Computer Science
ISSC 680 CTC Information System Security Threats and Vulnerabilities Discussion

ISSC 680

Central Texas College


Question Description

I’m trying to study for my Computer Science course and I need some help to understand this question.

I have attached my approved topic.

Your outline will include:

References (at least ten).



Search, review, and compile 10-15 references to be used for your Project Paper. APA-format these references, put them on a Word document along with a short abstract or review of each of the reference with its content and how you will be using them in your Project Paper. I expect to see at least 10 APA-formatted references, each followed by a 1-paragraph review of the article.



Your Research/ Project Paper Assignment should be a comprehensive paper that includes practical and theoretical knowledge about the approved topic. Your final paper should be between 10 to 15 pages long. Be sure the report is in MS Word, Times New Roman font, with double spacing and 1 inch margins all-around, no additional spaces allowed. Cover page and references pages are required. Your paper must adhere to APA standards.

Your final deliverable for this project should provide detailed discussion on the topic that you selected in Week 2. Your paper should include both foundational knowledge of the topic as well as applicable uses in the work place today. Game and mobile phone features are not acceptable.

Prepare a 8-10 page double-spaced (including title or reference pages) research paper based on any topic in the text or something covered in this class.

Paper organization will include:

  • Introduction
    • Clearly define the problem, issue, or desired topic that was researched.
    • Starts out broad and becomes more and more specific.
  • Body
    • Present the relevant literature and ideas.
    • Identify relations, contradictions, gaps, and inconsistencies in the literature.
    • Possible solutions to any problem(s) identified.
  • Conclusion
  • References (at least ten).

You may use web resources as references, however make sure to include all your resources and cite from them with author, year of publication, and the corresponding page or paragraph numbers.

Student has agreed that all tutoring, explanations, and answers provided by the tutor will be used to help in the learning process and in accordance with Studypool's honor code & terms of service.

Final Answer



Security Threat and Vulnerabilities
Student’s Name


Security Threat and Vulnerabilities
Individuals and organizations rely on technology to perform various tasks; particularly
information sharing that poses great risks of security threats and vulnerabilities. Digital
transformations, such as the rollout of the Internet of Things, among other cellular technologies,
have enhanced communication and resource sharing (Humayun et al, 2020). However, malicious
attackers are also leveraging such technologies in devising new security threats to match the
improved systems (Gao et al, 2007). Notably, internet connectivity has a dramatic effect on
operational tasks. For instance, connectivity over the internet allows various enterprises in a
particular value chain to connect and share informative insights about their industry. Increased
connectivity infers improved decision-making and problem-solving.
Unfortunately, there is a direct correlation between increased internet connectivity the
likelihood of exploitation. Here, increased connectivity offers an intruder a broad scope of
exploration. Hence, the above increase the attackers’ chance of moving laterally across the system
or network (Radianti & Gonzalez, 2007). When an attacker gets access to such a vast network, the
identification of vulnerabilities is easy. For instance, the attacker may target a weak intrusion
detection system, inefficient backup process, attack of cryptographic systems, flooding the
network, or phishing.
Notably, criminals find it easy to execute their attacks on a system because of the expertise
in the area. Usually, attackers may spend time to understand the physical or logical development
of the system. Once the architecture is understood, they can identify vulnerability in the software,
hardware, or other assets hence effectively launching their attacks.


Cyber terrorism has existed for a period similar to that of technology. This is so because
terrorists have realized the value of information held in the networks and systems. The core
objective of information security is to enhance information confidentiality, integrity, and
accessibility or availability (Gao et al, 2007). Hence, intruders have realized the need to disrupt
this goal through security breaches. Arguably, cybercrimes are carried out for various reasons.
First, it is perpetrated by a known assailant who wants to disrupt the normal functioning
of a business or enterprise. Such may be due to conflicts of interest resulting from personal
relationships. Secondly, it can be facilitated by a competitor who wants to acquire a competitive
advantage by pulling down their competitors. Thirdly, it may result from individuals who aim at
holding your information or assets for ransomware. Here, the owner is denied usage of a crucial
asset, software, or network until a certain percentage is paid to the attackers. In case of such, the
affected businesses have to adopt practical approaches to control the situation and mitigate similar
occurrences in the future.
According to research, the first cybercrime occurred in 1820. This is true because by then,
Abacus, the first computing machine, was in existence. Consequently, the development of the
computing society enhanced a similar improvement in cyber terrorisms (Brauch, 2010). With such
a trend, governments and other institutions facilitated the development of effective laws and
regulations governing information security. Despite federal efforts to legislate stringent
requirements, individual enterprises were expected to adopt approaches to reduce cyber-related
Resultantly, organizations used trends and historical information about the occurrence to
develop and implement suitable data-protection protocols (Hein & Saiedian, 2009). Today, there
are increased regulations and laws specific to cyber attacks. Such protect and insulate businesses,


their assets, and customers against current and evolving threats. Security scientists record the need
for a balance between new and old approaches for vigilance.
A cyber solutions report showed that by 2018, most organizations had realized the need for
strict security measures to counter cyber threats. Here, even though local strategies such as
firewalls and intrusion detection systems worked, there was a need for on-network procedures
(Hein & Saiedian, 2009). Such includes the deployment of shared intelligence across members of
the network or system. Notably, the strategy involved the implementation of collaborations to
enhance the safety of the information in the communication networks. Hence, companies have
formed alliances in the development of end-to-end encryption and other approaches to
Common threats and vulnerabilities
A security threat is a potential circumstance or incident that, once executed, can cause
detrimental harm to the network, information, or computer system. The most common security
threats in cybersecurity include the following. First, there is the threat of viruses. Software viruses
are meant to either harm or delete user information. Due to its replicative nature, once installed,
the viruses can spread to other systems and computers on the network, thus affecting the entire
chain. Secondly, Trojans are the malicious program that implicitly attaches themselves to software
pieces. Practically, attackers send Trojan through emails (Brauch, 2010). Once the users open the
message, their computer systems become vulnerable to the malware contained in the Trojan.
Thirdly, there are bogus security software threats that trick the users of a virus infection of
system malfunction. The software further prompts the user to click on a specific icon to fix the
problem. There, the user is exposed to the recurring threat from the software. Forth, there is


adware. Adware is experienced on the website during browsing. For this threat, multiple ads might
prompt the user to accept their terms. Such may result in the installation of malware such as
spyware that can gain access to crucial information such as passwords.
Fifth, there is a denial of service attack (DOS). Here, the attacker floods the network or
website with traffic. Resultantly, users are unable to access information, thus resulting in delayed
or no services. Additionally, the man-in-the-middle attack is a spoofing attack where a third party
passively engages in communication between two parties (Safianu, Twum & B, 2016). Here, they
can access decryption keys and passwords, thus obtaining the informat...

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