Computer Science
King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals Password Cracking and Tools PPT

King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals

Question Description

I’m working on a Computer Science exercise and need support.

I need The research paper about " Password Cracking and Tools".

student should choose a research paper from top-tier conferences or journals

The papers listed as extra reading in the syllabus may represent a good starting point for paper selection

you needs to read and deeply understand the research problem tackled by the paper. For that, they need to read all important referenced papers as well. each group should submit the following before the presentation day

1- A short paper (6-8 pages). Attachment template.

2-Presentation of maximum 15 slides describing the topic and the work of the student.

Unformatted Attachment Preview

First-name Surname1*, Second-name Surname2 and Third-name Surname3 Affiliation 1, Email address, University, City, Country Affiliation 1, Email address, University, City, Country 3 Affiliation 1, Email address, University, City, Country 1 2 *Corresponding Author ABSTRACT An Abstract is required for every article; it should succinctly summarize the reason for the work, the main findings, and the conclusions of the study. The abstract should be no longer than 250 words. Do not include artwork, tables, elaborate equations or references to other parts of the article or to the reference listing at the end. The reason is that the Abstract should be understandable in itself to be suitable for storage in textual information retrieval systems. Keywords: Keyword_1; Keyword_2; Keyword_3; Keyword_4; Keyword_5 1. Introduction We believe a template should help you, not hinder you, in authoring your article. It should follow you in how you want to write your article, not force you to fill in bits and pieces of text. It should allow you to type any text, copy from previous versions, or load an already existing plain text to be formatted. You will therefore find no fill-in screens; you will not need to remember shortcut keys, to use lists of styles, bother about alignment, indents, fonts and point sizes. Just a mouse-click at one of the menu options will give you the style that you want. The objective of this template is to enable you in an easy way to style your article attractively. It should be emphasized, however, that the final appearance of your article in print and in electronic media will very likely vary to greater or lesser extent from the presentation achieved in this Word® document. 2.1. Article Size The Manuscript should be prepared in English language by using MS Word. Article can be up to 12 pages inclusive references and abstract. Supply some 3–5 keywords, separated with semicolons, e.g., Azomethine ylide; Claisen rearrangement; Diels-Alder cycloaddition; Enantioselective catalysis; Ionic liquid; Metathesis; Microwave-assisted synthesis. 3. The main text You will usually want to divide your article into (numbered) sections. Headings should reflect the relative importance of the sections. Your article can go beyond 4th order heading. Ensure that all tables, figures and schemes are cited in the text in numerical order. Trade names should have an initial capital letter, and trademark protection should be acknowledged in the standard fashion, using the superscripted characters for trademarks and registered trademarks respectively. All measurements and data should be given in SI (System International) units where possible, or other internationally accepted units. Abbreviations should be used consistently throughout the text, and all nonstandard abbreviations should be defined on first usage. The experimental information should be as concise as possible, while containing all the information necessary to guarantee reproducibility. 2. The first page Naturally, your article should start with a concise and informative title. Do not use abbreviations in title. Next, list all authors with their first names or initials and surnames (in that order). Indicate the author for correspondence. After having listed all authors’ names, you should list their respective affiliations. Link authors and affiliations using superscript lower-case letters from the ‘Author Footnote Symbols’ menu in the toolbar. 1 Figure 1. (a) Fairness index, (b) Average Fairness Index Table 1. Table, version 1 Parameter Slot time ACK size RTS size CTS size Data packet size DIFS interval SIFS interval CWmin CWmax Bandwidth Transport protocol Value 20 μs 20 bytes 25 bytes 20 bytes 1000 bytes 40 μs 10 μs 31 1023 2 Mbps UDP Parameter Slot time ACK size RTS size CTS size Data packet size DIFS interval SIFS interval CWmin CWmax Bandwidth Transport protocol Value 20 μs 20 bytes 25 bytes 20 bytes 1000 bytes 40 μs 10 μs 31 1023 2 Mbps UDP 3.1. Tables, figures and schemes All citations of figure and tables in text must be in numerical order. Citations to figures in text always carry the word “Figure.”, “Table.” followed by the figure/table number. You can choose to display figure/table through one column (see Table 1, Figure 1) or across the page (see Table 2, Figure 2). Remember that we will always also need high-resolution versions of your figures for printing in (i.e. TIFF) format. Table 2. Table, version 2 Parameter Slot time ACK size RTS size CTS size Data packet size DIFS interval Bandwidth Transport protocol Figure 2. Overload on GV and IV vehicles Value 20 μs 20 bytes 25 bytes 20 bytes 1000 bytes 40 μs 2 Mbps UDP 3.2. Lists For tabular summations that do not deserve to be presented as a table, lists are often used. Lists may be either numbered or bulleted. Below you see examples of both. 1. The first entry in the list 2. The second entry 3. A subentry 4. The last entry • • 2 A bulleted list item Another one You can use the Bullets and Numbering options in the ‘Formatting’ toolbar of Word® to create lists. Note that you should first block the whole list. A sublisting is coded using the ‘Increase Indent’ (go to a sublevel of numbering) and ‘Decrease Indent’ (go to a higher level of numbering) buttons. Basic format for journals: [5] J. K. Author, “Name of article,” Abbrev. Title of Periodical, vol. x, no. x, pp. xxx-xxx, Abbrev. Month, year. Examples: [6] J. U. Duncombe, “Infrared navigation—Part I: An assessment of feasibility,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices, vol. ED-11, no. 1, pp. 34– 39, Jan. 1959. [7] E. P. Wigner, “Theory of traveling-wave optical laser,” Phys. Rev., vol. 134, pp. A635–A646, Dec. 1965. [8] E. H. Miller, “A note on reflector arrays,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat., to be published. 3.3. Equations Equations within an article are numbered consecutively from the beginning of the article to the end. All variables are italic. (e.g., x, y, n). Function names and abbreviations are Roman (sin, cos, sinc, sinh), as are units or unit abbreviations (e.g., deg, Hz,) complete words (e.g., in, out), and abbreviations of words (e.g., max, min), or acronyms (e.g., SNR). You can type your equations and use the symbols in the Word® equation editor or in MathType™. Using the ‘Insert Equation’ option, you can create equations in the Word ® equation editor, or if the MathType™ equation editor is installed on your computer.  =   (empir,1.388Å) (theor,1.388Å)    (theor) cos  Basic format for reports: [9] J. K. Author, “Title of report,” Abbrev. Name of Co., City of Co., Abbrev. State, Rep. xxx, year. Examples: [10] E. E. Reber, R. L. Michell, and C. J. Carter, “Oxygen absorption in the earth’s atmosphere,” Aerospace Corp., Los Angeles, CA, Tech. Rep. TR0200 (4230-46)-3, Nov. 1988. [11] J. H. Davis and J. R. Cogdell, “Calibration program for the 16-foot antenna,” Elect. Eng. Res. Lab., Univ. Texas, Austin, Tech. Memo. NGL006-69-3, Nov. 15, 1987. Basic format for handbooks: [12] Name of Manual/Handbook, x ed., Abbrev. Name of Co., City of Co., Abbrev. State, year, pp. xxx-xxx. Examples: [13] Transmission Systems for Communications, 3rd ed., Western Electric Co., Winston-Salem, NC, 1985, pp. 44–60. [14] Motorola Semiconductor Data Manual, Motorola Semiconductor Products Inc., Phoenix, AZ, 1989. (1) Acknowledgments Acknowledgments should be inserted at the end of the article, before the references. When citing names within the Acknowledgment, do not use Mr., Mrs., Ms., or Miss. List first initial and last name only. Use the Dr. or Prof. title with each name separately; do not use plural Drs. or Profs. with lists of names. Basic format for books (when available online): [15] Author. (year, month day). Title. (edition) [Type of medium]. volume (issue). Available: site/path/file Example: [16] J. Jones. (1991, May 10). Networks. (2nd ed.) [Online]. Available: Basic format for journals (when available online): [17] Author. (year, month). Title. Journal. [Type of medium]. volume (issue), pages. Available: site/path/file Example: [18] R. J. Vidmar. (1992, Aug.). On the use of atmospheric plasmas as electromagnetic reflectors. IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. [Online]. 21(3), pp. 876–880. Available: References The journal uses the IEEE Template for references formatting. References in the text should be indicated by Arabic numerals that run consecutively through the article and appear inside punctuation. Authors should ensure that all references are cited in the text and vice versa. Authors are expected to check the original source reference for accuracy. See examples shown in the References section. In text, refer simply to the reference number. Do not use “Ref.”, “reference” or “Reference [3] shows ....” use as demonstrated in [3], according to [4] and [69]. Please do not use automatic endnotes in Word, rather, type the reference list at the end of the article using the “References” style. The authors encourage using the “EndNote” software to format and insert the references into the article ( IEEE EndNote template can be downloaded from ( Below is the references formatting: Basic format for articles presented at conferences (when available online): [19] Author. (year, month). Title. Presented at Conference title. [Type of Medium]. Available: site/path/file Example: [20] PROCESS Corp., MA. Intranets: Internet technologies deployed behind the firewall for corporate productivity. Presented at INET96 Annual Meeting. [Online]. Available: Basic format for reports and handbooks (when available online): [21] Author. (year, month). Title. Comp any. City, State or Country. [Type of Medium].Available: site/path/file Example: [22] S . L . T a l l e e n . ( 1 9 9 6 , A p r . ) . T h e I n t r a n e t A r c h i te c tu r e : M a n a g i n g i n f o r m a t i o n i n t h e n e w paradigm. Amdahl Corp., CA. [Online]. Available: Basic format for computer programs and electronic documents (when available online). Example: [23] A. Harriman. (1993, June). Compendium of genealogical software. Humanist. [Online]. Available e-mail: HUMANIST@NYVM.ORG Message: get GENEALOGY REPORT Basic format for books: [1] J. K. Author, “Title of chapter in the book,” in Title of His Published Book, xth ed. City of Publisher, Country if not [2] USA: Abbrev. of Publisher, year, ch. x, sec. x, pp. xxx–xxx. Examples: [3] G. O. Young, “Synthetic structure of industrial plastics,” in Plastics, 2nd ed., vol. 3, J. Peters, Ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1964, pp. 15– 64. [4] W.-K. Chen, Linear Networks and Systems. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 1993, pp. 123–135. Basic format for patents (when available online): [24] Name of the invention, by inventor’s name. (year, month day). Patent Number [Type of medium]. Available: site/path/file 3 Example: [25] Musical toothbrush with adjustable neck and mirror, by L.M.R. Brooks. (1992, May 19). Patent D 326 189 [Online]. Available: NEXIS Library: LEXPAT File: DESIGN Basic format for conference proceedings (published): [26] J. K. Author, “Title of article,” in Abbreviated Name of Conf., City of Conf., Abbrev. State (if given), year, pp. xxxxxx. Example: [27] D. B. Payne and J. R. Stern, “Wavelength-switched pas- sively coupled single-mode optical network,” in Proc. IOOC-ECOC, 1985, pp. 585–590. Example for articles presented at conferences (unpublished): [28] D. Ebehard and E. Voges, “Digital single sideband detection for interferometric sensors,” presented at the 2nd Int. Conf. Optical Fiber Sensors, Stuttgart, Germany, Jan. 2-5, 1984. Basic format for patents: [29] J. K. Author, “Title of patent,” U.S. Patent x xxx xxx, Abbrev. Month, day, year. Example: [30] G. Brandli and M. Dick, “Alternating current fed power supply,” U.S. Patent 4 084 217, Nov. 4, 1978. Basic format for theses (M.S.) and dissertations (Ph.D.): [31] J. K. Author, “Title of thesis,” M.S. thesis, Abbrev. Dept., Abbrev. Univ., City of Univ., Abbrev. State, year. [32] J. K. Author, “Title of dissertation,” Ph.D. dissertation, Abbrev. Dept., Abbrev. Univ., City of Univ., Abbrev. State, year. Examples: [33] J. O. Williams, “Narrow-band analyzer,” Ph.D. dissertation, Dept. Elect. Eng., Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA, 1993. [34] N. Kawasaki, “Parametric study of thermal and chemical nonequilibrium nozzle flow,” M.S. thesis, Dept. Electron. Eng., Osaka Univ., Osaka, Japan, 1993. Basic format for the most common types of unpublished references: [35] J. K. Author, private communication, Abbrev. Month, year. [36] J. K. Author, “Title of article,” unpublished. [37] J. K. Author, “Title of article,” to be published. Examples: [38] A. Harrison, private communication, May 1995. [39] B. Smith, “An approach to graphs of linear forms,” unpublished. [40] A. Brahms, “Representation error for real numbers in binary computer arithmetic,” IEEE Computer Group Repository, Article R-67-85. Basic format for standards: [41] Title of Standard, Standard number, date. Examples: [42] IEEE Criteria for Class IE Electric Systems, IEEE Standard 308, 1969. [43] Letter Symbols for Quantities, ANSI Standard Y10.5-1968. 4 ...
Purchase answer to see full attachment
Student has agreed that all tutoring, explanations, and answers provided by the tutor will be used to help in the learning process and in accordance with Studypool's honor code & terms of service.

Final Answer



Password Cracking and Tools
Student’s Name
Professor’s Name
Course Title




Password Cracking and Tools
In the current age, the cracking of passwords has become a common attack vector for
accessing information systems. Passwords remain an essential strategy for boosting the security of
crucial information. White hat hackers regularly utilize tools for cracking passwords to attempt to
access confidential information to determine strength capabilities. This report expounds on popular
types of tools used to crack passwords that are essential to penetration testers, various categories of
password cracking, and measures that can secure passwords to prevent the possibility of cracking.
The methods of cracking illustrated in the report include brute force, rainbow tables, and dictionary
attack. The report has also focused on hashing and its impact on password cracking.

Keywords: component, open source, cracking, hashes, attack



Access to information systems is usually executed using passwords. All computer users
need passwords to log into system accounts, access programs, retrieve server emails, access ebanking services, websites, databases, and networks. Therefore, passwords are used for
authentication before accessing a resource. Password cracking encompasses the process of trying to
crack or guess a password to access a system. Also, this term refers to the procedure of password
recovery from data kept into a system. As such, password cracking utilizes repetition to guess or try
a password. Users can also crack systems to recover a forgotten password, conduct preventive
measure to determine the strength of a password. This research elucidates the application of
password cracking tools, approaches, and methods that can help to guess a password. The research
also describes a procedure for executing a password cracking technique.
Password cracking refers to a process of guessing an attack. A hacker guesses the password
of a specified user until her or she make a correct guess or give up altogether.
Types of Password Authentication
There are different types of password authentication, which all have strengths and
weaknesses which considered in terms of security, usability, and memorability (Yisa, Baba &
Olaniyi, 2016). Some of the authentication processes are illustrated below:
Alphabetic password
This type of password constitutes the use of alphabetic characters, which could be a
dictionary word. Users of electronic devices can easily recall this password, thus making it's
cracking through either social engineering, dictionary attack, or guessing easy (Han et al., 2014).
Google ranked alphabetic passwords as the simplest form of password to guess and crack.



Alphanumeric Password
Alphanumeric password combines numbers and alphabets to create passwords. This type of
password is a standard procedure for authentication. Nonetheless, these passwords have usability
and security challenges that attackers can easily use to their benefit. The other challenge of this
password is the challenge of its recalling by users during login when not used regularly.
Graphical Passwords
Graphical passwords involve showing predetermined graphical pictures and prompting a
user to choose precise aspects of the image following a specific order. This form of password does
not depend on any text. For this reason, a graphical password is more secure than the alphanumeric
password since it does not need writing down any information. Similarly, these passwords are
significantly memorable, and the ease by which users can determine points and faces from pictures
gives better usability compared with other password authentication forms.
Techniques for Cracking Passwords
Tools for cracking passwords can fall into online and offline categories of cracking. Online
attacks encompass attacks such as brute-force and dictionary that are executed against a login form
of a live system. The prevalence of this form of attack cannot match the prevalence of offline
attacks since they cannot be pulled off easily. Numerous protection schemes prevent the execution
of this form of attack. However, an attacker can still pull off this attack if he or she manages to
evade mechanisms such as maximum attempts for unsuccessful authentication.
Offline attacks, on the other hand, are executed after coping of password databases or
sniffing from a connection that is encrypted. This form of attack does not notify a victim and is
common since its execution is simple. An attacker can exploit numerous vulnerabilities.
Dictionary Attack



The first form of offline attack is the dictionary attack. It is a method for taking advantage of
a hashed mechanism of authentication by attempting to determine the key used for decryption
through multiple possibilities. An attacker may try to use dictionary words to accomplish the desired
mission. A cracker would utilize a wordlist that contains probable passwords to try to access a
system. Wordlists exist in various forms. For instance, the standard wordlist that exists in the
dictionary for users of Kali Linux is "usr/share/ wordlists." An example of this wordlist is the
"rockyou.txt.gz" that can be padded and unzipped with weak passwords or custom passwords.

Figure 1: Dictionary Attack
Brute-Force Attack
A brute-Force attack is also called exhaustive search and encompasses attempts by an
attacker to use any available combination to guess the correct password. This attack vector is usually
fast when applied to check short passwords. A brute-force attack is theoretically a cryptanalytic
attack that attempts to decrypt encoded data (Tasevski, 2011). This method encompasses the
formulation of a hash of a particular password procedurally and comparing the outcome of every
hash with the targeted hash kept on the database. The setback against this approach is that longer
passwords also prolong the time taken to determine the appropriate password, thus consuming a lot
of system resources. Furthermore, a computed hash cannot help in cracking of another password.
Hybrid Attack



The hybrid attack combines brute-force and dictionary attacks. The dictionary encompasses
the wordlist while the brute-force is used to every available password within a particular list by
taking every dictionary entry and making few changes of the dictionary word. The changes may
include the addition of a suffix or prefix ...

MercyK254 (19811)
University of Virginia

The tutor managed to follow the requirements for my assignment and helped me understand the concepts on it.

The tutor was knowledgeable, will be using the service again.

Awesome quality of the tutor. They were helpful and accommodating given my needs.

Similar Questions
Related Tags