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UCumberlands Leadership Part of Our Being or Not so Much Discussion & Replies

University of the Cumberlands

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I don’t understand this Management question and need help to study.

Hi, I need a 200-250 word discussion post and two 75 word peer replies in around 4-5 hours from now. And the discussion should have at least 1 cited reference. So, below is the detailed topic for the discussion post:

Leadership - Part of our being or not so much?

In his book Organizational Power Politics, Fairholm talks about leadership being a thing of the mind and not just a thing to be learned. Discuss your understanding of and thoughts in regards to this concept.”

I’m attaching the textbook written by Fairholm so you can refer the textbook. Document named "Politics of Org Decision making".

And for two 75 word peer replies, I have attached a word document named "peer posts" in which you will find peers posts. Review them and write replies.


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Below are the two peers posts, write a 75-word peer replies to each of them. Peer posts 1: Name: Ann My argument is that leadership is learned over time. In our text, Fairholm (1993) notes the following about the importance of relationships and how relationships between leaders and followers teach important and valuable lessons in leadership: At one level, all interpersonal relationships are leader-follower relationships. We are constantly moving from a directive position to a follower one in our contacts with others. We see power in leadership contexts in much larger dimension. It is a personal, rather than a merely positional, concept. The operative characteristic of leadership is its intimacy (Fairholm, p. 31). I would argue further that reflection upon relationships in leadership has to occur for leadership values to be continuously fostered. People often do not realize the importance of reflection in order to grow in leadership. One cannot know true leadership traits without self-reflection and introspection over time. Peer posts 2: Name: Branson The discussion of whether leadership is an innate quality or a skill that can be taught and learned has continued for centuries. To gain an insightful opinion in this matter one must have the opportunity to observe a large pool of leadership trainees in a suitable setting. The military is a perfect testing ground for this type of study. Anyone who has spent time in the military and becomes familiar with its leadership training programs will quickly come to the conclusion that leadership is largely an innate quality or one that is developed over a long period of going back into childhood development. Leadership training programs in the military are standardized depending on each branch. Those who are comfortable with, or crave the status of unit leadership, are certainly already predisposed to a leadership mindset. Most people in the military tend to shy away from leadership positions as it really just adds more responsibility with little return. To elaborate this point, military promotions are primarily based on a small selection of criteria which include time in rank, time in service, career development course requirements are satisfied, and physical fitness score. Leadership roles are considered but there is no way to score or quantify it. Since promotions are based on an overall score, this creates a problem of subjectivity. Even though every military member is required to attend career development courses to develop leadership skills, a small percentage of them will ever be put into a leadership role based on their ability to lead. Most of those who assume leadership positions are appointed during the course of fulfilling promotion requirements by filling a command position. The ability to command is simply implied based on the courses that a military member has completed since career leadership training programs are standard. There is a rating system done within the chain of command, but it looks very poorly on the command if members score low on their ratings. Therefore, there is no reason to objectively score members in the unit for their leadership abilities. The magic formula for creating quality leaders has been sought for centuries. Leadership is an art, not simply a science. If it were simply a science, then it would easy to replicate. ORGANIZATIONAL POWER POLITICS This page intentionally left blank ORGANIZATIONAL POWER POLITICS Tactics in Organizational Leadership Second Edition GILBERT W. FAIRHOLM PRAEGER An Imprint of ABC-CLIO, LLC Copyright © 2009 by Gilbert W. Fairholm All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, except for the inclusion of brief quotations in a review, without prior permission in writing from the publisher. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Fairholm, Gilbert W. Organizational power politics : tactics in organizational leadership / Gilbert W. Fairholm. — 2nd ed. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-0-313-37976-5 (alk. paper) — ISBN 978-0-313-37977-2 (ebook) 1. Office politics. 2. Leadership. 3. Power (Social sciences) I. Title. HF5386.5.F35 2009 658.4’095—dc22 2009018808 13 12 11 10 09 1 2 3 4 5 This book is also available on the World Wide Web as an eBook. Visit for details. ABC-CLIO, LLC 130 Cremona Drive, P.O. Box 1911 Santa Barbara, California 93116-1911 This book is printed on acid-free paper Manufactured in the United States of America Contents Preface vii Acknowledgement xi Introduction: The History and Theory of Power Part I: Defining Power in Work Group Operations Chapter 1: Elements of a Definition xiii 1 3 Chapter 2: Defining the Forms of Power 11 Chapter 3: Bases of Power 23 Chapter 4: Using Power Politics in Organizational Life 31 Part I Issues and Activities 41 Part II: Power Use: Tactical and Strategic Models 47 Chapter 5: A Power Use Model 49 Chapter 6: Power Use Tactics: Application of Power on the Job 57 Chapter 7: Using Power in the Organization 65 Part II Issues and Activities 77 vi CONTENTS Part III: Power Interventions That Work 83 Chapter 8: Tactics Used with Superiors 85 Chapter 9: Power Tactics Used with Peers 101 Chapter 10: Tactics Used with Subordinates 117 Chapter 11: Comparing Tactics 133 Chapter 12: How Inner Leaders Get Willing Compliance 155 Chapter 13: Using Power in Multinational Groups 171 Part III Issues and Activities 181 Appendix 189 Bibliography 191 Index 199 Preface Everyone uses power. Whether we think about it or not, using power is a normal and universal part of life. It pervades what we do and how we relate to others and it dictates much of our success (Johnson, 2005). Power use is integral to our relationships (Telford & Gostick, 2005). It is a central element in leadership. For very many people, the idea of power has negative overtones (Goltz & Hietapelto, 2002). This attitude stifles full effectiveness on the job and limits our success in all other dimensions of life. Perhaps the lack of prethought associated with much organizational politics accounts for its failure and therefore its negative image in the eyes of many group members. Understanding power and power use, along with sensitivity to cultural values, provide the best means of understanding leadership and what leaders do (Fairholm, 1994; Gragnolati & Stupak, 2002). It helps us understand how leaders lead, what they do in exercising leadership, and why some people are leaders and other are not—even though they occupy similar positions in our economic and social communities. Familiarity with how power is acquired and used in our relationships is critical in understanding our own and our followers’ behavior. Applied power use is also a critical element of follower behavior. Engagement in power use—practicing organizational power politics—therefore, becomes a crucial part of our quest for success in life regardless of the role played in the group hierarchy (Hogan, 2008). The pioneering research the author reported on in the first edition of Organizational Power Politics: Tactics in Organizational Leadership continues to provide a solid foundation upon which to analyze this phenomenon. In the interest of readability, the details of methodology and statistical proofs adduced in the first edition are omitted from this volume. The reader is directed to that resource viii PREFACE for details of this research, its methodology, and statistical findings. This second edition assumes the interested reader will be familiar with this research. The present volume builds on its findings as it incorporates contemporary research, model building, and the effectiveness of power tactics and related thinking to the model presented earlier. This research references power use by executives from a wide range of demographic and work situations and is summarized in Table A in the Appendix. This book interprets a solid and growing body of literature extending over one hundred years on the operational uses of power coming from the growing body of leadership studies and traditional managerial, sociological, psychological, and political perspectives on power (Brannen, 2005). The intent here is to help readers—teachers, students, leaders, technicians, and followers— access current knowledge and integrate it into a coherent strategy of operational power tactics we have always used to secure our desired outcomes at work and in all of our relationships with others (Barnes, 2005; Telford & Gostick, 2005). It will help readers learn to use power to aid them and their group in achieving their personal and organizational goals within the complex, global, multidifferentiated organizations peculiar to twenty-first century America. This second edition includes several features intended to increase its utility as a resource researchers and practitioners alike can use to sharpen their understanding and skills in using power in their relationships. Its main contribution remains the identification and application of the twenty-two power tactics that leaders use to get their way in their relationships with others. Details of application and refinement and a revised and updated analysis of the theory, operational models, elements of power and their probability of success in use in a variety of situations and by the range of professionals peopling the workplace will make the second edition valuable to a wide range of professional and technical leaders. This new edition will integrate current theory and practice to provide a twentyfirst century resource for twenty-first century leaders. In addition to updating the theory component of the first edition and tightening the document’s language, the second edition includes a new chapter elaborating the use of power in multinational work groups and places this innovative perspective in the marketplace of ideas. Another new chapter discusses the use of power by organization members peopling the amorphous organizational subgroups making up the middle ranges of our large-scale organizations. These group members differ in their orientation toward power from their CEO bosses— the object of much past discussion and research about power use. And, as a way to help novice leaders apply power in their group relationships in appropriate ways, the second edition will add a variety of simple exercises, activities, self-assessment instruments, cases studies, and/or discussion issues to help readers assess their own power skills and hone them to better succeed at work, home, or in other social situations, Together, these three major area of focus will strengthen and direct the second edition, making it more useful to the reader in both understanding and skillfully using power in their relationships. PREFACE ix The perspective taken here is practical in the sense that the orientation is toward applied power use by individuals associated through organizational relationships (Telford & Gostick, 2005; Helgesen, 2008). The locus is, of course, the group—an organization characterized by unique culture, values, and mores and with a unique purpose, known leadership, and known and accepted group behaviors (Petersen, 2005). The centerpiece of this book is a grouping of 22 specific power tactics both leaders and those they lead use in varying contexts to gain their individual or group objectives. These tactics are typical of the internal political interactions seen in the interpersonal relationships in which we all operate—the jargon used is “office politics.” The thrust of this book is to blow away the mysterious shadows that obscure organizational politics. Power is, obviously, a necessary and constituent part of leadership (Rost, 1991) whether we admit it or not. The focus is on power-in-use as an important tool facilitating all group action. All of us have power and use it routinely in our relationships with others. Whenever a leader acts to induce others to behave in ways they desire, power is in use. Employees also use power to impact the behavior of their leaders and coworkers, customers, and constituents. Indeed, whenever anyone induces others to behave in ways they would not otherwise have behaved, power and potentially leadership is being exercised. Leadership is, therefore, independent of rank or formal managerial position. It is an aspect of personal behavior that always includes routine power use. Power use is, simply, an instrument of intended action. This page intentionally left blank Acknowledgment Creativity involves, not in making something of nothing, but in integrating distinct materials into a new whole. As with the first edition, I am indebted to many people whose ideas and insights have informed and formed this book. So implicit is their contribution that I can not always directly credit their contributions. To them I owe thanks. I am also indebted to my wife, children, and grandchildren. Much of my understanding of applied power comes from seeing them create their lives by the positive choices they make daily in the face of an increasingly dangerous and challenging world, a world they make livable—and lovable—for me. This page intentionally left blank Introduction: The History and Theory of Power Power is a part of all organized behavior. It characterizes all human interaction. Organizational power politics permeates all aspects of interpersonal communications and is an essential characteristic of all organizational action. Knowing how to use power is invaluable to us all as a means to achieve some desired future action in others. It is instrumental, in that people use power as an aid to achieve their intended results (Gragnolati & Stupak, 2002). Although we recognize that power can be, and sometimes is, an end-goal, its basic use is instrumental. Power has utility for the group member most often as an intermediary tool to achieve some personal, desired-end value. It does not have much utility (or, some say, even being) as a “stored resource.” In fact evidence supports the contention that power is not a “tangible,” storable commodity (such as information or money or raw materials). Rather, its main value is in its use. The idea of power has both emotional and ethical impact (Jurkiewicz & Brown, 1995). For many it carries negative connotations. Some see power as “manipulation,” “coercion,” “control,” or “force” (Rickards, 2000). For many, power use has Machiavellian connotations. Of course, power is, or can be, manipulative. We see power at work in behaviors such as “brown-nosing,” “yes-ing” the boss, and similar sycophantic action. In fact, “Machiavellian” has come to epitomize the worst in manipulative, exploitative, self-serving power use (McMurry, 2000). A balanced perspective allows, however, for an alternative construction of the situation and a more positive view—one that sees power as ethically neutral. The ethics of power lies not in power itself but in the motives and values of the user. As with any other tool, we can use power for “good,” that is, for socially xiv INTRODUCTION: THE HISTORY AND THEORY OF POWER developmental purposes (Kuhn & Graham, 2005), or for “bad,” that is, for personal aggrandizement. User goals and operational results achieved, not power application itself, are the ethical criteria (McClelland, 1975; Jurkiewicz & Brown, 1995). One can use power without destructive result to either self or others. Results depend on the motives and skill of the power user. They are also a function of the power capabilities of all others involved in the particular power exchange (Tepper, 1993). Accepting this perspective, we also must accept the idea that power use becomes critical in understanding normal group life. All organization members use power to secure their goals, not just the leaders, supervisors, and managers whom we traditionally view as powerful people. All people control scarce resources of some type in negotiating agreement among related individuals. We take independent action to direct organizational energies toward our predetermined goals, indeed, in setting those goals in the first instance. Effective power use secures both organizational and personal goals in most (if not all) organizational action. All of us most of the time engage in organizational politics as we negotiate our way through our careers. There is mounting support in current and traditional management writings that legitimizes power and defines power maintenance functions (Tepper, 1993). Power is, of course, central to organizational impact processes such as leadership, planning, directing, controlling, and performance evaluation. It is in this sense that most leaders and other workers see power use. It is also in this context that power use has its most telling impact on personal and organizational success. The task ahead is clear: develop a constructive way to think about and use power with a minimum amount of disruption, pain, and dysfunction. Before anyone can accomplish this, there must exist a body of knowledge and a technology they can apply to day-to-day situations. Until scholars and practitioners have these data at their disposal, it will be extremely difficult for either to be effective in making improvements. Until someone develops this knowledge, both will have to get along on the basis of hunch, guess. and an individually ascertained, “cumulative wisdom.” It is to this end that I dedicate this book. THE HISTORY OF POWER THEORY Power use is so imbedded in daily life that viewing our interrelationships in power terms deepens our understanding of why we are or are not successful in reaching our goals. Seeing our relationships in power terms is a new perspective for most of us and adds a new dimension to human relations, in stark contrast to traditional relationship perspectives such as networks of communications, conflict resolution, change, motivation, or values (Fairholm, 1991; Gragnolati & Stupak, 2002). Adding a power perspective is new, even through a few researchers in the past hundred years of its modern history have advocated this perspective. A careful reading of organization and leadership theories unmasks the power com- INTRODUCTION: THE HISTORY AND THEORY OF POWER xv ponent that has always been part of our theory and practice. We have only lacked a language of power and the theoretical platform to make it clear. Over the years several writers have begun to abstract working models and strategies applicable to leadership. (See, e.g., Russell, 1938; Follett, 1942; Krech & Crutchfield, 1948; Bachrach & Baratz, 1970; Hickson, Hinings, Lee, Schneck, & Pennings, 1971; Salancik & Pfeffer, 1977; Fairholm, 1993, 2003; Coleman, 2004; Brannen, 2005; Yap, 2006: Yukl & Becker, 2006.) The following discussion relates sometimes disparate power ideas into a synthesis, which is hopefully beneficial to practitioner and academic alike. Background Society is a condition of inequality. Whether in the animal or human realm, we find the ordinary and the extraordinary, the leaders and the led, the powerful and the relatively powerless. The patterns of dominance and subservience found in nature are mirror images of systems present in our social systems all over the globe. Consider this listing: 1. The leader displays the trappings, posturing, and gestures of dominance— sleek, calm, relaxed, and purposive. 2. When challenged, he scares his foe with aggressive charges. 3. If needed he can—and does—overpower his opponent. 4. He is not only physically strong, but is cunning, quick, and intelligent as well. 5. He reinforces his dominance on the group by maintaining harmony, thereby ensuring his position. 6. He develop ...
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Final Answer


Response for Ann
Hello Ann,
I enjoyed reading your discussion post. I couldn't agree with you more that leadership is a
skill that is learned gradually. Good relationships between the leaders and their followers are
indeed essential as they facilitate the achievement of more objectives. Indeed, they play a
significant role in promoting leadership growth.

I concur with you that at some point, all the interpersonal relationships involve leaders
and their followers. You mentioned that through our interactions with others, we engage in
continuous movement from a managerial position to that of a subordinate. Most of us, indeed
view leadership from a more broad perspective. Indeed, the concept is more personal rather than
positional. I also agree with you that a leadership’s intimacy is the operative feature of

I liked your argument regarding reflection upon leadership relationships is essential for
the continuous fostering ...

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