Humanities
CSU Emotional Influence Theoretical Perspectives in Positive Psychology Discussion

Columbia Southern University

Question Description

I need support with this Psychology question so I can learn better.

This assignment provides you with an opportunity to analyze a real-world, peer-reviewed psychology journal article. You should find an article containing research that examines motivation, emotion, and social psychology.

Using the following articale: EMOTION the momentary benenfits of positive events for individuals with elevent social anxiaty. (Attached as PDF)

Explain the research methodology that was used in the study.

Discuss social factors that influence people or groups to conform to the actions of others

Indicate how behaviors and motivation are impacted by the presence of others.

Indicate the structures of the brain that are involved in emotion and motivation.

Examine the article’s generalizability to various areas of psychology.

In addition, your article critique should clearly identify the article’s premise and present an insightful and thorough analysis with strong arguments and evidence. You should present your own informed and substantiated opinion on the article’s content. You must use at least one source in addition to your chosen article to support your analysis and opinion.

Your article critique must be a minimum of two pages in length, not including the title and reference pages. All sources used must be properly cited. Your article critique, including all references, must be formatted in APA style.

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Emotion The Momentary Benefits of Positive Events for Individuals With Elevated Social Anxiety James D. Doorley, Fallon R. Goodman, David J. Disabato, Todd B. Kashdan, Jennifer S. Weinstein, and Alexander J. Shackman Online First Publication, January 16, 2020. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/emo0000725 CITATION Doorley, J. D., Goodman, F. R., Disabato, D. J., Kashdan, T. B., Weinstein, J. S., & Shackman, A. J. (2020, January 16). The Momentary Benefits of Positive Events for Individuals With Elevated Social Anxiety. Emotion. Advance online publication. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/emo0000725 Emotion © 2020 American Psychological Association ISSN: 1528-3542 2020, Vol. 1, No. 999, 000 http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/emo0000725 The Momentary Benefits of Positive Events for Individuals With Elevated Social Anxiety James D. Doorley, Fallon R. Goodman, David J. Disabato, and Todd B. Kashdan Jennifer S. Weinstein and Alexander J. Shackman University of Maryland, College Park This document is copyrighted by the American Psychological Association or one of its allied publishers. This article is intended solely for the personal use of the individual user and is not to be disseminated broadly. George Mason University Understanding how individuals with varying levels of social anxiety respond to daily positive events is important. Psychological processes that increase positive emotions are being widely used as strategies to not only enhance well-being but also reduce the symptoms and impairment tied to negative emotional dispositions and conditions, including excessive social anxiety. At present, it is unclear whether and how levels of social anxiety impact the psychological benefits derived from momentary positive events. We used ecological momentary assessment to examine the impact of trait social anxiety on momentary changes in emotions, sense of belonging, and social approach versus avoidance motivation following positive events in daily life. Over the course of a week, people with elevated social anxiety experienced greater momentary anxiety and social avoidance motivation and lower momentary happiness and sense of belonging on average. Despite these impairments, individuals with elevated social anxiety experienced greater psychological benefits—in the form of reduced anxiety and motivation to avoid social situations, and an increased sense of belonging—following positive events during the past hour that were rated as particularly intense. This pattern of findings was not specific to social anxiety, with evidence of similar effects for other forms of internalizing psychopathology (general anxiety and depression). These observations detail circumstances in which individuals with social anxiety, and other emotional disturbances, can thrive— creating potentially important targets for intervention. Keywords: ecological momentary assessment, emotion, experience sampling method, positive affect, social anxiety Supplemental materials: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/emo0000725.supp Individuals with elevated levels of social anxiety are prone to frequent, excessive fear and avoidance of social interactions and other situations that carry the potential for social scrutiny (e.g., Rapee & Heimberg, 1997). There is growing evidence that individuals with elevated social anxiety also have deficits in positive affect. Research using diary techniques and other retrospective methods shows that individuals with elevated social anxiety tend to experience blunted positive affect and, in some cases, report fewer and less intense positive events (Blanco & Joormann, 2017; T. A. Brown, Chorpita, & Barlow, 1998; Farmer & Kashdan, 2012; Geyer et al., 2018; Kashdan, 2002, 2007; Kashdan & Breen, 2008; Kashdan & Collins, 2010; Kashdan & Steger, 2006; Kashdan, Weeks, & Savostyanova, 2011). For example, Farmer and Kashdan (2012) used 2 weeks of diary data to demonstrate that individuals with higher levels of social anxiety report significantly less intense positive affect in their daily lives. In the laboratory, individuals with elevated social anxiety have been shown to experience distress in response to normatively rewarding social interactions, such as receiving positive feedback from an unfamiliar but warm and personable confederate (e.g., Kashdan & Roberts, 2006; Wallace & Alden, 1997; Weeks, Heimberg, Rodebaugh, & Norton, 2008). Other research motivates the hypothesis that individuals with elevated social anxiety can derive enhanced emotional benefits— that is, a steeper reduction in negative affect—from positive events compared to those with low social anxiety. Using a daily diary approach, Kashdan and colleagues (2014) showed that individuals James D. Doorley, Fallon R. Goodman, X David J. Disabato, and Todd B. Kashdan, Department of Psychology, George Mason University; Jennifer S. Weinstein and Alexander J. Shackman, Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, University of Maryland, College Park. James D. Doorley, David J. Disabato, and Fallon R. Goodman designed the analytic strategy. James D. Doorley and David J. Disabato performed analyses. James D. Doorley drafted the article and created tables with assistance and feedback from all authors. David J. Disabato created the figures. Alexander J. Shackman and Jennifer S. Weinstein designed the study and collected data. Todd B. Kashdan and Alexander J. Shackman supervised and funded the work, respectively. All of the authors edited the article and approved the final version. The data featured in this report are available via the Open Science Framework (https://osf.io/b83rv/). This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health (DA040717 and MH107444) and the University of Maryland. The authors acknowledge the assistance of Kathryn DeYoung, Laura Friedman, and members of the Affective and Translational Neuroscience laboratory as well as critical feedback from J. Hur and M. Barstead. Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to James D. Doorley, Department of Psychology, George Mason University, 4400 University Drive, Fairfax, VA 22030. E-mail: jddoorley@gmail.com 1 This document is copyrighted by the American Psychological Association or one of its allied publishers. This article is intended solely for the personal use of the individual user and is not to be disseminated broadly. 2 DOORLEY ET AL. with higher levels of social anxiety experience larger reductions in anxiety on days following especially pleasurable and intimate sexual experiences. Indirect support for this hypothesis comes from evidence that individuals with low levels of well-being or high levels of depression—features characteristic of many individuals with extreme social anxiety (e.g., Eng, Coles, Heimberg, & Safren, 2005; Kashdan, 2007; Stein & Kean, 2000)—tend to profit more from positive daily events, as indexed by larger decreases in negative affect and larger increases in positive affect (Bylsma, Taylor-Clift, & Rottenberg, 2011; Lamers et al., 2018; Grosse Rueschkamp, Kuppens, Riediger, Blanke, & Brose, 2018; Thompson et al., 2012). Whether individuals with elevated social anxiety show similar “mood-brightening” effects (Rottenberg, 2017) remains unknown. In the present study, we used smartphone ecological momentary assessment (EMA) to intensively sample changes in mood (happiness and anxiety), sense of belonging, and social motivation (approach and avoidance) in the daily lives of 125 young adults. Prior to the EMA portion of the study, participants completed measures of trait social anxiety, general anxiety, and depression. At each assessment, participants also rated the intensity of their most positive event during the past hour, enabling us to assess momentary perceptions of naturally occurring, subjectively positive events. Because EMA data are captured in the real world, in real time, they circumvent many of the biases that can distort retrospective reports and provide insights into how emotional experience dynamically changes in response to positive events (Barrett, 1997; Lay, Gerstorf, Scott, Pauly, & Hoppmann, 2017; Stone, Shiffman, Atienza, & Nebeling, 2007). We focused on young adulthood because it is a time of profound, often stressful developmental transitions (e.g., moving away from home, forging new social relationships; Arnett, 2000; Hays & Oxley, 1986). In fact, more than half of undergraduate students report overwhelming anxiety (American College Health Association, 2016), with many experiencing the first onset or recurrence of internalizing disorders during this period (Auerbach et al., 2016, 2018; Kessler, Chiu, Demler, Merikangas, & Walters, 2005; Russell & Shaw, 2009; Vos et al., 2016). In particular, young adults with elevated social anxiety tend to experience substantial distress and impairment and are more likely to develop a range of psychological disorders (Merikangas, Avenevoli, Acharyya, Zhang, & Angst, 2002). Using these data, we tested the following hypotheses: Hypothesis 1: Consistent with decades of emotion research, we expected that positive events from the previous hour that are rated as more intense will enhance momentary mood (increase happiness, decrease anxiety), sense of belonging, and social motivation (increase approach, decrease avoidance; e.g., Rolls, 2018). Hypothesis 2: Consistent with prior work by our group and others (e.g., T. A. Brown et al., 1998; Geyer et al., 2018; Kashdan & Collins, 2010; Kashdan & Steger, 2006; Kashdan et al., 2011), we anticipated that elevated social anxiety will be associated with lower average levels of happiness, social belonging, and social approach motivation, and higher average levels of anxiety and social avoidance motivation. We also expected that individuals with elevated trait social anxiety would perceive positive events during the past hour as less intense. Hypothesis 3a: Based on findings from positivity deficit research in social anxiety (e.g., Kashdan, 2007; Wallace & Alden, 1997; Weeks et al., 2008), it may be that individuals with elevated social anxiety derive smaller psychological benefits from positive events (i.e., attenuated improvements in mood, sense of belonging, and social motivation). Hypothesis 3b: In contrast, recent research on social anxiety and other emotional disturbances motivates the competing hypothesis that individuals with elevated social anxiety will derive larger psychological benefits (i.e., amplified improvements in mood, social belonging, and social motivation) following momentary positive events (e.g., Kashdan et al., 2014; Morgan et al., 2017; Rottenberg, 2017). Exploratory Hypothesis 4: To test for the specificity of the hypothesized effects of social anxiety, we collected data on trait levels of general anxiety and depression and explored whether scores on each measure impacted the psychological benefits of momentary positive events (cf. Conway et al., 2019). Understanding how individuals with varying levels of social anxiety respond to daily positive events is important. Psychological processes that increase positive emotions are being widely used as strategies to not only enhance well-being but also reduce the symptoms and impairment tied to negative emotional dispositions and conditions, including excessive social anxiety (e.g., Quoidbach, Mikolajczak, & Gross, 2015; Taylor, Lyubomirsky, & Stein, 2017). At present, it is unclear whether and how levels of social anxiety impact the psychological benefits derived from momentary positive events. Addressing this question should help propel the field forward by providing clues about etiology, identifying potentially modifiable targets (e.g., positive event exposure and appraisal), and informing the development of more effective interventions for individuals at increased risk for developing social anxiety and related disorders. Method Participants and Procedure As part of an ongoing program of research focused on the etiology of mood and anxiety disorders, 2,501 individuals completed screening measures of negative emotionality—the propensity to experience and express more frequent, intense, and enduring anxiety, worry, and other negative emotions (Shackman et al., 2016, 2018)—in exchange for course extra credit. Data from the screening assessment were stratified by tertile (high, medium, low) and sex (male, female). For the EMA study, 133 university students with consistent smartphone access were independently and randomly recruited via e-mail from each of the resulting six strata, enabling us to sample a broad spectrum of social anxiety without gaps or discontinuities. Eight participants were excluded from data analysis: Six were excluded for insufficient compliance with the EMA protocol (⬍50% completed assessments) and two were excluded because of This document is copyrighted by the American Psychological Association or one of its allied publishers. This article is intended solely for the personal use of the individual user and is not to be disseminated broadly. SOCIAL ANXIETY AND RESPONSES TO POSITIVE EVENTS missing social anxiety data. Thus, the final sample was comprised of 125 participants (50.4% women; 53.2% White, 16.1% Asian, 12.9% Black, 11.3% multiracial/other, and 6.5% Hispanic). The mean age was 19.3 years old (SD ⫽ 1.6). The final sample did not differ significantly from the initial screening sample on demographics. At enrollment, participants provided written informed consent, were trained on the EMA protocol, and completed trait measures of social anxiety, general anxiety, and depression. SurveySignal (Hofmann & Patel, 2015) was used to deliver 10 text messages per day to each subject’s smartphone. Messages were delivered between 8:30 a.m. and 11:00 p.m., with 1 to 2 hr between successive messages (M ⫽ 86.5 min, SD ⫽ 14.7 min). Surveys took an average of 3.25 min to complete (SD ⫽ 5.65 min). During weekday hours, messages were delivered between regularly scheduled university courses to maximize compliance. Messages contained a link to a secure online survey. Participants were instructed to respond within 30 min of receiving the message and cautioned to avoid responding at unsafe or inconvenient moments (median response latency ⫽ 8.78 min, SD ⫽ 15.85 min). At enrollment, several well-established procedures were used to maximize compliance (Palmier-Claus et al., 2011). These procedures included (a) delivering a test message to the subject’s phone in the laboratory and confirming that they were able to successfully complete the online survey, (b) providing subjects with a 24/7 technical support number, (c) 24-hr and 72-hr check-in calls or e-mails, (d) real-time monitoring of compliance using the SurveySignal dashboard and recontacting subjects showing low levels of compliance, and (e) monetary bonuses for increased compliance. Participants were debriefed and compensated after the seventh day of data collection. In the final sample, EMA compliance was acceptable (M ⫽ 79%, SD ⫽ 11%) and unrelated to social anxiety (r ⫽ .04, p ⫽ .66). Participants provided informed written consent and the University of Maryland’s Institutional Review Board approved all procedures. Trait Measures Social anxiety. Trait-level social anxiety symptoms were assessed using the 19-item Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS; Mattick & Clarke, 1998). Items assess fear and avoidance of social interactions using a 5-point Likert scale (1 ⫽ not at all characteristic of me; 5 ⫽ extremely characteristic of me). Sample items include “I worry about expressing myself in case I appear awkward,” “I find myself worrying that I won’t know what to say in social situations,” and “I feel tense if I am alone with just one other person.” The SIAS reliably discriminates individuals with social anxiety disorder from those with other anxiety disorders (E. J. Brown et al., 1997; Cox, Ross, Swinson, & Direnfeld, 1998) and shows excellent psychometric properties (Rodebaugh, Woods, Heimberg, Liebowitz, & Schneier, 2006). Reliability was acceptable in the present sample (␣ ⫽ .96). General anxiety. Trait-level general anxiety symptoms were assessed using the 10-item trait anxiety scale from the International Personality Item Pool (IPIP; 2001), which provides a variety of freely available, expert-developed scales of personality and individual differences. Items assess symptoms of general trait anxiety using a 5-point Likert scale (1 ⫽ very inaccurate; 5 ⫽ very accurate). Sample items include “I worry about things” and “I am relaxed most of the time.” The Trait Anxiety scale of the IPIP 3 demonstrates strong test–retest reliability (r ⫽ .91; see DiBattista & Gosse, 2006) and strong, positive correlations with other measures of anxiety (e.g., the Revised NEO Personality Inventory Anxiety scale; Costa & MacCrae, 1992; Goldberg, 1999). Reliability was acceptance in the present sample (␣ ⫽ .81). Depression. Trait-level depression symptoms were assessed using the 20-item General Depression scale from the Inventory for Depression and Anxiety (IDAS; Watson et al., 2007). Items assess symptoms of depression on a 5-point Likert scale (1 ⫽ not at all; 5 ⫽ extremely). Sample items include “I felt depressed” and “I felt inadequate.” The General Depression scale has acceptable test– retest reliability over 1 week (r ⫽ .84; Watson et al., 2007), strong criterion validity with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM–IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) diagnoses of major depression, and strong incremental validity in predicting DSM–IV depressive disorder diagnoses above and beyond the Beck Depression Inventory-II (Watson et al., 2008). Reliability was acceptable in the present sample (␣ ⫽ .89). EMA Survey Happiness (cheerful, happy, joyful), anxiety (anxious, nervous, worried), sense of belonging (acceptance, connectedness), and social approach/avoidance motivation (want to be with other people, want to be alone) were rated using a 1 (not at all) to 5 (very) scale. Participants also recorded their best (most positive) event in the past hour with a brief, one-to-three-word response. Common positive events included, “watching TV,” “working out,” “walking,” “showering,” “seeing friends,” “napping,” and “relaxing.” Participants then rated the intensity of their most positive event during the past hour using the same 5-point scale. EMA Data Reduction Given strong within-person correlations between cheerful, joyful, and happy (rs ⫽ .84 –.89) and nervous, anxious, and uneasy (rs ⫽ .75–.79), we created composite Happiness and Anxiety scales. We used procedures outlined by Lane and Shrout (2010) to compute within-person scale reliability across repeated measurements for these three-item composite scales. Both the happiness (RCN ⫽ .88) and anxiety (RCN ⫽ .82) scales demonstrated acceptable reliability. We also combined momentary perceived social acceptance and connectedness items to form a composite measure of sense of belonging. There is disagreement in the literature regarding best practices for calculating reliability for two-item scales (e.g., Eisinga, Grotenhuis, & Pelzer, 2013), so we calculated a simple within-person correlation between the two scale items across time points (r ⫽ .60). Data Analytic Strategy Analyses were conducted using R Version 3.6.1 (R Core Team, 2019). For primary analyses, data were hierarchically nested in two-level models with momentary observations (Level 1) nested within people (Level 2). Although momentary observations were theoretically nested within days, then within people, a likelihood ratio test revealed that including the random effect for days did not significantly improve model fit (␹2 ⫽ 0, df ⫽ 6, p ⫽ 1.00). Thus, we chose the more parsimonious two-level model. All models DOORLEY ET AL. This document is copyrighted by the American Psychological A ...
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Running head: EMOTIONAL INFLUENCE

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EMOTIONAL INFLUENCE

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EMOTIONAL INFLUENCE

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Various theoretical perspectives in positive psychology have been investigated to enhance
momentary action and thought repositories intending to build on to individual`s psychological
resources to improve their wellbeing. Undeniably, positive emotions promote contentment,
interest, joy, flourishing, and overall better wellbeing, particularly for individuals with negative
emotions such as despair, anger, sadness, and anxiety. Doorley et al. (2020) contribute to this
research by investigating the effect of social relations and day-to-day optimistic events in persons
with social anxiety. According to the authors, persons with social anxiety could significantly
benefit from engaging in positive activities such as writing a diary and consequently acquiring
encouraging feedback as it contributes to positive emotions and transient alterations in emotions
that could eradicate the impairment caused by negative feelings
Rampant awareness by people on the study of psychiatric symptoms, for example,
emotions about day to day life in the mental health sector, is frequently done through the use of
experience sampling methodology. In the article, Doorley et al., (2020) use experience sampling
methodology through the use of a smartphone to conduct their momentary ecological assessment
and thus determine any variations in social motivation, sense of belonging, anxiety, and happiness
among 125 young adults. The data acquired was used to develop three hypotheses to obtain
relevant and needful information to justify their findings and come up with a reasonable
conclusion. The premises included that positive events could enhance the moo...

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