Writing
EDSP 300 University of Idaho Universal Design for Learning Research Paper

EDSP 300

University of Idaho

EDSP

Question Description

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Component 2:

Find a lesson plan to evaluate (you may use one you already have or you may find one on the internet or using another source). Using your knowledge of UDL, review the lesson plan to identify potential barriers to learning and consider how a modification based on UDL may help provide better access to students. Although UDL generally focuses on proactive design (as opposed to retro-fitting), what can you change in this lesson to make it better aligned with the principles of UDL? For full credit, you must include 6 barriers and 6 total modifications, with at least 1 for each principle of UDL. Be sure clearly identify the barrier, modification and principle for credit. See chart below. Rather than focusing on accommodations for a single student (i.e., providing materials in Braille), consider modifications that are more universal and would benefit a larger group of students. You must include the actual lesson plan with this assignment in BbLearn, not a link to the lesson plan. Regardless of the form you use to express your knowledge, use the elements in the following template to complete the task.

An example from “Teacher Voices” (Page 49 of your text) is included as an example: Barriers to Learning Lesson Modification Alignment with UDL Principle Auditory learners may struggle to master multiplication facts using teaching strategies best suited for visual learners Provide students with an opportunity to listen to multiplication facts that have been put to music Multiple Means of Representation Regardless of the method you choose for expressing your knowledge, be sure to cite your sources and provide a reference page. Aligned with the UDL principle of multiple means of expression, you have the following choices in how to express your work:

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Beth Ropski EDSP 300 UDL Project Dr. McConnell 2443 words Universal Design for Learning (UDL) Project Component 1: (943 words) 1. What is UDL? Universal Design for Learning (UDL) is the way an educator makes their lessons accessible to all students, regardless of ability. Students come from a variety of backgrounds with the potential for different disabilities and learning preferences. By utilizing UDL in the classroom, an educator creates flexible lessons that allow the opportunity for each student to succeed. (Gargiulo & Metcalf, 2017, p. 32) 2. How did it come about? What has influenced the development of the framework? Universal design was originally a concept, or philosophy, created by Ron Mace, an architect who had a physical disability, in the 1990s. He believed that, “universal design seeks to encourage products that are more usable by everyone. It is a design built for the environment and consumer products for a very broad definition of user” (Gargiulo & Metcalf, 2017, p. 32). While this concept was created in the original thought for physical accessibility, it was altered to become applicable for academic learning. Piggy-backing on the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) (PL 101-336), established 1990, which ensured that people with disabilities would not be discriminated against publicly or privately, universal design became what we know and use today, UDL. (Gargiulo & Metcalf, 2017, p. 32-33) 3. How does UDL help students overcome learning barriers? Similar to how Mace used universal design to help individuals with physical disabilities access buildings, etc., UDL helps students with a variety of disabilities access education, ideally in the way a student without a disability would be able to. UDL has been further broken down into seven principles, or designs, that are utilized to assist in making the educational environment accessible for everyone. These principles include equitable use, flexibility in use, simple and intuitive use, perceptible information, tolerance for error, low physical effort, and size and space for approach and use (see more in Table 2.1 below). Through the use of these principles, each student is able to be evaluated and given acceptable accommodations that are individually tailored to them (ex. IEPs and 504s). When an educator has access to the list of accommodations they will be teaching to, they can use UDL to create lesson plans that allow every student in their class the ability to participate on a daily basis. (Gargiulo & Metcalf, 2017, p. 33) 4. How would you describe UDL as a framework consisting of principles of Multiple Means of Representation, Action & Expression, and Engagement as well as related guidelines and checkpoints? Be certain to describe the UDL principles in detail. In order to better understand and implement UDL, developers at the Center for Applied Special Technology (CAST) broke the concept down into three principles: Multiple Means of Representation, Action & Expression, and Engagement. Each of those principles was then further broken down into ‘checkpoints’ to offer clearer options in which the principle should be used in the classroom. (See “The Universal Design for Learning Guidelines” chart below for full detail from Garguilo & Metcalf’s text Teaching in Today's Inclusive Classrooms: A Universal Design for Learning Approach.) In the first principle, Multiple Means of Representation, “students are provided with a variety of ways to receive and interpret information” (Gargiulo & Metcalf, 2017, p. 44). This means that the teacher will utilize many different forms of presenting to show their students the material they are required to learn. This can include, but is not limited to, audio recordings, digital text, annotated texts, online discussion boards/chat rooms/etc., texts in Braille, links to videos or visual aids, and notes printed or presented in front of the class. (Table 2.5, from Garguilo & Metcalf’s text Teaching in Today's Inclusive Classrooms…, shows more options for Multiple Means of Representation.) By utilizing different methods of representation (or presentation) the teacher is allowing their students to find what works best for them individually and maximize their learning potential. The second principle, Multiple Means of Action & Expression, “accommodates the strategic and motor system (...) by reflecting on what different ways students may respond using the information they have received” (Garguilo & Metcalf, 2017, p. 47). This principle allows students to take the information that the teacher has presented them and use an individualized action or expression to process and respond to it. Some students might show their understanding of the information better through a verbal presentation while others might show it better through written exams, essays, digital presentations, creative arts, etc. (Table 2.7, from Garguilo & Metcalf’s text Teaching in Today's Inclusive Classrooms..., shows more options for Multiple Means of Action & Expression.) The same way that every student learns through different methods of representation, they express that understanding of content differently as well. The final principle, Multiple Means of Engagement, focuses on the “why” of learning by “considering different ways to motivate students, challenge them, and boost their interest in learning” (Garguilo & Metcalf, 2017, p. 46). This principle reminds the teachers to vary the ways they interact with their students. Depending on their background, personality, and many more variables, each student will react differently to each teacher. The teacher will need to utilize this principle to engage the students in learning. To do this, the teacher will need to connect with the students, building a rapport with them and working to understand them, their goals/interests, and how the teacher can make their class applicable to those goals/interests. (Table 2.6, from Garguilo & Metcalf’s text Teaching in Today's Inclusive Classrooms..., shows more options for Multiple Means of Engagement.) For example, if one is teaching a math class and they have an unengaged student who through interactions the teacher discovers loves cooking, the teacher can begin relating lessons to culinary math so the student has a higher chance of engaging. Component 2: (858 words) 1. Visual Impairment Modification -- Multiple Means of Representation -- This lesson plan states that Powerpoint will be used to present the material on Ready, Set, Food Safe (RSFS). For students who are hard of seeing, the Powerpoint might not have text that they can read to take their notes. A modification that could be used here is to provide the students with visual impairments a printed copy of the Powerpoint slides that they can have close at their desks to use in copying notes. NOTE: This could also be used for a student who might process information or write slower than other students. Barrier: Students with visual impairments might struggle reading Powerpoint slides Lesson Modification: Provide students with printed copies of slides Alignment with UDL Principle: Representation 2. Video Modification -- Multiple Means of Representation -- Endless slides of Powerpoint can make even the most attentive student weary. I would modify this lesson plan to include outside videos about food safety that applied to our current lesson. These videos would be educational but either have comedic or exciting parts to them to break up the monotony of Powerpoint presentations. There are many educational channels on youtube that I would look through to find video content for this modification. This would show students multiple forms of representation on the information I am trying to teach which would allow them a higher percentage of them to retain that knowledge. Barrier: Students may become inattentive with nine lessons of only Powerpoint slide lectures Lesson Modification: Incorporate educational and engaging videos to break up the monotony of Powerpoint slide lectures Alignment with UDL Principle: Representation 3. Unit Test Modification -- Multiple Means of Action & Expression -- This lesson plan states that there will be a written unit test to determine understanding of material, requiring a 75% or higher to participate in labs. While some students excel in test-taking, others, who still might understand the material, do not express that knowledge of material through a written test. I would suggest modifying this requirement for the students who do not pass the test. If a student does not pass the test, I would offer an alternative assignment that they can complete to be allowed to participate in labs. This assignment would need to showcase their understanding of at least 75% of the material taught in RSFS and could be an essay, presentation, etc. Barrier: Students may not best show their understanding of materials through written exams and in not passing, be excluded from lab participation Lesson Modification: Offer an alternative assignment that they can complete to be allowed to participate in labs which showcases their understanding of at least 75% of the material taught in RSFS Alignment with UDL Principle: Action & Expression 4. Break Up the Unit Modification -- Multiple Means of Action & Expression -- While this lesson plans culminates in a unit test, it doesn’t specify giving quizzes throughout the unit. I would add in three quizzes (one for every three chapters) to give students the opportunity to check their understanding of the material at that time. This will also give them practice for what their unit test will be like on that same material. By doing this, all students will benefit by having multiple checkpoints for their understanding and retention of the required material. This will allow them to not be completely surprised when they reach the unit test. Barrier: Lack of check-ins to see if material is being understood by all students Lesson Modification: Add in three quizzes (one for every three chapters) Alignment with UDL Principle: Action & Expression 5. Kahoots Modification -- Multiple Means of Action & Expression -- Sporadically throughout the Powerpoint lessons, I would pause and have the students participate in a Kahoots quiz on the current information presented. This will allow students who are paying attention and who have quick information retention to express their content knowledge. It will also allow students who might not retain information as quickly to make note of what they need to study for the upcoming quizzes and unit test. Barrier: Students exposed to such a large amount of new information at one time, may struggle to retain it, especially when only being exposed to it through lecture and notes. Lesson Modification: Occasionally pause during lecture and have the students participate in a Kahoots quiz on the current information being presented Alignment with UDL Principle: Action & Expression 6. Personal Story Modification -- Multiple Means of Engagement -- While this lesson plan contains a lot of basic information, it also comes across as quite dry (Powerpoint, notes, test). I would suggest modifying this lesson by adding the time to share personal stories and asking students to share their own. Everyone has a story about food safety; by sharing my own as a teacher, I allow students to get to know me more and by having students share their own, it allows them to connect more with new information and break up the banality that a Powerpoint presentation can sometimes be. Barrier: Students may become inattentive with nine lessons of only Powerpoint slide lectures Lesson Modification: Adding the time to share personal stories and asking students to share their own Alignment with UDL Principle: Engagement Lesson Plan: Ready, Set, Food Safe Author Teacher Name Sharon Muniz School Name Mountain View High School School District Joint School District #2 Classroom Information Subject Area : Nutrition and Foods Date: 9-10-2010 / 9-30-2010 Grade Level(s) 10-12 Unit Overview Unit Title Ready, Set, Food Safe Unit Summary: This curriculum is a nine lesson unit that introduces the students to Food Safety and Sanitation. The students must take and pass the unit test in order to work in the kitchen lab. 75% is the passing score. If students make an 80% or better they will receive an Idaho Food handler’s certificate. Building the Foundation Idaho State Standard(s) ✓ Describe pathogens found in food and their role in causing illness ✓ Explain food service safety regulations ✓ Demonstrate personal safety and first aid procedures in food production environment ✓ Employ food service sanitation procedures Methods: x Lecture x Group Work x Guided Notes Assessment: x Test x Quiz x Daily Work PTE Academic Integration(s) x Math: M x x Individual Practice Projects Science: S x x Reading: R Prep Work x Other: Lab x Other: x Writing: W Agenda/Procedures Objectives Students Will Be Able To: Describe the magnitude of FBI in the US Identify the regulation for food safety in Idaho Identify the three categories of food hazards Identify elements of bacterial growth and the characteristics of microorganism Relev ance Describe PHF identify how pathogens get in our food supply and which four pathogens are cause for exclusion from working in food service Recognize the steps in the food flow process Know what SOP’s are Understand the need for equipment and personal cleanliness when preparing food Demonstrate proper handwashing techniques Identify proper use of gloves Make an approved sanitizing solution, know when and how to use it Describe cross-contamination, suggest ways to prevent it, and identify potential sources Describe the temperature Danger Zone Identify recommended cooking temp Demonstrate the proper cleaning and use of a thermometer Describe acceptable thawing methods Describe the proper method for holding and storing food Describe active managerial control and how it assists in providing safe food Describe 4 principles of HACCP and give an example of each INSTRUCTIONS FOR ADMINISTERING ASSESSMENT(S) Opener: These will change daily. Body: Use the Ready Set Food Safe Curriculum with the Power points to present lessons Assignment/Activity: Use the included activities and assignments Closing: These will change daily. Mostly reviews of the current day’s material. Additional Comments Students will take the Idaho Food Handlers test after completing the unit and most pass it in order to cook in the labs. Materials and Resources Required For Unit Text Book: Printed Materials: Guides notes, activities, worksheets Supplies: Candy, thermometers, black light and glow germ, various other supplies Technology: Computer, CD, in focus Internet Resources: Videos: Other Resources: Ready Set Food Safe Curriculum Special Student Accommodations: Student Accommodations will be based on an individual basis. They include (a) shortened assignments; (b) using notes on tests, (c) going to the study center for tests, (d) other needs will be made on case by case basis. Remediation: Made on an individual basis: They include (a) extra homework practice, (b) MAV time tutoring, (c) retaking tests, (d) other needs will be made on a case by case basis. Notes: We will break up this unit with our demonstration and portfolio requirements in order to stay on track for the rest of the semester. References About the Graphic Organizer. (2018, January 26). Retrieved June 10, 2018, from http://udlguidelines. cast.org/more/about-graphic-organizer Gargiulo, R. M., & Metcalf, D. (2017). Teaching in Today's Inclusive Classrooms: A Universal Design for Learning Approach (3rd ed.). Boston, MA: Cengage Learning. Muniz, S. (2010.) Lesson Plan: Ready Set Food Safe. Universal Design for Learning (UDL). (n.d.). Retrieved June 10, 2018, from http://www.sst10.org /content/udl ...
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Final Answer

Attached.

1
Name
Course title
UDL Project
Instructor
Number of Words
Universal Design for Learning
Component 2: (886 Words)
1. Flexibility modification — Multiple means of engagement — The lesson plan states that
by the end of the lesson, the learners should be able to compare two three-digit numbers
using , and =. What the lesson plan did not consider here is that there are different
rates at which students learn. According to UDL, there should be flexible and clear
SMART goals. The SMART part of the learning objectives but the flexibility part has not
been achieved. Inflexibility in the objective is in the mandatory statement that learners
must be able to use , and =. A student who will not be able to use all the comparison
methods will feel not engaged in the lesson. This is because the teacher is likely to
proceed to the next part of the objective even before some students realize the objectives
in totality.
Barrier: Students who will not use any of the comparative signs will feel unengaged in the
lesson. The teacher is likely to move on to achieve all the objectives even if the whole class is
not achieving.
Lesson Modification: Change the “and” and put “or” in the lesson objectives. That is, have the
lesson plan read, by the end of the lesson, the learners should be able to compare two three-digit
numbers using , or =.

2
Alignment with UDL Principle: Multiple means of engagement.
2. Modification of Visual impairment – Multiple means of representation – The lesson plan
requires the students to have place value disks and precut symbol cards. The teacher will
also use personal whiteboards. According to UDL, the teacher should select learning
materials according to the variability of the learners. That implies that the physique of the
learners is to be considered in the selection of learning materials.
Barrier: Learners who are visually impaired are likely not to participate in the lesson because
there are no provisions for visually impaired.
Lesson modification: Include audio presentations for similar concepts presented in the lesson
materials.
Alignment with UDL principle: Multiple means of representation.
3.

Engagement Variation – Multiple means of engagement -- The lesson plan states that
non-English learners will be supported by writing mathematical symbols that are
equivalent to English words on the board. This shows that the class consists of learners
who do not understand English. However, there is no information on how the instruction
and teacher explanations will be done to the learners ...

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