Health Medical
ENVH 502 University of Nairobi Coliforms Risk Assessment Lab Report

ENVH 502

University of Nairobi

ENVH

Question Description

I’m studying for my Nursing class and don’t understand how to answer this. Can you help me study?

ENVH 502 Assignment 3, March 16, 2020

Background

You are a public health inspector working and living in the small Town of Concordia which has a population of approximately 25,000 people.The Town has 2 schools, one of which is kindergarten to Grade 6 and the second is a combined junior high – high school.The Town has approximately 10 restaurants that includes 2 fast-food restaurants and 2 restaurants/coffee shops in the local hotel.There are 2 grocery stores and 3 gas stations that sell limited foods (e.g. pop, chips, candy, coffee, etc.).The Town has a 50-bed hospital where 10 of the beds are long-care beds and there is a 50-unit seniors lodge.The Town also has the Provincial Courthouse, as well as a local RCMP detachment.There is a small industrial park on the north edge of the Town with about 20 industrial businesses (e.g. welding, light industrial manufacturing, oilfield supply, etc.).The Town has a local recreation fitness complex with an indoor gym, swimming pool, 4 meeting rooms for meetings and an outdoor water spray park and playground.

The Town’s high-quality drinking water is produced from two groundwater wells at the south edge of the town and is stored in an on-site reservoir operated and maintained by the Town’s water utility.The groundwater has been suspected to be possibly under the influence of a nearby local surface water body (i.e. groundwater is a GUDI raw water source), therefore water treatment is the same as for a surface raw water source (i.e. flocculation, sedimentation, filtration, and finally chloramination before distribution to the treated water reservoir and out into the water distribution system to customers).The chlorine residual is in the form of chloramine which is typically about 2 ppm total chlorine leaving the water treatment plane and going into the water reservoir.The Town also operates a bulk water station or truck-fill, which is supplied by the Town’s treated drinking water supply.There is a small campground (20 fully serviced RV stalls and 25 camping stalls with serviced public washrooms (i.e. toilets, sinks, showers) and a small convenience store that sells basic canned and boxed non-perishable food, milk, pop, ice-cream, hot dogs, bread, etc.) just outside the Town, and where the campground receives it’s potable water from the Town via a distribution system line to the campground.

The Town’s water utility operators take weekly treated water samples at the water plant, the treated water reservoir and at key locations throughout the Town (i.e. local firehall, Town municipal offices, Town high school, bulk water station, the Town seniors recreation centre) than the minimum that would be required by the Guidelines for Canadian Drinking Water for a population of that size (i.e. minimum would be 4 samples per month).

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Send completed assignment to assignment dropbox by the deadline of Thursday March 26, 2020 ENVH 502 Assignment 3, March 16, 2020 Background You are a public health inspector working and living in the small Town of Concordia which has a population of approximately 25,000 people. The Town has 2 schools, one of which is kindergarten to Grade 6 and the second is a combined junior high – high school. The Town has approximately 10 restaurants that includes 2 fast-food restaurants and 2 restaurants/coffee shops in the local hotel. There are 2 grocery stores and 3 gas stations that sell limited foods (e.g. pop, chips, candy, coffee, etc.). The Town has a 50-bed hospital where 10 of the beds are long-care beds and there is a 50-unit seniors lodge. The Town also has the Provincial Courthouse, as well as a local RCMP detachment. There is a small industrial park on the north edge of the Town with about 20 industrial businesses (e.g. welding, light industrial manufacturing, oilfield supply, etc.). The Town has a local recreation fitness complex with an indoor gym, swimming pool, 4 meeting rooms for meetings and an outdoor water spray park and playground. The Town’s high-quality drinking water is produced from two groundwater wells at the south edge of the town and is stored in an on-site reservoir operated and maintained by the Town’s water utility. The groundwater has been suspected to be possibly under the influence of a nearby local surface water body (i.e. groundwater is a GUDI raw water source), therefore water treatment is the same as for a surface raw water source (i.e. flocculation, sedimentation, filtration, and finally chloramination before distribution to the treated water reservoir and out into the water distribution system to customers). The chlorine residual is in the form of chloramine which is typically about 2 ppm total chlorine leaving the water treatment plane and going into the water reservoir. The Town also operates a bulk water station or truck-fill, which is supplied by the Town’s treated drinking water supply. There is a small campground (20 fully serviced RV stalls and 25 camping stalls with serviced public washrooms (i.e. toilets, sinks, showers) and a small convenience store that sells basic canned and boxed non-perishable food, milk, pop, ice-cream, hot dogs, bread, etc.) just outside the Town, and where the campground receives it’s potable water from the Town via a distribution system line to the campground. The Town’s water utility operators take weekly treated water samples at the water plant, the treated water reservoir and at key locations throughout the Town (i.e. local firehall, Town municipal offices, Town high school, bulk water station, the Town seniors recreation centre) than the minimum that would be required by the Guidelines for Canadian Drinking Water for a population of that size (i.e. minimum would be 4 samples per month). Issue(s) It is about 3 pm on a Friday afternoon of the upcoming long weekend in July and the weather forecast is for warm sunny weather for the next few weeks, ranging from daytime highs of 25o C to 30o C. This is the same weather that has happened for the past few weeks. You are at your desk in the local public health office that afternoon going through the drinking water reports faxed to the public health office from the Provincial Laboratory of Public Health and notice that a number of the Town’s water samples this past week were positive for total coliforms. You go to your supervisor, who asks you to prepare a risk assessment briefing document about this situation within the next hour or less for your Supervisor to consider what environmental public health measures may need to be considered quickly before the upcoming long weekend. The risk assessment must consider whether or not it may be necessary to immediately issue a public health “Boil Water Advisory” or not and the reasons why you would make that recommendation to your supervisor, who will then confer with the Medical Officer of Health (MOH). (note, the Provincial Laboratory doesn’t accept water samples on holidays or weekends) Assignment Parameters 1. The risk assessment and reasons should be about 1 page, or less in length. • The risk assessment should have a 1 paragraph high-level summary of the issue and a statement of what public health action(s) you would recommend based on the actual risk assessment you quickly conducted. 1 Send completed assignment to assignment dropbox by the deadline of Thursday March 26, 2020 • • • The balance of the risk assessment briefing document should tell why you are making the recommendations for action, or not, to provide your supervisor and MOH with the information they will need shortly. The document should use complete, grammatically correct sentences; bullet points to highlight specific public health issues that support your recommendations for action can be used, but the entire document should not be a list of bullet points either. In a situation that has the potential for a public health incident/emergency, a hour or so of lead time, especially just before a weekend or holiday, that is about as much time as a public health inspector may have to do an evidence informed/evidence-based risk assessment for senior RHA administration. The higher administrative decision makers have only a short window of time to read this type of “issues alert” document to make a final decision as to what needs to be done quickly. 2. Irrespective of what you recommended for part 1 of this assignment, your supervisor and MOH have decided to issue a “precautionary” Boil Water Order (BWO). You have been directed to work with your facility operators to ensure they know what needs to be done and what signage needs to be posted in public places. The RHA Communications staff work with the MOH, who will be announcing the BWO on the local radio/TV station shortly. Therefore, you are working overtime before you are able to go your home in the Town of Concordia. You and your family are now also directly affected by the precautionary BWO. 3. Based on your public health knowledge of what the recommendations are for the public during a BWO, try, for 1 day, to actually live like you are in a real BWO situation. Please provide some cursory information about the number of people, pets, whether or not children are involved, as this helps me to better understand the actions you took, as well as your insights/issues/comments etc. for this part of the assignment. i. Keep a “journal/diary” summary of actions you had to take in your own home and what those experiences were like for you for that one day. Personal insights, issues or difficulties encountered, etc. are valid to record in the diary as that will give you a real insight of the effects on the community. ii. The “journal/diary” summary should be about a page or so and can be in a table form (e.g. column headers could look something like “action taken”, with a second column heading of “insights/issues” and perhaps a third column with the heading “comments”. 4. Assignment Grading: Total of 100 points; worth 5% of total final grade for this course. a. Question #1: 70 points, broken down as: 65 points for risk assessment and justification; 5 points for grammar/writing style. b. Question #2: 30 points, broken down as: 15 points for trying to live under a BWA (based on the actions you record you took in the “diary/journal”; 15 points for sharing the issues/insights/difficulties you personally experience while living under a simulated BWA scenario 2 ...
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Final Answer

Attached.

Running head: RISK ASSESSMENT

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Risk Assessment
Student’s Name:
Institutional Affiliation:

RISK ASSESSMENT

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Risk Assessment

Based on the lab results from last week, the town water contains total coliforms.
Coliforms are bacterial organisms found in the digestive tracts of warm-blooded creatures
including human beings. The bacteria may also be present in the environment, particularly in
plants and soil. The lab report also stated that a majority of the pathogens contaminating the
town water have come from the feces of both animals and humans (McGinnis, Spencer,
Firnstahl, et al. 2018). The coliforms were also an indication of water pollution. While some
coliforms may result in severe illnesses that can even cause death, most of them pose no
particular threat to human health. The town people are, therefore, at a risk of contracting waterborne diseases.
Based on my evaluation of the risks involved, I would recommend that a “Boil Water
Advisory” be issued to kill these pathogens and make the water fit for human consumption
(Blake, Yoder & Kou, 2016). For those who find it quite challenging to boil the water, I would
urge them to consider using bottled water for drinking and preparing food.

I would recommend that the two wells undergo regular inspection so that any necessary
repairs can be made. The contamination could be c...

New York University

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