Humanities
Caribbean Perspectives in Clinical Psychology Child Behavior Research Essay

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The written assignments in the Caribbean Perspectives in Clinical Psychology Portfolio are designed to enhance students’ literacy and critical thinking skills while strengthening their knowledge of Caribbean psychology. Students are required to individually prepare TWO comparative analyses(3 pages each; excluding reference page)over the course of the semester in which they compare two of the five Caribbean-based articles/chapters used for presentations.Students are not permitted to use their presentation article in the analyses (although they might reference it, along with other sources, to support their position)

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Kramer and Bernstein are great for a reference

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Significant Dates and Events in the History of Clinical Psychology Wilhelm Wundt establishes first formal psychology laboratory at the University of Leipzig. Sir Francis Galton establishes first mental testing center at the South 1885 Kensington Museum, London. 1890 James McKeen Cattell coins the term mental test. 1892 American Psychological Association (APA) founded. 1895 Breuer and Freud publish Studies in Hysteria. Lightner Witmer founds first psychological clinic, University of 1896 Pennsylvania. 1905 Binet-Simon Intelligence Scale published in France. 1907 Witmer founds first clinical journal, The Psychological Clinic. 1908 First clinical internship offered at Vineland Training School. William Healy founds first child-guidance center, the Juvenile 1909 Psychopathic Institute, Chicago. Freud lectures at Clark University. Goddard's English translation of the 1908 revision of the Binet-Simon 1910 Intelligence Scale published. 1912 J.B. Watson publishes Psychology as a Behaviorist Views It. 1916 Terman's Stanford-Binet Intelligence Test published. Clinicians break away from APA to form American Association of 1917 Clinical Psychology (AACP). 1919 AACP rejoins APA as its clinical section. 1920 Watson and Rayner demonstrate that a child's fear can be learned. 1921 James McKeen Cattell forms Psychological Corporation. 1924 Mary Cover Jones employs learning principles to remove children's fears. 1931 Clinical section of APA appoints committee on training standards. 1935 Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) published. Clinical section of APA breaks away to form American Association for 1937 1879 Applied Psychology (AAAP). 1938 First Buros Mental Measurement Yearbook published. 1939 Wechsler-Bellevue Intelligence Test published. Carl Rogers publishes Counseling and Psychotherapy, outlining an 1942 alternative to psychodynamic therapy. 1943 Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) published. 1945 AAAP rejoins APA. Journal of Clinical Psychology published. Connecticut State Board of Examiners in Psychology issues first certificate to practice psychology. Veterans Administration and National Institute of Mental Health begin 1946 support for training of clinical psychologists. 1947 American Board of Examiners in Professional Psychology organized. Shakow Report recommends clinical training standards to APA. Colorado conference on training in clinical psychology convenes, 1949 recommends “Boulder Model.” APA publishes first standards for approved internships in clinical 1950 psychology. American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual 1952 (DSM-I) published. 1953 APA's Ethical Standards for Psychologists published. 1955 Wechsler Adult Intelligence Test published. 1956 Stanford Training Conference. 1958 Miami Training Conference. Clinical Division of APA holds NIMH-sponsored conference about research on psychotherapy. 1959 The first psychotherapy benefit in a prepaid insurance plan appears. 1965 Chicago Training Conference. Psy.D. training program begins at the University of Illinois, Urbana1968 Champaign. Second edition of DSM (DSM-II) published. Committee on Health Insurance begins campaign to allow payment of clinical psychologists' services by health insurance plans without requiring medical supervision. 1969 California School of Professional Psychology founded. APA begins publication of the journal, Professional Psychology. Department of Defense health insurance program authorizes payment of 1970 clinical psychologists' services without medical referral. Classes begin at California School of Professional Psychology, the first independent clinical psychology training program in the United States Council for the Advancement of Psychological Professions and Sciences, 1971 a political advocacy group for clinical psychology, is organized. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology published. 1972 Menninger Conference on Postdoctoral Education in Clinical Psychology. 1973 Vail, Colorado, Training Conference. 1974 National Register of Health Service Providers in Psychology established. Federal government allows payment for clinical psychologists' services to its employees without medical supervision or referral. APA establishes Standards for Providers of Psychological Services. First Inter-American Congress of Clinical Psychology held in Porto Alegre, Brazil. All fifty U.S. states have certification or licensing laws for clinical 1977 psychologists. 1980 Third edition of DSM (DSM-III) published. Smith, Glass, and Miller publish The Benefits of Psychotherapy. Blue Shield health insurance companies in Virginia successfully sued for refusing to pay for clinical psychologists' services to people covered by their plans. 1981 APA publishes its revised Ethical Principles of Psychologists. Joint Commission for the Accreditation of Hospitals allows clinical 1983 psychologists to become members of hospital medical staffs. 1987 DSM-III-R published. Conference on graduate education in psychology, Salt Lake City, Utah. 1988 American Psychological Society formed. California Supreme Court affirms right of clinical psychologists to 1990 independently admit, diagnose, treat, and release mental patients without medical supervision. Dick McFall publishes “Manifesto for a Science of Clinical Psychology.” Commander John L. Sexton and Lt. Commander Morgan T. Sammons 1993 complete psychopharmacology program at Walter Reed Army Medical Center, becoming first psychologists legally permitted to prescribe psychoactive drugs. 1994 DSM-IV published. Amendment to Social Security Act guarantees psychologists the right to independent practice and payment for hospital services under Medicare. Academy of Psychological Clinical Science is established. APA task force of clinical psychologists publishes list of empirically 1995 validated psychological therapies and calls for students to be trained to use them. Dorothy W. Cantor becomes first president of APA to hold the Psy.D. 1996 rather than the Ph.D. 2000 DSM-IV-TR published. New Mexico grants prescription privileges to specially trained clinical 2002 psychologists. 2005 APA sponsors a Presidential Task Force on evidencebased practice. Psychologists win a second settlement in two years in federal court 2006 alleging that managed care companies conspired to reduce and delay provider payments in violation of federal law. The U.S. House of Representatives passes legislation requiring mental 2008 health parity: The Paul Wellstone Mental Health and Addiction Equity Act of 2007 . 2009 University of Illinois becomes the first PCSAS accredited program. 2013 DSM-5 published. Introduction to Clinical Psychology Eighth Edition Geoffrey P. Kramer Douglas A. Bernstein Vicky Phares Boston Columbus Indianapolis New York San Francisco Upper Saddle River Amsterdam Cape Town Dubai London Madrid Milan Munich Paris Montréal Toronto Delhi Mexico City São Paulo Sydney Hong Kong Seoul Singapore Taipei Tokyo Editor in Chief: Ashley Dodge Executive Editor: Susan Hartman Editorial Project Manager: Reena Dalal Vice President/Director of Marketing: Brandy Dawson Executive Marketing Manager: Wendy Albert Marketing Assistant: Frank Alarcon Digital Media Editor: Rachel Comerford Managing Editor: Denise Forlow Project Manager, Production: Annemarie Franklin Manufacturing Buyer: Diane Peirano Art Director: Jayne Conte Cover Designer: Karen Noferi Composition: Laserwords Pvt Ltd, India Credits and acknowledgments borrowed from other sources and reproduced, with permission, in this textbook appear on appropriate page within text (or on page 517). Copyright © 2014, 2009, 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. To obtain permission(s) to use material from this work, please submit a written request to Pearson Education, Inc., Permissions Department, One Lake Street, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 or you may fax your request to 201-236-3290. Many of the designations by manufacturers and seller to distinguish their products are claimed as trademarks. Where those designations appear in this book, and the publisher was aware of a trademark claim, the designations have been printed in initial caps or all caps. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Kramer, Geoffrey P. Introduction to clinical psychology / Geoffrey P. Kramer, Douglas A. Bernstein, Vicky Phares. — Eighth edition. pages cm Includes bibliographical references and indexes. ISBN 0-205-87185-2 (alk. paper) 1. Clinical psychology. I. Bernstein, Douglas A. II. Phares, Vicky. III. Title. RC467.N54 2014 616.89—dc23 2013012895 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 ISBN-10: 0-205-87185-2 ISBN-13: 978-0-205-87185-8 2 1 Contents 1. Preface vii 2. Acknowledgments viii 1. Section I Basic Concepts 1 1. Chapter 1 What Is Clinical Psychology? 1 1. An Overview of Clinical Psychology 2 2. Clinical Psychologists at Work 8 3. Clinical Psychology in the 21st Century 14 1. Chapter Summary 18 2. Chapter 2 Clinical Psychology’s Past and Present 22 1. The Roots of Clinical Psychology 22 2. Clinical Psychology Begins to Grow 29 3. The Major Approaches Develop 33 4. The Pros and Cons of Taking a Specific Approach 44 1. Chapter Summary 46 2. Section II Assessment 49 1. Chapter 3 Basic Features of Clinical Assessment 49 1. An Outline of the Assessment Process 50 2. The Goals of Clinical Assessment 54 3. Clinical Judgment and Decision Making 63 4. Psychometric Properties of Assessment Instruments 67 5. Other Factors Affecting Assessment Choices 70 6. Communicating Assessment Results 73 7. Ethical Considerations in Assessment 76 1. Chapter Summary 77 2. Chapter 4 Interviewing and Observation in Clinical Psychology 82 1. Clinical Interview Situations 82 2. Interview Structure 87 3. Stages in the Interview 91 4. Research on the Interview 97 5. Observational Assessment: Goals and Benefits 100 6. Observational Assessment: Approaches 102 7. Research on Observational Assessment 108 1. Chapter Summary 110 3. Chapter 5 Testing in Clinical Psychology 116 1. Basic Concepts in Psychological Testing 116 2. Cultural Fairness and Bias in Psychological Tests 122 3. Tests of Intellectual Functioning 124 4. Tests of Attitudes, Interests, Preferences, and Values 131 5. Tests of Psychopathology and Personality 132 6. The Current Status of Psychological Testing 142 7. The Future of Psychological Testing 144 1. Chapter Summary 144 3. Section III Clinical Interventions 151 1. Chapter 6 Basic Features of Clinical Interventions 151 1. Overview of Clinical Interventions 151 2. The Participants in Psychotherapy 153 3. The Goals of Clinical Interventions 162 4. Ethical Guidelines for Clinical Interventions 164 5. Some Practical Aspects of Clinical Intervention 167 1. Chapter Summary 171 2. Chapter 7 Psychodynamic and Humanistic Psychotherapies 176 1. Psychoanalysis 176 2. Psychodynamic Psychotherapy 187 3. Humanistic Psychotherapy 193 4. Other Humanistic Approaches 200 1. Chapter Summary 204 3. Chapter 8 Behavioral and Cognitive-Behavior Psychotherapies 208 1. Behavior Therapy 208 2. Cognitive Therapy 218 3. Cognitive-Behavior Therapy 227 4. The Current Status of Cognitive-Behavior Therapy 232 1. Chapter Summary 232 4. Chapter 9 Other Modes of Clinical Intervention 236 1. Group Therapy 237 2. Couples and Family Therapy 240 3. Community Psychology 246 4. Prevention 247 5. Self-Help 250 6. Other Approaches 251 7. Technological Innovations Influencing Psychological Treatment 254 8. Psychotherapy Integration 256 1. Chapter Summary 257 5. Chapter 10 Research on Clinical Intervention 263 1. Studying Individual Psychological Treatments 264 2. Studying Other Modes of Intervention 274 3. Issues and Concerns About Research on Therapy 276 1. Chapter Summary 279 4. Section IV Some Clinical Specialties 284 1. Chapter 11 Clinical Child Psychology 284 1. A Brief History of Clinical Child Psychology 285 2. Characteristics Unique to Clinical Child Psychology 286 3. Clinical Assessment of Children 292 4. Specific Childhood Disorders 296 5. Treatment and Prevention of Childhood Disorders 302 6. The Future of Clinical Child Psychology 305 1. Chapter Summary 308 2. Chapter 12 Health Psychology 315 1. What is Health Psychology? 315 2. Risk Factors for Illness 322 3. Illness Prevention and Treatment Programs 324 4. A Health Psychology Case Example 328 5. Improving Adherence to Medical Treatment Regimens 329 1. Chapter Summary 331 3. Chapter 13 Clinical Neuropsychology 337 1. A Brief History of Neuropsychology 338 2. Basic Principles of Neuropsychology 340 3. Patterns of Neuropsychological Dysfunction 344 4. Neuropsychological Assessment 349 5. Neuropsychological Approaches to Psychopathology 351 6. The Current Status of Clinical Neuropsychology 354 1. Chapter Summary 355 4. Chapter 14 Forensic Psychology 359 1. The Scope of Forensic Psychology 359 2. Criminal Competence and Responsibility 360 3. Predicting Dangerousness 367 4. Assessing Psychological Status in Civil Trials 368 5. Psychological Autopsies and Criminal Profiling 370 6. Child Custody and Parental Fitness 372 7. Mental Health Experts in the Legal System 376 1. Chapter Summary 378 5. Section V The Future of Clinical Psychology 382 1. Chapter 15 Professional Issues in Clinical Psychology 382 1. Professional Training 383 2. Professional Regulation 390 3. Professional Ethics 393 4. Professional Independence 399 5. Professional Multicultural Competence 403 6. The Future of Clinical Psychology 406 1. Chapter Summary 409 2. Chapter 16 Getting into Graduate School in Clinical Psychology 415 1. What Types of Graduate Programs Will Help Me Meet My Career Goals? 415 2. Am I Ready to Make the Commitment Required by Graduate Programs at this Time in My Life? 419 3. Are My Credentials Strong Enough for Graduate School in Clinical Psychology? 421 4. Given My Credentials, to What Type of Program Can I Realistically Aspire? 423 5. I Have Decided to Apply to Graduate School in Clinical Psychology. What Should I Do First? 424 6. Should I Apply to a Master’s Degree Program and Complete It Before I Apply to a Doctoral Program? 424 7. If I Choose to Terminate My Training After Earning a Master’s Degree, Will My Opportunities for Doing Clinical Work Be Limited? 425 8. Application Procedures 425 9. Other Important Questions 440 1. Chapter Summary 441 1. References 445 2. Name Index 493 3. Subject Index 507 4. Credits 515 Preface In the seven previous editions of this book, we tried to accomplish three goals. First, we wanted a book that, while appropriate for graduate students, was written especially with sophisticated undergraduates in mind. Many undergraduate psychology majors express an interest in clinical psychology without having a clear understanding of what the field involves and requires. An even larger number of nonmajors also wish to know more about clinical psychology. We felt that both groups would benefit from a thorough survey of the field which does not go into all the details typically found in graduate study only texts. Second, we wanted to present a scholarly portrayal of the history of clinical psychology, its scope, functions, and future that reviewed a full range of theoretical perspectives. Our goal is to present approaches to clinical psychology —psychodynamic, relational, humanistic, cognitive-behavioral, systems, group, etc.—fairly, highlighting the strengths and weaknesses of the empirical evidence supporting each of them. We do champion the empirical research tradition of clinical psychology throughout the book because we believe it is a necessary and useful perspective for all clinicians to follow, regardless of their theoretical orientation. Third, we wanted our book to be interesting and enjoyable to read. Because we like being clinical psychologists and because we enjoy teaching, we tried to create a book that communicates our enthusiasm for its content. Though we are still guided by the above goals, we sought to make some significant changes in the eighth edition. Since our last edition, numerous changes have occurred in clinical psychology and in the health care delivery system, both in the United States and internationally. Accordingly, we have undertaken a comprehensive updating of research and other material in all chapters. With over 900 new references, we have described how research has led to new ways to conceptualize, assess, and treat psychological dysfunction. Some of the other significant changes are listed below. New To This Edition New pedagogical features. In addition to the updated study/discussion questions, and updated websites, the new features include suggestions for movies and memoirs, and bibliographical references at the end of each chapter. New case material. Cases have been updated and their number increased in order to make the material more compelling for students. Updated diagnostic criteria. The new edition discusses changes made in the DSM-5 and the controversies that continue to surround diagnostic classification. Greater integration of research and practice. Rather than presenting these topics pitted against one another, we stress the importance of both and highlight the growing consensus created by focusing on clinical utility; we synthesize the Common Factors and Evidence-Based approaches to effectiveness research and update discussion of treatment planning. Discussion of new mental health delivery models. We discuss how technologies have affected the options for delivering mental health services, including going well beyond the traditional individual psychotherapy model. Revised presentation of several assessment instruments. We have included discussion of the PAI, MMPI-2, and MMPI-2 Restructured Clinical Scales and others; expanded discussion of cultural fairness and bias in psychological testing; revised and integrated our presentation of clinical versus actuarial prediction. Updated topics of relevance to students. Many topics that are of particular interest to students have been updated, including the evolving roles of technology and social media, information on careers within clinical psychology, the use of evidence-based practices; new techniques such as mindfulness which have become integral to the field; the status of complementary and alternative medicine. Updated information on getting into graduate school. This edition informs students about the new GRE scoring system and provides updated information on how to apply to graduate school, with special focus on new hardcopy and on-line resources. Updated discussion of clinical psychology training. We’ve added information on the new PCSAS accreditation system, the current internship crisis in clinical psychology, new choices in graduate training, and the increasing importance of multicultural competence. Updated discussion of popular therapies such as relational psychodynamic approaches, motivatinal interviewing, and emotion-focused therapy. This text is available in a variety of formats—digital and print. To learn more about our programs, pricing options, and customization, visit www.pearsonhighered.com. Acknowledgments We want to thank several people for their valuable contributions to this book. We wish to express our appreciation to Catherine Stoney for her help in updating the health psychology chapter, to Joel Shenker for his help in updating the neuropsychology chapter, and to Elaine Cassel for her help in updating the chapter on forensic psychology. We would also like to thank Lauren Snoeyink for her comments on chapter drafts. Countless undergraduate and graduate students asked the questions, raised the issues, and explored multiple perspectives that have found their way i ...
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Running Head: COMPARATIVE CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY ANALYSIS

Comparative Clinical Psychology Analysis
Name
Institution Affiliation
Date

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COMPARATIVE CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY ANALYSIS

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Comparative clinical psychology analysis
Introduction
Children behavior checklist (CBCL) among other invariance measurement syndromes are
among the extensive reports used to assess the function of children in Jamaica and other
countries. Self-reports of Jamaican teachers, parents and adolescents on the CBCL revealed that
nonhierarchical aspect model better-provided data-to model appropriately but significant crossinformant modification. Results show that professionals and experts who use the CBCL crossinformant pattern to evaluate children function to take precautions in their use since the derived
scores from the various informant groups could be incomparable regardless of the
standardization.
Reasons for CBCL's concerns
In any edition, there are possibilities that the problems associated with the crossinformant pattern are the same as those faced by the specific informants. Depending on the
different characteristics of the informant groups, there is a possibility that subjected or presented
to identical items, they will respond differently regardless of the variance in children behavior.
There exists a measurement biasness due to lack of variation across informants, which makes it
difficult in rating comparison across themselves. Raters have shown differences in their ratings
based on various CBCL literature and manuals with results showing low correlations and
significant difference in mean.
Further sources had inferences that said that the findings were as a result of children
different behaviors across settings; for example; children behave differently in schools compared
to when they are at home. Additionally, another reason was that different informants have

COMPARATIVE CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY ANALYSIS

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different standards concerning children depending on their settings. The assumption that various
forms offer psychometrically invariant evidence on children conduct across informants might be
right about children behavior, but these assumptions remain untested.
Invariance has it that, targeted children who show equal stages of dysfunction are
identically rated. In case there exist a difference in ratings across respective informant, then the
difference should make a real picture of the specific differences that arise in children behavior
and should not be a picture to show the difference in characteristics of every set of informants. It
is critical if the scores in extensive child health, clinical, developmental, empirical literature and
clinical assessment are to be based on trust on cross informant syndrome to determine the
existence of invariance across the various types of informants.
Methods of variance assessment
Different ways can be used to test invariance; for example. The Mantel Haenszel and
logistic regression which are rarely used and item response theory (IRT) and confirmatory factor
analysis (CFA) which are mostly used. CFA research results have shown that examination of
invariance concurrently across various groups seems not to exist. Syndromes established by
Achenbach and the second-order factor have not been metrically proved. Hence questions have
been raised to address the invariance of the cross informant at a factorial stage in the current
studies. There have not been studies addressing metric invariance in informants of all the
psychometric studies conducted CBCL forms in Jamaica, Holland, United States and other
countries. Present studies have shown concerns. And have begun to address the nonappearance
of metric invariance in various sets of informants. This journal article focuses on the year 1991

COMPARATIVE CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY ANALYSIS

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examination of metric in informants as there was more empirical literature compare to 2001
study.
Participants and measures
Jamaican CBCL was carried out in the year between 1993 and 2000 wherein included
collection of data from both public and special populations. Children of ages 4 to 18 years, either
referred or non-referred who were sampled were combine for present day because the
combinations yielded high variance in regards to score compared to two individuals. Data
collection were carried out in groups out; parents, children aged 4 to 18, parent and teacher,
children aged 5 to 10 and a three report on children aged 11 to 18 years. After the data collection,
the researchers asked the Jamaicans for suggestions of the items should not be changed and
instead should remain as they were on the CBCL and also ideas for those that should be changed
to portray the Jamaican expression. The researcher also piloted a measure on 30 parents, 30
teachers and 30 children and used their contribution items to show the projected connotation of
the forms (Kramer, Bernstein, & Phares, 2019).
Data analysis and findings
CFAs were all conducted by use of AMOS 4.0 maximum probability approximation. Due
to the big sample size, the researchers examined each element for deprivation from ordinariness
by the exploration of box plots histogram plots, curves, stem, indices of skewness, leaf diagrams
and Q plots. The findings from the present study suggested that there is an essential variance for
cross informant model. However, the results lacked appropriateness and might not be correctly
specified. This was backed by model fit when the model syndromes were removed from the
hierarchical model. Finally, it was deduced that other countries with similar respondents like

COMPARATIVE CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY ANALYSIS

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theirs, the cross-informant lacked structural invariance together with parent-teacher reports on
children and that of teenage ...

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