Humanities
Unnatural and Unethical Processes of Zoos Argumentative Research Paper

Question Description

I’m stuck on a English question and need an explanation.

8 pages and 10 Works Cited

Topic: Whether Zoos should be banned

Sample paper and Research proposal attached below

-The title must be something creative

- It must have the minimum amount of sources listed in the assignment sheet.

- It must adhere to all MLA Guidelines. This means it needs to have in-text citations, a works cited page that is formatted correctly by the aforementioned guidelines, use attributive tags, introduce source material in a clear and concise manner

This assignment is your chance to take a position on a question at issue and argue for your perspective. This work is, of course, an academic argument, and as such, it relies heavily on research and logic. Your job in this assignment is to participate in a conversation in which other scholars are already engaged and to inject your own thoughts. You should not be simply repeating what another person has said, nor should you be making your argument without taking into account what other people have said about your topic.

You must synthesize other perspectives as you work to develop your own claim and argument; you are not arguing in a vacuum. Remember, you are participating in a conversation, and so you must understand the debate that has gone on before and connect your argument to that debate. You have already chosen a question at issue and developed a tentative claim in your research proposal; you must now develop your argument using all the writing skills in your repertoire—summary, response, synthesis, analysis, etc.

You will be graded on your ability to participate in academic discourse, your mastery of conventions and style, and your critical thinking skills as demonstrated in your argumentation. You must meaningfully cite and synthesize at least seven academic sources in your paper.

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English 102: Argumentative Research Paper Length: 8-10 pages and a Works Cited page Total Points: 350 points Assignment This assignment is your chance to take a position on a question at issue and argue for your perspective. This work is, of course, an academic argument, and as such, it relies heavily on research and logic. Your job in this assignment is to participate in a conversation in which other scholars are already engaged and to inject your own thoughts. You should not be simply repeating what another person has said, nor should you be making your argument without taking into account what other people have said about your topic. You must synthesize other perspectives as you work to develop your own claim and argument; you are not arguing in a vacuum. Remember, you are participating in a conversation, and so you must understand the debate that has gone on before and connect your argument to that debate. You have already chosen a question at issue and developed a tentative claim in your research proposal; you must now develop your argument using all the writing skills in your repertoire—summary, response, synthesis, analysis, etc. You will be graded on your ability to participate in academic discourse, your mastery of conventions and style, and your critical thinking skills as demonstrated in your argumentation. You must meaningfully cite and synthesize at least seven academic sources in your paper. THIS PAPER MUST FOLLOW THE TOULMIN ARGUMENT STRUCTURE. Organization • Introduction: In the opening paragraph or two of your essay, introduce the question at issue and its significance today. Be sure to provide any necessary context or background information for your readers. Next, clearly state your thesis (claim). • Subsequent paragraphs: In the body of your paper, you will present reasoning and evidence to support your claim and use sources intertextually. Exactly how you organize the body of your paper will depend on your question at issue and claim, but the backbone of your paper should follow the Toulmin structure for making arguments. That is, you should start with a qualified claim (in your introduction) and reasons/evidence, uncover and examine your warrants, provide backing for those warrants, consider and critique conditions of rebuttal, and conclude your argument (in your conclusion). We will discuss ways to organize your reasons/evidence. While the organization of your paper will depend on the question at issue and claim, make sure the organization you use is logical and coherent (i.e., each paragraph links logically with the paragraphs coming before and after it). • Conclusion: In your conclusion, you will conclude your argument and briefly summarize your most important reasons/evidence. If appropriate, discuss any implications of your claim (i.e., any possible future effects or results). Works Cited Include a Works Cited entry, on a separate page, for all sources you use. The Works Cited page will not include annotations. Submission Requirements • The Works Cited page should be part of the same document but should be on a different page. Grading Criteria: Your paper will be graded according to the following criteria. Plagiarism will result in a failing grade for the paper and perhaps for the course as well. Criteria SYNTHESIS ___ Source information and evidence are presented so that members of the audience unfamiliar with the source can understand. ___ Sources are synthesized purposefully; that is, they are not only summarized but also applied, challenged, qualified, and employed to advance an argument. ___ The sources are used intertextually (that is, there is a discussion established among the sources). ARGUMENTATION ___ The introduction firmly establishes the question at issue, and the paper takes a clear, qualified position on that question. ___ The paper develops a logical academic argument using a variety of evidence, appeals to pathos, ethos, and logos, and effective style. ___ The paper is organized according to the Toulmin outline. ___ The paper presents and supports clear, thoughtful reasons for the claim, warrants and backing, and conditions for rebuttal in convincing ways. ___ The paper demonstrates thorough research, critical thinking, and argumentation abilities. ___ The conclusion effectively draws the paper to a close and, if appropriate, explores implications of the claim. Points /120 /140 COMPLETENESS AND FORMATTING ___ Source material is cited according to MLA guidelines. ___ Works Cited entries are provided; at least seven sources are meaningfully cited. ___ Basic and submission requirements are met. ___ Two peer-reviews have been completed. /40 EDITING AND PROOFREADING ___ The writing employs words and sentence structures appropriate to the demands of the rhetorical situation. ___ The essay is coherent and unified. ___ The essay is free of proofreading errors. /50 TOTAL: /350 Student A 1 Student A Professor Ryan Bailey English 102 March 22nd, 2017 The Advantage of Fortified Foods Micronutrient deficiency is a daunting and pressing issue in the world. Despite the abundance of calories produced globally, many food items lack in the minerals and vitamins essential for health because of processing or because some crops aren’t sufficient for providing nutrients. Without these key micronutrients people develop deficiencies, which can lead to other health complications, causing the suffering of the victims, their communities, and even their government. The effects of micronutrient deficiency can be drastic, often as neural tube defects (NTDs) caused by lack of folic acid, anemia from iron deficiency, and blindness from vitamin A deficiency. However, there are limitations to fortifying foods and attempting to end the diseases associated with deficiencies because of accessibility and efficacy, and also because other methods should be taken into consideration. Fortification of foods does provide some hope, though, in addressing many deficiency-related issues. The fortification of foods by the government can ensure the health of the population and prevent disease because without it people would develop deficiencies, which is detrimental to society. Folic acid is a micronutrient that is important because, according to a review by Scott D. Grosse et al. about the economic advantage of folic acid fortification, it “protects against two neural tube defects (NTDs), spina bifida and anencephaly” when a mother consumes sufficient amounts during the first month of pregnancy. A neural tube defect is when the spine, spinal cord, or brain of a fetus are deformed, usually in the first month of pregnancy. Since the neural tube is Student A 2 formed so early in pregnancy, deformities occur often before a woman knows that she is pregnant, and she wouldn’t know to increase her intake of folic acid. Neural tube defects are permanent and severe, appearing most often as spina bifida, the incomplete closing of the spinal column, or anencephaly, which is where the brain or skull do not fully develop, and usually results in death. The United States’ government encourages the fortification of flour and cereals by manufacturers to increase their nutritive value (Grosse). Margaret A. Honein et al. reviews the impact of folic acid fortification on NTDs since its introduction, and describes that the FDA does not require fortification, but for flour to be called “enriched,” it must meet a standard for replacing vitamins and minerals lost during processing since the USDA authorized folic acid enrichment in 1996. Enriched flour must have 140 micrograms folic acid per gram to be called enriched. The oversight and efforts to encourage and enforce fortification standards of folic acid are estimated to cost the government $4 million annually. The overall savings of fortification, though, are $607 million dollars in 2014 dollars (Grosse). These savings include medical costs and caregiving over the course of the lifetime of a person born with spina bifida. However, this dollar amount does not account the enormous suffering that families could be spared from. Folic acid is a micronutrient that is stable and easy to add to foods, and the costs of fortifying flour, masa, and other food products is well worth the benefit of preventing NTDs, for both the families afflicted and for the government in saving time, money, and emotional burden. However, too much of a good thing can prove harmful. Although folic acid has great potential in preventing NTDs, there are some risk factors related to overconsumption, according to Mark Lucock et al. in a review of the possible harmful effects of folic acid: “Increased folate [folic acid] intake has also been associated with twin birth and insulin resistance in offspring, and altered epigenetic mechanisms of inheritance,” as well as Student A 3 a possible correlation between folic acid and colorectal cancer, autism spectrum disorder, and epilepsy. Twin births are dangerous to both mother and children, especially in developing countries. Insulin resistance is when insulin receptors in the body’s cells need more insulin to activate, and resistance can lead to diabetes. Epigenetic mechanisms refers to the way that DNA is regulated and controlled in cells. These possible effects of folic acid were noticed to increase as folic acid fortification was implemented or mandated in several countries, such as the United States, Australia, and others. Since individual needs for folic acid vary and because it “...should be evaluated taking account of nutritional condition and genetic background,” (Lucock) the implementation of folic acid fortification should be monitored to find the safe and effective levels in populations. Despite the arguments cautioning folic acid fortification, Lucock et al. cedes that the decreased incidence of NTDs and the decreased mortality after strokes show that the fortification has achieved its goal. Another essential micronutrient is iron, which is used by the body to transport oxygen in the blood. Without enough iron people develop anemia, which refers to a decrease in red blood cells or hemoglobin in the blood, meaning that there is less oxygen transported efficiently throughout the body. Iron-deficiency anemia is the most common kind of anemia and appears as shortness of breath, paleness, and a person’s condition can continue to deteriorate until they get internal bleeding, and eventually die. Iron is a mineral that is not easily added to processed foods because it can oxidize in the food, causing spoilage, and can impart unappealing color and taste. However, according to Venkatesh Mannar and Erick Boy Gallego in their review of fortification of iron in soy sauce in China, fish sauce in Vietnam, and rice in the Philippines and Venezuela, when a food vehicle is carefully selected, iron fortification can be effective in reducing anemia. By adding iron to soy sauce consumed by Chinese women, the surveyors observed in just six Student A 4 months a significant decrease in anemia cases; in some age groups cases dropped by half, whereas the soy sauce without iron fortification caused no change. The trend of reducing anemia by fortifying foods and condiments is shared by the other studies in Vietnam, Venezuela, and the Philippines (Mannar and Gallego). In these carefully selected food vehicles, based on cultural consumption and stability of the mineral, iron fortification decreased anemia rates. Finding an effective way to increase iron intake in developing areas is important because anemia is a debilitating disease to the individual, to their family, and their community because their bodies cannot perform properly without oxygen being transported efficiently. Anemia and its harmful impact is solvable by the government fortifying foods with iron, especially if the right kind of food is selected for the right population. In some cases, some micronutrients can be harmful in too high of quantities. Just as too much folic acid was found by Lucock to be harmful, so is vitamin A. Vitamin A is well known for its importance in vision, but is also known for being highly toxic in the retinoid form, which comes from animals or is produced synthetically. According to Kristina L. Penniston and Sherry A. Tanumihardjo in their review of the acute and chronic vitamin A toxicity, retinoid vitamin A is absorbed at a higher rate at 70-90%, which is much greater than carotenoids, the plant form at 20-50%, which lends to it being more toxic. Penniston and Tanumihardjo focus on both the acute effects of vitamin A toxicity, meaning the more immediate problems from a high dosage, as well as the chronic effects. Acute vitamin A toxicity occurs when adults consume over 100 times the recommended daily allowance and in children just 20 times (Penniston and Tanumihardjo). Ann Pietrangelo states that when a person consumes too much vitamin A in a short period of time, the acute effects can be serious: the liver is poisoned, causing nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain , and in the most severe overdoses death. The chronic effects of Student A 5 vitamin A toxicity are less noticeable, appearing as a deterioration of bone health, leading to osteoporosis (Penniston and Tanumihardjo). Even in poor countries vitamin A toxicity is a problem because sometimes people are given mega doses, which are extremely high doses of vitamin A, even exceeding the toxicity standard. These mega doses are given in the hopes of curing a disease, such as vitamin A deficient-blindness or to protect newborns through breast milk (Penniston and Tanumihardjo). However, Penniston and Tanumihardjo claim that this strategy to use breast milk as a vehicle for vitamin A to newborns is ineffective. Penniston and Tanumihardjo conclude that chronic vitamin A toxicity needs more research, and that while vitamin A deficiency is a greater concern, its toxic effects must also be monitored. In the effort to prevent deficiencies and prevent disease, the government should continue to fortify foods with vitamin A, but it must be carefully monitored to avoid deleterious effects of toxicity. Another way to increase the vitamin and mineral content of foods besides fortification is biofortification. Biofortification is when a plant is caused to have more of a micronutrient by breeding or genetic engineering it to produce or absorb more. For example, Hannah R. Manwarng et al. describes the potential of the grain pearl millet as a vector for zinc and iron, and how it is a hardy plant used by many cultures as a staple source of grain. In impoverished areas, people do not have access to foods higher in mineral content--even beans, rice, and leafy greens can be limited. In these areas people rely on grains, which are low in zinc and iron, especially after processing into flour (Manwarng). To combat this Manwarng suggests the biofortification of pearl millet because it is widely consumed in West and East Africa as well as India, because it is such a hardy crop, and because it is more nutritious than wheat or rice. By selective breeding of pearl millet researchers can increase its zinc and iron content. To selectively breed for zinc and iron would entail the crossing of parent plants with already high concentrations, and Student A 6 continue doing crosses to obtain efficient plants with higher amounts of zinc and iron. Cross pollination is a common, simple way to breed, but is not as precise as other processes, such as in vitro fertilization in a petri dish. Transgenic mutation is also a prospective way to manipulate the plants for biofortification, which would mean that the genome of the millet would be altered for the desired outcome (Manwarng). To change the genome of the millet could involve several different methods. Of these methods there is the “gene gun” which shoots a gene stuck on microscopic plastic beads into seeds, hoping that they land at the right spot. Another method is to use a virus as a vector by having a virus insert the target gene into the plant’s cells, and there is also the method of splicing using bacterial plasmids. Manwarng claims that fortification and supplementation are “not sustainable and suffer major drawbacks,” and that biofortification is the most sustainable form of nutrient intervention. Since fortification alone may not be the strongest option, alternatives should be considered. In a comprehensive review of micronutrient fortification and its impact on the health of women and children, Jai K. Das et al. analyze the fortification of zinc, iron, folic acid, vitamin A, iodine, vitamin D, and calcium by assessing over two hundred studies. In reference to the effectiveness of iodine, folic acid, and iron fortification in women in improving deficiencyrelated problems, Das et al. claims “this evidence suggests that mass fortification strategies can be extremely productive and beneficial for numerous health outcomes.” Beyond simply adding micronutrients to food, it is important to consider the food vehicle (Das et al.). The food vehicle must be stable and have a medium that can preserve a mineral or vitamin, but also be accessible and feasible to have a high enough intake and absorbance to be effective. While condiments may be good at containing certain micronutrients, they are not consumed in as large of quantities as Student A 7 staples (Das et al.). Researchers and government programs should observe and consider what foods are best to dose people with micronutrients for efficacy as well as what foods they will eat. Cultural acceptance is also an important factor to consider. In the United States the fortification of teff or millet would not be effective to the majority of people, just as fortifying soy sauce in Ghana would not be prudent. The cultural aspects of food must be scrutinized to avoid a waste of resources and money. Also the target population in terms of greatest need must be taken into account (Das et al.) because some regions are in dire need of certain micronutrients while others already have plenty; inland areas that don’t have volcanoes require iodine fortification, but coastal and volcanic areas do not need this investment. Fortification is important, but it is limited by these factors. Das et al, concludes that while more studies are needed for developing areas, education is also necessary in combating micronutrient deficiency, “Community education and promotion campaigns should also be implemented parallel to the primary fortification programs to increase awareness, acceptability and equity.” By educating people about the micronutrients that they need, they can know that they must eat vegetables and fruits as well as their staples. Education is also related to the teaching of communities how to grow different crops or raise animals to supplement their basic diets. Access to micronutrientrich foods also has potential in combating deficiencies. With so many approaches and strategies, the pursuit of preventing disease caused by micronutrient deficiencies is complicated and arduous, involving much more than pouring a universal blend into cornflakes. Fortification is a worthwhile pursuit, though. Prevailing evidence shows that fortification has enormous potential in preventing and curing disease. Anemia, NTDs, and other diseases have strong ties to micronutrient deficiencies. By increasing the intake of the micronutrients associated with deficient-related diseases, populations can be vastly improved. Iron fortification Student A 8 is shown to decrease anemia cases (Mannar and Gallego), folic acid can prevent NTDs, which spares families and communities an emotional and financial burden (Grosse et al.), and other micronutrients help the health of women and children (Das et al.). Micronutrient fortification in foods is shown by these reviewers to be effective in combating disease, yet other options and approaches must be taken into ac ...
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Final Answer

here you go hun, really only the references coming back in turnitin so you are good to go, if any revisions are needed i can do them right away and if not, have a blessed and safe day!

Last Name 1
The Unnatural and Unethical Processes of Zoos
Instructor
Class
Date
Name
The Unnatural and Unethical Processes of Zoos
There is no denying how the world has evolved in the last century. In these changes,
humans became more aware of the rights they have and as a result, many awareness has risen
towards societies bringing change. Of that awareness, animals’ rights have also emerged as
activists fight against the cruelty of animals done by mankind. Demanding for bans on zoos have
become endeavors to end the misery that animals are enduring. Human rights activists feel that
when humans confine animals in unnatural and manmade environments for entertainment to
other humans, this goes beyond what is ethical and moral (Pojman). Zoos have become the
problem, not the solution to animal conversation and protection.
Zoos were created for the public to entertain and educate people on hundreds of different
animal species (Pojman). Although this seems to be a great element and something good comes
out of it, the animals locked up in zoos are enduring unnatural responses to the entertainment that
humans are achieving by them. Many animals are kept in confined spaces, bear significant
environmental, weather, and habitat changes that make it difficult for the species to adapt to their
new environment and the unknown conditions of weather. Because of these drastic changes that
animals are going through, they generally do not live to their full potential life span as they
would have in their natural environments (Pojman).

Last Name 2
The argument that zoos were created to protect species and those who are endangered it
irrelevant because it seems to be ironically killing them in the end. Human rights activists insist
that animals need to be secured in their natural environments for proper growth and living while
insisting that zoos must be banned because they take away the natural rights of animals
(Pojman). The deprivation of animals just to entertain and educate humans is unethical because
humans are supposed to take their rights and rationally become responsible for the protection and
lives of mother nature and living creatures within it. Zoos are sabotaging the natural order and
life cycle of wild animals.
The government should create more wildlife sanctuaries such as safaris with educated
and properly trained guided officials to allow humans to actively become involved and learn the
natural life and cycles of animals (Pojman). This would provide vast opportunities for the public
to observe wildlife in the natural habitat as opposed to a manmade habitat that is unethical and
improperly set up for especially the larger animals. Captivating animals and taking them from
their natural surroundings and placing them in a manmade environment for them to thrive is like
humans kidnapping other humans and chaining them up as their slaves.
Captivating wild animals for entertainment and educational purposes is unacceptable
gestures that humans have practiced for decades. The lives of animals are just as important as the
lives of humans. animals help maintain a natural cycle of events in many environments that when
removed from those environments, the cycles of other animals that are left there get interrupted
as well (Pojman). When not given enough space and exercise, activists see this as animal abuse.
Due to the lack of space and movement larger animals can m...

New York University

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