combine mechanics, dynamics and aesthetics together. When players are playing the game, it will clearly show what they are doing, or when the player wants to move on to the next scene, they can see the choices displayed on the screen. Those all applied to mechanics. Finally, managing, monitoring and measuring. After finishing the above four steps, the final step is testing whether the mission managed, the motivation monitored, and mechanics Player agency There are several types of player manipulations in both Heavy Rain and Detroit: Become Human such as quick time event (QTE), pressing buttons over a second, choosing the next action or dialogue decisions in certain circumstances, and motion controls such as shaking the game controller or swiping the touchpad. By controlling the movement of game characters both directly and indirectly gives players a sense of substitution as they become the real characters experiencing their life. For instance, when the character Connor in Detroit is chasing an android, and there are different ways including safe but slow and fast but dangerous, the players have to make a choice immediately. Then, different choices lead to different events and even different endings. In addition, players make choices based on their own thoughts, and unwittingly the game characters are built as personas like us. For example, in Heavy Rain, while the father is doing a psychological test, the psychologist asks some questions. The most appropriate answers we choose in this scene are all relying on our comprehension, and there are no right or wrong answers. There is a similar scene in a 2015 interactive survival horror game named Until Dawn. “Eight friends trapped together on a remote mountain retreat. Play as each of the eight characters and experience fear. Every decision you make in your terrifying search for answers could mean the difference between life and death”(2015). At the beginning of this game, there is also a test between one of the main characters and his psychologist. The answer of the psychological test indicates what will happen next through the game. The other similar thing between Heavy Rain and Until Dawn is that they both contain hints about the choice and consequences at the very beginning. Heavy Rain shows a sentence to announce players to pay attention to every choice and the characters’ mind. Until Dawn shows the butterfly effect twice. On the other hand, not like the games that only allows one set of manipulations and ending, Heavy Rain and Detroit: Become Human, Until Dawn, and some other multiple-playable-character interactive games creates an environment and offers players to decide the endings. This type of game let players become the characters and reach out more empathy. Then every movement made by players in games become understandable. measured. Games often harvest different reviews to change some details. But the characteristic of David Cage‘s game is that players will have different endings. He mentioned that it was not about the endings. It was about how many different ways can guide players to the end. Through those five design principles, the central idea of David Cage's game is to let people continuously make their choices and play out their different endings. Make a game not only in the traditional sense of fighting and killing but also into a movie version to enhance the meaning of the game. Gamification The feature of David cage's game is that it can create emotions through interaction or create some emotional conflicts to make people think. People take this thinking to look at things with a new perspective. Furthermore, the inspiration for technology and the views on things that we use in our society are also derived from games (Marache-Francisco, C., & Brangier, E. 2015). Detroit: Become Human by David cage is great game that use an interactive way to convey some new philosophy to players. This is an era of continuous development of artificial intelligence and an era of inspiration in the design world. The controversy and associations triggered by artificial intelligence are endless. According to the definition of "Android" in etymology, humans have been used to the status of artificial intelligence "slave" in the past history. In the game "Detroit Becomes Human", all AI robots are called android. The combination of the Greek roots andr- (human) and -oid (something like) means "something like human." It is also because these machines are human-like, so people's perception of machine always stays "the purpose of machines is to serve human beings, because we give them life". In the game, many people think that as long as the computing power and self-learning ability of the robot are within the controllable range of human design, as long as robots are not added with intelligence and emotion modules, humans can always control robots. Therefore, they create the androids, However, in the later stage of the game, humans never expected that some androids will slowly awaken the emotional module through their own evolution. They can cry, laugh, and even initiate a revolution. This has run counter to the designer's original design philosophy. This is also the first question that David cage gives to the player, "Is the machine with emotion are still a machine or not?" Because android's behavior and appearance are too much like human and add emotion to the original foundation. At this moment, some players already think that these androids are human. On the other perspective, human beings have a life expectancy, and they will die from old age or sickness. Android is different, as long as they have energy, they are having infinitely life. The reason why life is bright is because it is short, which is also the biggest difference between people and android. The discussion of bionics in "Detroit: Become Human" does not stop at whether they have personality, feelings and thoughts. With the depth of the plot and the recognition of the characters, they will evolve into a racial form. In its own religion and beliefs, even a superficial consciousness of protecting women and children (may also be an infection of human society), finally integrated into Detroit and the general environment at the time, thus raising the theme to the level of humanity, society and ethnic groups. Until now David cage gives to the player another question “Are humans creating angels or digging their own graves” The world of games is a city built on the popularity of bionics. While the bionics bring convenience to people's lives, some social problems also follow. Traditional industries have begun to decline, unemployment rate has increased, and many non-skilled jobs have been replaced by bionics, because they will not be tired or hungry, and they will not need wages. Therefore, a lot of humans will start a revolution, eager to destroy those androids. And they can get back their jobs. This also pushed the game story to a new climax. Humans have become more and more cold-blooded due to the advancement of science and technology. In contrast, those androids that have acquired human emotions are more humane. In the game, Carla can kill her master in order to protect a little girl who is not related. On the contrary, humans use violence against them because android is not human. In such a technology-developed society, human conscience is annihilated a little bit. When androids are fed up with human relentless oppression, they are also chosen to resist. And then, at this moment, the player as the leader of the android resistance can decide whether the ending of the story will be use sacrifices to trade for free or use revolution to trade equal. Through the player's choice, we can also see the future trend of human society. Although this story happened in the game, it is likely to become a social problem that human beings must face in the future. If people can prevent such problems early through games. Then the purpose of this game is perfectly worked. Finally, as the android in the game said, "This is not a game, this is our future." In general, video games are created as a way to entertain. As the quick growth on both material and mentality, people are seeking out more about something deep such as life and meanings. Video games become a way people solve perceived problems and at least a way to talk about them. Some ingrained and problems like issues and inequality of class, race and gender. David Cage and many other game producers and writers give players chances to find their own experience and endings and also to think social issues and problems. In order to do that, David Cage creates an environment and society happening in the future, and let all players become the character and experience their life facing and solving problems. Detroit: Become Human talks about some social issues such as the cost you would pay for revenge, the fight against human and androids, and also what makes human different to others species.In addition, David Cage forms characters with full of vivid detail, and lets them no longer be good or evil. Since every character were built as real person with their own stories and past. This makes players generate more resonance and sympathy. Players can actually feel about characters’ feelings and mind so that players would get to think more about morals, love, equality and freedom when the stories happen. When it comes to the future of this type of video games, generally speaking, there would be a quick growth on the development, and multi-ending games would be a popular trend in all features of video games. Because in many previous adventure video games, when players make one wrong movement, the character would die, and the game start over from archiving points. However, sometimes the single storyline and ending seems not to satisfy all players. There are a thousand Hamlets in a thousand people's eyes. Players generate different ideas and ways to treat characters and solve cases. Video games would offer players more and more opportunities to generate their own content. The same idea is the creation and success of Archive Of Our Own (AO3), a nonprofit fan fiction and fan works open source website. Different characters of games, movies, and novels are here created different life and endings by fans. Conclusion Reference Marache-Francisco, C., & Brangier, E. (2015). Gamification and human-machine interaction: a synthesis. Le Travail Humain, 78(2), 165. doi: 10.3917/th.782.0165 Farokhmanesh, M. (2017, June 19). Detroit: Become Human director wants players to confront the game's violence. Retrieved from https://www.theverge.com/2017/6/19/15815190/detroit-become-human-david-cage-e3-2017violence Ohannessian, K. (2011, December 15). 'Heavy Rain' Creator David Cage Reveals the Secrets of His Photo-Realistic Serial-Killer PS3 Game. Retrieved from https://www.fastcompany.com/1679014/heavy-rain-creator-david-cage-reveals-the-secretsof-his-photo-realistic-serial-killer-ps3-g Soetaert, R., Bourgonjon, J., & Rutten, K. (2011). Video Games as Equipment for Living. CLCWeb: Comparative Literature and Culture, 13(3). doi: 10.7771/1481-4374.1794 Until Dawn™. (n.d.). Retrieved March 23, 2020, from https://www.playstation.com/enca/games/until-dawn-ps4/ ...
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Final Answer

Attached.

Intro
Technology has developed so much in just the last few decades. It seemed like a
foreign concept, playing video games and making money! In the early 1980’s, when video
games were first beginning to develop, nobody could have predicted how large the gaming
industry would become. The world went from video game arcades that had built in joysticks
to portable game consoles that hold hundreds of gigabytes of memories. These game consoles
are impressive but do not compete when it comes to game design. Not only has the idea of
what a ‘video game’ is has changed but also the audience the games are being designed for. It
used to be an ‘all-boy’s’ world, but this has changed so much. In just a few centuries, both
males and females have fallen in love with the entertaining and creative world of video game
design. The popularity is so vast that there are Universities and even High School programs
specifically designed for future video game creators.
Video games are becoming the most popular entertainment all around the world. They
can be played on game consoles, portable devices, and even smart phones! All of these
amazing games however need to be designed and programmed by a whole team of creators.
One of the most famous video game designers is from France. David Cage, a famous French
video game designer, developed lots of videos games in his life. For example, Heavy Rain
and Detroit: Become Human. These games are not only for people to kill their spare time, but
also to make them think and learn new things from these stories. Contrary to some people’s
beliefs and fears, video games can be sentimental and educational, which is what Cage has
created.
There are many reasons that people like to play video games. For some people they
want to get lost in a virtual world, for others it is an escape, and sometimes it is simply just a
way to numb your mind on a long and awful day. One of the most popular reasons, however,
is how video games can be so controllable. David Cage provides lots of freedom to the

players. The players can make decisions for the virtual characters. Their decisions will lead to
different storylines and endings. Each decision, in other words, leads to an outcome which
leads to yet another decision! The game will challenge the players’ comprehension of the
story and also their moral standards. Moreover, his game is to convey the human connotation
and love-oriented changes behind contradictions and conflicts.

Player-centric design
A game needs to be based on the principle of player-centric design to allow players to
continuously make choices in the game, allowing them to overcome problems and resolve
conflicts so that they can benefit from deep thinking after playing the game. Janaki Mythily
Kumar and Mario Herger introducing the player-centric design states that a game should put
the player at the center of the design and development process. And five principles of playercentric design know your player, identify the mission, understand human motivation, apply
mechanics and manage and monitor and measure (Jason, 2020). David Cage's games
perfectly meets the requirements of the player-centric design.
First, targeting and knowing your players. Different from other battle video games, for those
game designed by David Cage, including Detroit: Become Human and Heavy Rain, etc. are
multi-role interactive games. A game in which players need to making choices from a firstperson perspective to advance the game. Its target audience is relatively narrow. However,
David cage explicitly stated that for the players of his game, gamers could appreciate the
game's atmosphere, the entire storyline, the impact of the decisions gamer make and explore
what will happen in the next episode. Hopefully, the game will attract players who only play
3 or 4 games a year to enjoy it. He hopes that his audience can enjoy the feelings and
reflections brought about by the plot of the game. He also made a point that men and women

feel differently during games. Men can gain control over the process. However, women are
more inclined to enjoy the experience in the game, just like watching a TV series (Kevin, ).
Second, identifying the mission. This step needs to understand the current business scenario,
recognizing the results of the target business, and to set up a mission for the game project
appropriately (Jason, 2020). David cage knows very well that the game he wants to make is
not just using weapons to fight, but more importantly, he is more willing than players could
use different choices to promote different plots during the game. For example, in the FBI
plotline of the game Heavy Rain, there is a scene in which the police are bleeding while
solving a crime, and some players feel very depressed about it. It creates an atmosphere to
make an impact on players. Besides, once the player pushes a game plot, there is no way to
turn back to the original and play the game again. To some extent, let players think and
understand humanity and morals in a role similar to the protagonist in the movie, which are
deeper issues than games itself. David Cage talked about his other game Detroit in an
interview with The Verge, “I think it's a game about us. Humans. It's about what it means to
be human. It's about identity. It's about civil rights”(Megan, 2017).

Thirdly, understanding the human motivation. For the game, the player's feeling in the game
is crucial, which determines whether the player will continue the game. Traditional games
tend to make players having fun, such as gaining a sense of accomplishment during the
killing process. However, for David cage, the game Heavy Rain is driven by the storyline,
which makes players less pleasure in the game. In the game, players do not need to have fun,
do not need to ride a bike. In the game Heavy Rain, all they need to do is make choices, make
them feel empathy, make them cry, make them laugh, and let them experience the character's
real feeling, although it may be uncomfortable ( ). But David Cage is creating a new field for
game design, meeting the daily emotional needs of players. Fourthly, applying game

mechanics. The MDA frameworks combine mechanics, dynamics and aesthetics together.
When players are playing the game, it will clearly show what they are doing, or when the
player wants to move on to the next scene, they can see the choices displayed on the screen.
Those all applied to mechanics.
Finally, managing, monitoring and measuring. After finishing the above four steps, the final
step is testing whether the mission managed, the motivation monitored, and mechanics

Player agency
There are several types of player manipulations in both Heavy Rain and Detroit: Become
Human such as quick time event (QTE), pressing buttons over a second, choosing the next
action or dialogue decisions in certain circumstances, and motion controls such as shaking
the game controller or swiping the touchpad. By controlling the movement of game
characters both directly and indirectly gives players a sense of substitution as they become
the real characters experiencing their life. For instance, when the character Connor in Detroit
is chasing an android, and there are different ways including safe but slow and fast but
dangerous, the players have to make a choice immediately. Then, different choices lead to
different events and even different endings. In addition, players make choices based on their
own thoughts, and unwittingly the game characters are built as personas like us. For example,
in Heavy Rain, while the father is doing a psychological test, the psychologist asks some
questions. The most appropriate answers we choose in this scene are all relying on our
comprehension, and there are no right or wrong answers. There is a similar scene in a 2015
interactive survival horror game named Until Dawn. “Eight friends trapped together on a
remote mountain...

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University of Virginia

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