Engineering
California State University Northridge Car Brake Pads Lab Report

California state university Northridge

Question Description

I’m studying and need help with a Engineering question to help me learn.

For SPECIAL PROJECT:
Each individual student will submit a different individual special project. (THIS IS NO LONGER A GROUP PROJECT!)

- Conduct an internet search on a product or application (for example: airplane brake pads, cast iron engine block, tennis racket frame, baseball bats, forgings, eating utensils, excavation tools,....)

- Each student will be asked to submit individual reports on the relevant materials, mechanical properties, microstructure, heat treatment and surface modifications of the subject of the special project.

- Create the BEST written report - with the proper format (that I taught you all) - adding three additional elements to your paper:

1. History and Background of your Subject
2. Social Impact of your Subject
3. Economic Impact of your Subject.


I will attach an example

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Laboratory Experiment 10 Stainless Steel Special Project Abstract The objective is to obtain knowledge of which type of stainless-steel material is more beneficial for kitchen use. Three types of stainless-steel knives are used which are categorized depending on the cost. It’s important to observe the performance that each material attains and to also evaluate if cost on stainless steel materials causes a significant change. The high quality stainless steel sample represents the most expensive, the medium quality stainless sample is determined as the average priced material, and the low quality sample represents the lowest priced stainless-steel material. The test considered towards the specific materials used are the hardness, tensile, and the corrosion test. The overall outcomes are to compare the hardness for the identified materials, observe the tensile properties obtained from breakage, and to determine corrosion resistance on a specific stainless-steel metal. History Silverware, which is also considered as a flatware, is used for food eating in the Western world along with some parts of Africa and Asia. Knives, forks, and spoons are an example of silverware depending if the materials use steel, silver, or silver-plate base metal. Silverware is also referred to dishes that are used for serving food, or other objects such as candlesticks. The tools used in the past for eating are still used by this date. The eating utensils are following us in time from history, when people used these specific tools in prehistoric Africa during modern times. Before eating utensils were made, people in modern history only had the option to eat food by hand. Spoons are the oldest eating utensils in history of silverware. In history, spoons were developed using a variety of materials in different types of shapes. Initially, eating utensils were fashioned from animal horns, where people will also attach a stick on it to develop a longer 1 Laboratory Experiment 10 reach. Wood was also considered for making spoons. During Britain Saxon and Viking, invaders used leaf-shaped spoon bowls with a decorative acorn. The forks and spoons, including soup spoons, teaspoons, salad forks, and butter knives, were initially created by using wood, animal horns, and leaves. During later times, with the development and increased demand, a production of the spoons and forks using modern material such as steel, silver, and other metals, was established. Social and Economic Impact of Silverware The present shape to spoons was given by Oliver Cromwell, who was considered a Puritan during those historic times. The process started by removing decorations and flattening the ends. The idea of development in the appearance of eating utensils is evident towards history. With the development of eating utensils and its appearance, the use of silverware has also increased. Earlier, it was considered as modernity to use eating utensils, especially silverware, but it has now become a part of life. The social impact of silverware can be analyzed from its use in every part of the world and community. It became an essential need for people to carry spoons, forks, and knives for convenience sake. There are various industries that manufacture spoons, knives, and forks to gain economic profit. With the development of silverware, including spoons, forks, and chopsticks, industries are establishing in a variety of cities. The outcome is developing help to improve economic growth of countries. 2 Laboratory Experiment 10 Procedure ● Three types of stainless samples are obtained where each sample is categorized by cost. ● The three samples are identified as stainless steel butter knives that range from low, medium, and high cost from a specific market. ● ● 3 Laboratory Experiment 10 ● The three stainless steel butter knives are cut to separate the handle and blade. ● Rockwell hardness test is considered for the handle and blade. ● ● ● ● ● The measurements from the rockwell hardness test are obtained. The tensile test is the second testing option. Using a caliper, the thickness and width are measured in inches. After the measurements are made, the stainless steel specimens are inserted on the tensile machine individually, securing the clamps. 4 Laboratory Experiment 10 ● ● ● ● ● ● Once the first specimen is set, the gauge length is recorded in inches using a caliper. The area was provided by the computer program involved with the tensile machine. When the area was recorded, the first test begun for the first stainless steel specimen. The test pulled the stainless steel blade until fracture occurred. The result was provided by the tensile machine operation, which revealed stress-strain curves. ● The data for the first stainless steel blade specimen was obtained. ● The same test was ran for the remaining two stainless steel blade specimens. ● 5 Laboratory Experiment 10 ● The third testing process involved the high quality stainless steel sample to be put into acrylic. ● After being put into acrylic, the high-end stainless steel sample was grinded on a 400 and 600 grit. ● Polishing was considered afterwards for the specimen. ● Pictures are obtained for metallographic observations. ● ● A saltwater solution was obtained in a 400cc water beaker. ● A cell setup was provided for the stainless steel sample where the white wire connected to the reference electrode, the red wire connected to the counter electrode, and the green connected to the working electrode. ● The density and area are input on the computer program. ● The test is ran for fifteen minutes. ● After the fifteen minutes, the ampere vs time graph is provided. ● Photos of the specimen are taken to observe the corrosion under a microscope. 6 Laboratory Experiment 10 Discussion of Results The results obtained reveal the performance that the low, medium, and high quality stainless steel specimens express towards the tensile, hardness, and corrosion test. The results presented also determine the stainless steel specimen toughness, which is very important to consider for cutlery use. The evaluations gathered allow an analysis on what stage the three different quality butter knives materials stand, due to the accomplishments that the properties give out. In Figure 1, the true stress-strain graphs are expressed for the blade samples. The outcome from the tensile test reveals that the low quality stainless steel specimen had the lowest tensile resistance. Along with that, the medium quality stainless steel specimen obtained the second lowest tensile resistance while the high quality stainless steel specimen attained the highest resistance when pulled. Figure 2. depicts the rockwell hardness for the three specimens. During the test, the low quality shows the lowest hardness at 100.33 while the medium quality stainless steel sample demonstrated the second lowest hardness at 104.56. However, the high quality stainless steel sample achieved the highest hardness recorded at 118.22. In Figure 3, the corrosion of the high quality steel sample is displayed. The results collected show that the corrosion rate in saltwater stood at an average of two amps while the corrosion in antifreeze acquired an average of five amps. 7 Laboratory Experiment 10 Tables and Figures 8 Laboratory Experiment 10 9 Laboratory Experiment 10 Conclusions ● Working with different quality stainless steel samples gave a grasp idea of how cost actually affects the properties of steel. ● A variety of tests, such at the tensile, corrosion, and hardness test examines the steel properties to predict how strong each material is, depending on the quality. ● The purpose of doing the tests is to observe the behavior on different priced material to check if applying more money towards cutlery use is beneficial in the kitchen. 10 Laboratory Experiment 10 ● The test showed that the low quality steel specimen performed at a low rate, the medium quality sample demonstrated a higher performance, and the highest quality specimen revealed the highest accomplishment throughout the tests. ● Overall, the effectiveness of the higher priced stainless steel cutlery is significant to consider using because of the benefits it holds if performance and quality is strongly desired. References Bavarian, B. ​Revised Laboratory Manual for MSE 227L​. California State University, Northridge. Chaudhuri, Z. R. (2017, April 15). First Spoons, now chopsticks: Edible cutlery is being developed for a zero-waste future. Retrieved from https://scroll.in/magazine/834048/first-spoons-now-chopsticks-edible-cutlery-is-being-de veloped-for-a-zero-waste-future Coach Tony Magee, (2018). MSE 227L Professor. California State University, Northridge. David G. Rethwisch, W. D. ​Fundamentals of Material Science and Engineering: An Integrated Approach (​ 4​th​ Edition ed.). New York: John Wiley & Sons. Eating Utensils. (2018). Origins and History of the Spoon. Retrieved from http://www.eatingutensils.net/history-of-cutlery/spoon-history/ Fryxell, D. A. (2010, December 22). A History of Cutlery: How Our Ancestors Developed their Eating Tools. Retrieved http://www.familytreemagazine.com/premium/mar-2011-history-matters-cutlery/ from Jones, T. (2015, December 23). The History of Spoons, Forks, and Knives. Retrieved from http://www.todayifoundout.com/index.php/2013/10/history-spoons-forks-knives/ Wong, E. (2018). Human Nature, Technology & the Environment. Retrieved from http://fubini.swarthmore.edu/~ENVS2/S2006/ewong1/secondessay.htm 11 ...
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Final Answer

Attached.

Running Head: CAR BRAKES PADS

1

Car Brake Pads
Name
Institution

CAR BRAKE PADS

2

History
Brake pads were first developed in the early 1900s, particularly after a patent was given to F.W.
Lanchester (Erjavec, 2003). Brake pads were developed to replace drum brakes. Unfortunately,
brake pads proved to be expensive and inefficient at the time. As a result, the implementation of
brake pads was fully commercialized after the Second World War (Erjavec, 2003). As the
technology of brake pads improved, the performance of disk brakes drastically surpassed the
performance of drum brakes. In America, the use of brake pads was adopted in the late 1960s
after the invention of fixed calipers (Erjavec, 2003). Fixed calipers made the installation of brake
pads much cheaper and more compact.
Initially, brake pads were made with asbestos as the main materials. Asbestos is a heat-absorbing
material and was a suitable material for brake pads due to its excellent wear and tear properties
(Erjavec, 2003). Unfortunately, it was later discovered that asbestos was a carcinogenic material
and exposure to it can cause cancer. Owing to its carcinogenic properties, asbestos was not a safe
compound to use for manufacturing braking systems (Erjavec, 2003). Other materials were
developed by manufacturers in making brake pads.
Types of Brake Pads
According to the types of materials used, there are three types of brake pads – ceramic, organic,
and metallic (Erjavec, 2003). Organic brake pads are made from a mixture of fibers and other
materials including carbon compounds, rubber, Kevlar and fiberglass, often bounded together
with resin (Erjavec, 2003). Organic pads produce less dust when compared to the other types of
brake pads. The price of point of organic brake pads is also low. Additionally, organic brake
pads produce less friction compared to the other types of brake pads. As such, organic brake pads
are suitable for cars used for normal driving and commuting. Organic brake pads exert less stress
on brake rotors and are do not produce a lot of noise (Erjavec, 2003). Since they do not exert
much stress on the brake rotors, organic brake pads can be said to be economical since they
prevent the frequent repair of brake rotors which are often very expensive. As aforementioned,
organic brake pads are made from a composite material. As such, they are more prone to wear
and tear compared to other types of brake pads. Organic brake pads also function well within a
small temperature range. Further, the composite nature of organic brake pads gives them a higher
level of compressibility (Erjavec, 2003). Drivers must therefore press the brake down with more
force to properly engage them.

CAR BRAKE PADS

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Figure 1: Organic Brake Pads

Ceramic brake pads are made from ceramic material. However, the ceramic material used to
make brake pads is much denser and more durable than the ordinary ceramic commonly used to
make pottery and plates (Erjavec, 2003). Some of the characteristics of ceramic brake pads that
make them popular include low noise levels, less wear and tear residue and highly reliable over a
wider temperature range. However, ceramic brake pads are very expensive due to the high
manufacturing costs (Erjavec, 2003). The ceramic material used for making ceramic brake pads
does not absorb much heat. As such, the generated heat is transmitted to other components of the
braking system thereby causing wear and tear on those components. Further, ceramic brake pads
do not function properly in extreme driving conditions such as in extreme weather (Erjavec,
2003).

CAR BRAKE PADS

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Figure 2: Ceramic Brake Pads

Metallic or semi-metallic brake pads consist of 30 to 70% metals including iron, copper, steel
and composite alloys (Erjavec, 2003). The metals are usually combined together using graphite
lubricant and other fillers to make the metallic brake pads. Compared with ceramic brake pads,
metallic brake pads provide improved braking performance. Metallic brake pads also in a wider
range of temperature and weather conditions than ceramic brake pads. Metals are good
conductors of heat and can therefore withstand more heat than other types of brake pads,
allowing the braking system to cool back down more quickly (Erjavec, 2003). Metallic brake pads
also offer less compressibility and therefore less force is required to engage them. An important
drawback of metallic brake pads is that they are noisier than all the other types of brake pads.
Metallic brake pads also exert more strain and wear on the brake rotors. They are also expensive,
though as not expensive as ceramic brake pads. Metallic brake pads also produce more brake
dust (wear and tear residue) than the other types of brake pads (Erjavec, 2003).

CAR BRAKE PADS

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Figure 3: Metallic Brake Pads

Social and Economic Impact of Car Brake Pads
Undeniably, brake pads play an important role in the manufacture of cars in the motorsport industry. It
is incontrovertible that the automobile industry heavily depends on braking systems in addressing safety
concerns of the vehicles. The manufacture of high performing brake pads has greatly reduced the
number of accidents on the roads and saved lives. This is particularly the case in the design of racecars
where huge investments are made in the latest technologies of brake pads to safeguard the lives of
racing athletes. Public transport cars also have the best brake pads installed to assure passenger safety.
An important way in which brake pads affect the economy is through employment. Several brake pad
manufacturing firms have employed thousands of people to manufacture brake pads in an attempt to
satisfy the demands of the brake pads. These people make a living from manufacturing brake pads.
Many other people are employed in the brake pad supply chain and distribution channels. Brake pads
also exert environmental costs since the manufacture of brake pads is associated w...

achiaovintel (7964)
UC Berkeley

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