Science
WU Challenge in Water Pollution Resource Management Research Paper

Waldorf University

Question Description

I’m studying for my Environmental Science class and need an explanation.

there is one file “lecture note” - the topic should follow the scope of the course

write in times new roman font size 12 - DOUBLE SPACED (total 6 full pages)

The particular challenge i choose is FLOODINGS. So you should write about floodings only, keeping in mind the instructions below!

the paper should include:

1. introduction = 0.5 page

2. Evaluation of water resource challenge = 4 pages

3. Possible Solutions = 1.5 pages

Lab # 4 will be assigned in Week 2. Working individually or as a group of 2, students will conduct a research project and evaluate a challenge in water resource management. The essay topic must be relevant to the scope of the course. The essay will be no longer than 6 pages and contain a clear research statement. Set your document to use Times New Roman 12 point font, double space, 8 ½ x 11-inch paper and one-inch margins on all sides. It must have 8 academic references (from academic journals, or academic books). Websites and reports (e.g. government documents, UN documents, NGO documents) are in addition to the 8 academic references. The paper must be strongly linked to the academic literature. Examples must be used within the paper. If students are working together as a group of two on the essay, they must notify the instructor by the end of the Lab in Week # 3. Suggested format for the paper includes:

• Title Page (Name, Student Number, Lab # and Day, Instructors Name, Title) • Introduction – clear research statement on the nature of water resource challenge, outline of your paper (½ page)

• Evaluation of water resource challenge – detailed evaluation of water resource challenge strongly linked to the academic literature (4 pages)

• Possible Solutions – outline possible solutions for the water resource challenge strongly linked to the academic literature (1 and ½ pages)

Unformatted Attachment Preview

2020- -1-06 Agenda - Introductions - Course outline - Water budget - UN world water report 2019 - Water & human rights Distribution of earth’s water - Fresh water 3% saline (oceans 97%) - Other 0.9% surface - Revers 2% ground water 30.1% swamps 11% ice caps and glaciers 68.7% lakes 87% Earth’s water budget - 70% of the earth’s surface is covered by water - 97% of all water is ocean water (salt water) - Fresh water is in short supply ~ 68.7% is in the polar ice caps and glaciers (melting?) ~ 30.1% is in ground water ~ 0.3% of the total is in lakes, rivers, swamps - Only 0.001% of total earth’s water volume is water vapour in the atmosphere Turnover times- molecule of water to enter& leave that part of the system (Rutherford & willams 2015) - Oceans 37,000 years - Icecaps 16,000 years - Groundwater 300 years - Rivers 12-20 days - Atmosphere 9 days - Is water a renewable resource? UN world water report 2019 stressed resource - Water use has been increasing by 1% per year since the 1980s drive by population growth, socioeconomic development, & consumption - Growth rate to continue until 2050 resulting in 20-30% above current water use. - Over 2 billion live in high water stress areas - 4 billion experience severe water scarcity during at least one month a year - Stress levels will increase as demand increases and climate changing intensifies Population growth estimates Figure2 global water demand by sector to 2040 UN world water report 2019 Access to water supply and sanitation - 3/10 do not have access to safe drinking water - 50% of people drink water from unprotected sources live in Sub – Saharan Africa - 6/10 do not have access to safely managed sanitation. - 1/9 practice open defecation - Global figures mask significant inequalities between and within regions, countries, communities and neighborhoods. - Global cost-benefit studies have shown that water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) services provide good social and economic returns. Human rights to water and sanitation and the UN SDG for 2030 - UN SDG #6 ensure access and sanitation for all - Safe drinking water and sanitation recognized as basic human right and are indispensable for sustaining healthy livelihoods and maintaining dignity. - International human rights laws obliges states to work towards universal access to water & sanitation. - Human rights to water and sanitation - Passed 28 july 2010 UN resolution 64/292 of the general assembly - Calls upon states & international organizations to provide resources & help capacity building & technology transfer to help provide clean water & sanitation. Human rights to water and sanitation - Fulfillment of human rights to water and sanitation requires service to be available, physically accessible, equitably affordable, safe, & culturally acceptable. Water rights vs human rights to water and sanitation - Water rights—regulated under national laws conferred to individual or organization through property rights or land rights, or can be the result of negotiations between state and landowner. - Water rights can be withdrawn - Human rights to water and sanitation are not temporary or subject to state approval. Figure average annual impact from inadequate drinking water and sanitation services, water-related disaster Lecture 2 1/13 Human impacts on the hydrological cycle and peak water Agenda - Selected characteristics of water - Hydrological cycle - Human impacts on the hydrological cycle - Peak water limits to fresh water withdrawal - (in context of ideas for your lab presentation and lab #4 water resources essay ) Selected properties of water molecules H2o - (Pidwinry & grow nd ) Water molecule Two hydrogen atoms bonded to one oxygen atom - Hydrogen side is more positive charge, while other side is more negative - Molecular polarity causes it to be a powerful solvent allowing it to dissolve a large number of chemical compounds - Water can carry solvent nutrients in runoff, infiltration, ground water flow an din organisms. Selected properties of water - Pure water has neutral ph 7 (less than 7 is acid, over 7 is basic ) - Water has high specific heat (amount of temperature required to change temperature of a substance ) so it can absorb a lot of heat energy before it heats up; and releases heat slowly when it cools. - High specific heat allows moderation of climate of earth and organisms to regulate body temperature Ocean currents & energy distribution Cold ocean currents run from poles to equator (cold water sinks ) Warm currents flow from equator to poles (warm water expands) - Ocean currents created great pacific garbage patch Ocean cleanup system captured first plastic from great pacific garbage patch Selected properties of water - Water remains a liquid between 0-100 degrees Celsius allowing water to remain in liquid state in many locations on earth - Water has high surface tension making it adhesive & elastic forming drops and sticking to the sides of vertical surfaces - High tension forms droplets, waves, allows plants to move water (and dissolved nutrients ) from roots to leaves and the movement of blood through small vessels. Great wave of Kanagawa Japanese Wood Block Print Hokusai () Earthquake & tsunaml, Japan 11 March 2011 Hydrological cycle (Rutherford & walliams 2015) - Driven by energy from solar radiation and force of gravity - Water cycle drives planets’ weather systems - Consists of water storage, water flows between storage areas, and flows may be transfers or transformations. the water cycle (national oceanic and atmospheric admiration ) hydrological cycle (Rutherford & walliams 2015) transfers - Advection (wind-blown movement) - Flooding - Surface runoff - Infiltration and percolation (water running into and through soil & rocks ) - Stream flows & currents Surface run off project to reduce amount of raw sewage going into lake Ontario - cbc news, Toronto launches $3B project to improve water quality in Lake Ontario and city’s waterways city faces rising Lake levels and rain events which rain events which storm drains and sewage systems can not handle water / hydrological cycle transformations (changes in the state of water) - evapotranspiration (liquid to water vapour) evaporation + transpiration (from plants) - condensation (water vapour to liquid) - freezing (into solid snow & ice) disappearing Aral Sea (national geographic ) - once the 4th largest body of inland water in Central Asia - water from rivers feeding sea diverted to agriculture - evaporation of sea changes in the physical state of water gas evaporation liquid deposition solid Iceland hods funeral for first glacier lost to climate change The guratian 19 agu 2019 Water / hydrological cycle Storage - oceans - soil - groundwater (aquifer) - lakes - rivers & streams - wetlands - atmosphere - glaciers & ice caps the deep ocean harbors a mountain of microplastic pollution nuwer June 2019 Great Lakes Ares of concern (IJC) - international joint commission - Canada / usa water agency - Guided by 1909 boundary waters treaty Canadian and USA Areas of Concern in the Great Lakes Basin Niagara River Peninsula Conservation Authority Human impacts on the water cycle Withdrawals – irrigation for agriculture, industry, domestic use, drain wetlands (Wetland restoration projects in urban great Lakes Help remediate areas of concern- report by JC on using Wetlands to build resiliency ) Proposed $ 1.5 billion paradise development in Niagara Falls - Retail, restaurants, retirement community - Fight over wetland protection stalls the development project - 201 acres of property is designated provincially significant wetland - MNR increased this to 234 acres Bimini Bay Resort Bahamas & Mangrove Destruction - Deforestation of mangroves in Bimini and danger to marine environment Human impacts on the water cycle dist Love Canal Niagara Falls, New York - 1942- 1953 Hooker Chemical dumped 21,800 tons of industrial hazardous waste into abandoned canal - Canal capped and homes & school built on top - Snow melt from harsh winter in 1977 seeped into site and forced chemicals into groundwater, basements, and on to surface. - Miscarriages, urinary & kidney problems, mental health issues in children. System years on radioactive water at Fukushima plant still flowing into ocean , study finds. Pickering nuclear alert was part of training exercise and meant for internal list, ford’s office says Human impacts on the water cycle Changing speed water flows and where it flows - Incites building roads, channeling rivers underground or in concrete areas - Canalizing – straightening large section of rivers in concrete channel to facilite Diverting rivers or sections of rivers - Diversion to prevent flooding - Diversion towards dams for storage Urbanization leading to increased run-off - Can cause local flooding - Flash flooding when rainfall or snowmelt cannot infiltrate the soil (causes- impermeable surfaces in cities, hard baked soil in dry hot areas) The decline of the British front garden Number of front gardens with gravel or paving has tripled in the last 10 years Human impacts on the water cycle - Deforestation – leads to soil erosion resulting in siltation of lakes & rivers, loss of transpiration causing drier climate (pic: agricultural fields in south- west Periodizes Brazil ) - Agriculture- excessive use of water, irrigation with poor drainage increases soil salinity soluble fertilizers can cause eutrophication (body of water with excessive algae growth) - Climate change How climate change is impacting the water cycle (climate reality project) - Higher temperatures result in more evaporation from land and sea into the atmosphere - As air gets warmer, it can hold more water vapour leading to more intense weather events (storms) - Intense rainstorms increase risk of flooding with water running into rivers & streams and doing little to dampen the soil - Increase temperatures increases risk of drought and sea level as glaciers melt - Ocean water expands as it is heated causing sea level rise - Sunlight reflects off snow out into space. As snow melts, land and oceans are exposed absorbing energy from the sun. Waiting for the tide to turn: Kiribati’s fight for survival – the Guardian, 23 oct 2017 Peak water limits to freshwater withdrawl and use . by Gleick & Palaniappan 2010 - Regional water scarcity is growing problems - Some regions are experiencing limits to growth in water use due to natural, ecological, political or economic constraints. - How can we compare peak oil to peak water? Peak oil - Oil production continue until scarcity and costs lead to production decline faster than new supplies can be found - We will eventually run out of oil Half of oil produced – peak in oil production Comparing oil and water (Gleick & Palaniappan 2010) - Non renewable resources (e.g. oil) are stock limited (we will run out) - Renewable resources (e.g. solar power) are virtually inexhaustible, but are limited by flow rate (a cloudy day may block solar panels) - Water has characteristics of being renewable and non-renewable Water is renewable as flows moves from one stock and form to another Water has isolated stocks being consumed faster than they are being replenished - Us of oil is consumptive - Not all uses of water are consumptive (no longer available ) due to water cycle - There are substitutes for oil but not water - Use of backstop technology as alternative way to get more water and oil at a price - How much are we willing to pay to transport water and remove salt from water? A potential water-production (supply) scenario in a watershed or region Incremental increases in supply from various sources Maximun cost-effective extraction of surface and ground water reached Shift to higher cost sources of water (e.g. desalination, water transfer) 2020—01-27 Mississippi River watershed Acid rain Five year mean of the pH level in rainfall in the eastern regions of Canada and the USA Acid rain impacts on water resources (UN 2006) - Atmospheric contamination from industry & vehicles causes wet& dry deposition - Acid deposition lowers pH, decreases acid neutralizing capacity and increases concentrations of aluminum. - Reduces species diversity and presence of aquatic life. - Improvements have been ade but still critical in parts on North America, Europe&* developing countries (India, China, Korea, Mexico, South Africa, Vietnam) - Problem is transboundary Niagara Peninsula Conservation Authority (NPCA) - Ontario conservation authorities act 1946- conservation, restoration & managing hydrological features - Overseas Niagara Peninsula watershed encompassing Niagara Region & portions of Hamilton and Haldiman County - Monitor of water flow and quality. Sir Adam Beck hydroelectric power generating complex - Owned & operated by Ontario power generation Where does st.catharines get its drinking water from? - Decew Water Treatment plant owned & operated by Regional Municipality of Niagara - Source: surface water from Lake Erie via intake from Welland Canal 6 km from treatment plant near Allanburg - Water diverted along 5.4 km supply channel by gravity to treatment plant. - City has 600 km of watermains serving local street networks - Water sampled daily for microbiological parameters and free chlorine residuals Decew water treatment provides : - Screening - Chemical-assisted flocculation and coagulation (chemicals added to water bind suspended solids which cause heavier particles to sink to bottom of tank) - Filtration - Disinfection using chlorine Water & poverty In fact, no single intervention is more likely to have a significant impact on global poverty than the provision of safe water Agenda - Development & poverty - UN Millennium development goals (MDG) - UN Sustainable development (SDG) - Water security - Water and poverty Ladder of economic development (Sachs 2005) (note: June 2019 populations of earth 7.57 billion ) - 1 billion – high income world (1/6th total earth’s population) - 2.5 billion – middle income (earn a few thousand dollars per year ) - 1.5 billion – the poor ( just above subsistence) - 1 bullion – too sick to step on the ladder Development traps (Collier 2007) - Jeffrey Sach (economist) focuses on consequences of malaria & other health issues - Collier (2007) focus on 4 other areas - 1. Conflict trap - 2. Natural resource trap - 3. Trap of being landlocked with bed neighbours - 4. Bad governance in small country Web of poverty (Chambers 2007) - institutions & access - poverty of time - seasonal dimensions - place of the poor - insecurities - physical illbeing - material poverties - social relations - ascribed and legal inferiority - lack of political clout - lack of information - lack of education capabilities figure : the web of poverty disadvantage efforts to improve access to safe water (Hiral &graham 2019) 1. development interventions began in the 1970s - focus on water as cornerstone of public health and basic human right. Developed countries & international organizations provided assistance. 2. Early project interventions did not consider preference of beneficiaries and water supply & sanitary interventions fell into disrepair. 3. International drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade (1981-1990)- international community committed to safe water and adequate sanitation - On avg, 370,000 people per day received access to water supplier each day (below target) 4. Evolution that water can no longer been seen as water as right but water also is an economic good as it had an environmental and productive value. 5. World conference on Water & Sanitation (2000) published “Vision 21: water for people - By 2025 everyone knows importance of hygiene, education, & enjoy safe water & appropriate sanitation Water are the characteristics of the developing world? Myths about the developing world hans rosling - Are the worlds converging? - Washing machine - Child mortality in developing country UN Millennium development goals started in 2000 with target 2015 MDG 7 Ensure environmental sustainability (Hiral & Graham 2019) - Target 10 – Halve by 2015 the proportion of people without sanitation access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation - Vision 21& MDG brought new approach emphasizing “buy-in” before implementation of water project in a community & stronger focus that improvements are maintained. Also ratification of water & sanitation as human right Efforts to improve access to safe water - UN Water for Life Decade 2005-2015 - Gender aspects of water collection Distribution of households by person responsible for water collection, by region and urban / rural areas. 2005-2007 Role of women in water collection Improvements under the MDGs (Hiral & Graham 2019) Global access to improved water sources increased from 76% in 1990 to 91% in 2015 Improvements not equal across regions 2030 agenda UN SDGs UN SDGs #6 clean water and sanitation - Comprised of targets & indicators for 2030 - Target 6.1 achieve universal and equitable access to safe and affordable drinking water for all - Indicator 6.1.1 proportion of population using safely managed drinking water services - Target 6.2 – achieve access to adequate and equitable sanitation an hygiene for all and end open defecation, paying special attention to the needs of women and girls and those in vulnerable positions. - Indicator 6.2.1 – proportion of population using safely managed sanitation services including a hand-washing facility with soap & water UN SDG #6 water and sanitation for all (progress in 2019) - % of global population using safe drinking water increased from 61% (2000) to 71% (2015) 785 million still lack basic drinking water - % of global population using safely managed sanitation increased from 28% (2000) to 43% (2015) - In 2017 estimated 3 billion without hand washing facilities at home. - 1/3 of all primary schools lack basic drinking water, sanitation & hygiene services affecting millions of school children but particularly girls managing menstruation. Transition form MDGs to UN SDGs - SDGs address hygiene by monitoring availability of hand washing facilities – new focus on WASH (water, sanitation & hygiene) - SDGs more emphasis on reducing inequalities in WASH, SDG call for universal and equitable access - SDG targets monitor WASH facilities at institutions (schools, health centres) rather than just at households Joint Monitoring programme for water supply & sanitation (JMP) - Housed in world health organisation & UNICEF and is official UN Mechanism for monitoring progress UN SDG#6 Proportion of population using improved drinking water source Proportion of population using an improved sanitation facility % of population using at least basic drinking water service 2015 2020-02-03 spatial & Social Inequalities in access to drinking water (Hiral & Graham 2019) - Social equity – vulnerable groups : women, those with HIV/ AIDS, elderly, poor, disabled, orphans, widows, etc. - Spatial – 9/10 who drink surface water live in rural areas; less than 10% of people in many South Asian cities receive 24 hour a day piped water supply, - Social & spatial – large % of urban population without water are poor; large% of rural populations that spend time collecting water are women. Figure: Number of children who spend more than 30 minutes for household drinking water subSaharan Africa. Water security framework of five interdependent key dimensions (Asian development band 2018) Water security (Asian development band 2018) 1. Household- acces ...
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Final Answer

Hello. I am through with the paper, I passed it through grammarly to ensure that grammar is perfect and also turnitin for plagiarism. The paper is good now. However, you can contact me in case you want anything more. pleasure working with you. goodbye

Running Head: WATER POLLUTION

1

WATER POLLUTION
Name of Student
School name
Date of Submission

WATER POLLUTION

2
WATER POLLUTION

Introduction
Water pollution is a major problem for water resources in the world. This brings great
Importance to review water resources policies at all levels.

The main objective of this

assignment would be to try and see major sources of water pollution, water resources policies
and challenges that are present in trying to improve water quality in the whole world. This article
argues out that the human heart and kidney would be greatly affected when pollution increases in
the world. (Ansari, 2020) Other health problems that are associated with water pollution include
cholera, poor blood circulation and damage to the entire nervous system. At the end of all that
we would also discuss water resource policies and try to provide solutions that would be of very
great help for policymakers to try and improve water quality in different parts of the world and
also in the future.
An overview of Water pollution in the world
In the twenty-first century, environmental problems are some of our biggest challenges.
Water pollution is one of these environmental diseases that cause a huge scourge to our society
today. Water is an integral part of the environment and very vital to human and industrial
development (Chen, 2016). This resource needs to be managed in a very sustainable manner to
provide a cover to cover the growing human population and a good number of resources as well.
In many developed countries, water resource management is very problematic due to inadequate
approach which is usually met with little or no participation from every individual apart from the
government itself. According to(Mousa,2017), The change of government policies would play a
very key role to emphasize different sectors of the economy such as agriculture and industrial
work to conserve water resources that are present at the moment. It is advised by most

WATER POLLUTION

3

governments that we should protect our water resources at all costs as it is a very rich aspect of
the maintenance of our world’s ecosystem. Water pollution is a problem that impacts negatively
on the sustainability of water resources. Moreover, it also affects plants and other living
organisms which form part of the world’s economy. Water pollution reduces water availability as
the cost of treating water is very high. Quantity of available water...

Brialice (1953)
Rice University

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