Writing
NCU Qualitative Research Techniques on Education Questions

Northcentral University

Question Description

Need help with my Writing question - I’m studying for my class.

Instructions

The goal of this week’s assignment is to help you start thinking about quantitative research as a methodology for your own dissertation. The first part of the assignment is a personal reflection, the second part of the assignment will help you become familiar with the basic parts of a quantitative dissertation you should begin thinking about, and the third part helps you to begin thinking through how quantitative dissertations are set up at NCU.

Part 1 (2 points):

The first part of this assignment is a personal reflection. In one page, reflect on what led you to an interest in conducting quantitative research in education. Indicate why quantitative research is of more interest to you or better matches your skill set than qualitative research. Discuss why quantitative methods align with what you hope to contribute to the field of education with your research. Describe any fears or reservations you have about embarking on a quantitative research journey with your upcoming dissertation.

Part 2 (2 points each, 6 points total):

For each of the three NCU dissertations listed in the Resources section for this week, identify the following:

  1. Describe the problem that drives the study, in one clear sentence.
  2. Indicate the purpose of the study, in one clear sentence.
  3. List the research questions.
  4. List any hypotheses included.
  5. Describe the methodology and design in two to three brief sentences.

Part 3 (2 points):

Respond to the following questions in one page:

  1. NCU dissertations use one clear declarative sentence to drive the problem statement. This single problem sentence must be supported by a current source.
    • Why is it important to be able to articulate the entire problem that drives a study in one clear sentence?
    • Why is it important to support this statement with a current source?
  2. The purpose statement must align with the problem statement, meaning it will use the same key terms and be focused on the same exact issue. Alignment can be a real challenge for beginning researchers.
    • What are some ways you can make sure that the purpose you identify in your research is aligned with the problem you have identified? (Example: One tip is that you could highlight the same key terms occurring in your problem and purpose statements. What other tips can you think of?)
  3. It can be a challenge to create clear research questions that directly address the problem and purpose of the study, without introducing new ideas or straying off track.
    • What are some ways that you will be sure your research questions directly aligned with your problem and purpose statements in your research?
    • What are some aspects of this that you think might be challenging for newer researchers?
  4. Finally, how and why do the research questions drive the selection of the methodology and design for a study?

Length: 3-4 pages in total, not including title page

References: No references are required for this assignment, though any references used should be cited and referenced

Unformatted Attachment Preview

A Quantitative Correlational Study of Georgia High School Graduation and Retention Rates of Students with Disabilities Dissertation Manuscript Submitted to Northcentral University School of Education in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY by DALE RENNARD ROSE San Diego, California October 2018      ProQuest Number: 10979542    All rights reserved   INFORMATION TO ALL USERS The quality of this reproduction is dependent upon the quality of the copy submitted. In the unlikely event that the author did not send a complete manuscript and there are missing pages, these will be noted. Also, if material had to be removed, a note will indicate the deletion.        ProQuest 10979542 Published by ProQuest LLC (2018 ). Copyright of the Dissertation is held by the Author.  All rights reserved. This work is protected against unauthorized copying under Title 17, United States Code Microform Edition © ProQuest LLC.   ProQuest LLC. 789 East Eisenhower Parkway P.O. Box 1346 Ann Arbor, MI 48106 - 1346 DocuSign Envelope ID: D5B8B54F-1490-4061-AD10-5A013F19ACD5 Approval Page A Quantitative Correlational Study of Georgia High School Graduation and Retention Rates of Students with Disabilities By DALE RENNARD ROSE Approved by the Doctoral Committee: PhD Robin Throne Dissertation Chair: INSERT NAME Degree Held PhD Hjerpe Committee Member: Karen INSERT NAME Degree Held PhD Vance Committee Member: Joanna INSERT NAME Degree Held 11/20/2018 | 04:54:03 MST Date 11/21/2018 | 20:13:38 MST Date 11/20/2018 | 06:41:16 MST Date Abstract High School dropout has become a significant impact on both the human and economic capital of the United States. The problem was that students with disabilities were not graduating from high school to become productive citizens and contribute to the society socially or economically. The specific problem was the gap between graduation rate of SWD and those without disabilities, in the state of Georgia was one of the widest in the nation. The purpose of this quantitative correlation study was to examine whether relationships and predictive values exist among graduation rate, retention rate, and dropout rate for SWD in Southwest Georgia. This study was guided by a theoretical framework developed by Gagné, Condition of Learning Theory specified external or internal conditions impacts the learning environment or the type of learning that takes place in the educational setting. The target population was 6,643 SWD who attended high school in the southwest Georgia region between the academic school years 2015 and 2017. De-identified archival SWD graduation, retention, and dropout records in the southwestern region of the state of Georgia for the academic school years of 2015 to 2017 were analyzed using the Intellectus statistical software. Results indicated a moderate significant positive correlation existed between retention rate and dropout rate (r = 0.65, p < .05), and neither retention rate or dropout rates were predictors of SWD graduation rate. The implications of the findings were that there are a number of negative outcomes associated with dropping out and the dropout rates for students with and without disabilities have increased at an alarming trend each year. Recommendations for educational leadership were to offer consistent specialized instruction and interventions to aide SWD to meet graduation expectations, and to provide professional development for SWD educators to promote SWD matriculation towards graduation. Recommendation for future research were to replicate this quantitative correlational ii study with an expanded sample to include all 50 states and potential predictors and conduct a quantitative causal comparative study to further examine the significant relationship found in the current study. iii Acknowledgments It has always been my dream to earn a Ph.D. I was aware of the expectations; however, I decided not to give up on this dream even when the journey got extremely rough. I faced various challenges, but I found strength and motivation from various sources along the way. I am very blessed to have family members to stand by me, a dedicated dissertation chair, friends, and colleagues that support me each step of the way. I would like to thank my sisters Rachquel and Sheila (my personal cheerleaders). I am grateful for each time that they would remind me that I can reach the ultimate goal and complete the process. Completing this, I would also like to thank Dr. Robin Throne and Dr. Karen Hjerpe for demanding high-quality work and providing effective feedback on the many drafts that we have exchanged. I can certainly say that the journey that began March 1, 2008, is now at a point of conclusion. Daily I encourage myself to be confident of this very thing, that he who has begun a good work in you will perfect it until the day of Jesus Christ. iv Table of Contents Chapter 1: Introduction ................................................................................................................... 1 Statement of the Problem .......................................................................................................... 3 Purpose of the Study ................................................................................................................. 4 Theoretical Framework ............................................................................................................. 5 Nature of the Study ................................................................................................................... 7 Research Questions ................................................................................................................... 8 Hypotheses ................................................................................................................................ 9 Significance of the Study .......................................................................................................... 9 Definitions of Key Terms ....................................................................................................... 10 Summary ................................................................................................................................. 11 Chapter 2: Literature Review ........................................................................................................ 13 Theoretical Framework ........................................................................................................... 14 Historical Overview ................................................................................................................ 18 Graduation Rates of High School Students with Disabilities ................................................. 21 Factors Affecting High School Graduation of Students with Disabilities .............................. 27 Dropout Rate of Students with Disabilities ............................................................................ 34 Factors Impacting Dropout of High School Students with Disabilities .................................. 38 Grade Retention of High School Students with Disabilities ................................................... 49 Summary ................................................................................................................................. 54 Chapter 3: Research Method ......................................................................................................... 55 Research Methodology and Design ........................................................................................ 56 Population and Sample ........................................................................................................... 57 Materials/Instrumentation ....................................................................................................... 60 Operational Definitions of Variables ..................................................................................... 59 Study Procedures .................................................................................................................... 61 Data Collection and Analysis.................................................................................................. 61 Assumptions............................................................................................................................ 63 Limitations .............................................................................................................................. 63 Delimitations ........................................................................................................................... 64 Ethical Assurances .................................................................................................................. 64 Summary ................................................................................................................................. 65 Chapter 4: Findings ....................................................................................................................... 67 Validity and Reliability of the Data ........................................................................................ 68 Results ..................................................................................................................................... 69 Evaluation of the Findings ...................................................................................................... 70 Summary ................................................................................................................................. 72 v Chapter 5: Implications, Recommendations, and Conclusions .................................................... 74 Implications............................................................................................................................. 74 Recommendations for Practice .............................................................................................. 79 Recommendations for Future Research ................................................................................. 79 Conclusions ............................................................................................................................. 79 References ..................................................................................................................................... 81 Appendices .................................................................................................................................... 93 Appendix A: Publicly Accessible Data................................................................................... 94 Appendix B: Data Assumptions.............................................................................................. 96 vi List of Tables Table 1 Variance Inflation Factors .............................................................................................. 69 Table 2 Pearson Corelation Matrix .............................................................................................. 70 Table 3 Results of Linear Regression ........................................................................................... 71 vii 1 Chapter 1: Introduction The dropout phenomenon is a significant cost to both the human and economic capital of the United States and has a number of negative outcomes associated with it as well as these students experiences high rate of unemployment, poverty, being incarcerated, and depression to name a few (Faircloth, Toldson, & Lucio, 2014; Fallah, 2017; McFarland, Stark, & Cui, 2016). The dropout rate for students with and without disabilities has increased at an alarming trend as such every year, over 1.2 million students are noted to drop out of high school in the United States, making an average of approximately 7,000 students dropping out of school each day (National Center for Education Statistics, 2017; U. S. Department of Education, 2011). Consequently, the overall dropout rate to date for students dropping out of high school is reaching over six million (Allen et al., 2017). Although educators and policy makers have implemented several research and school-based interventions this concern has remained a top priority at both the state and district levels (Freeman et al., 2015). In the United States, each year a number of students that begin their high school journey, unfortunately, do not complete it. High school dropout results have a negative impact on the society, as well as the students who fail to complete high school become a significant cost to themselves, the society, and the nation’s economy as a whole (Allen et al., 2017; Diette, Goldsmith, Hamilton, & Darity, 2017; McKee & Caldarella, 2016). Notwithstanding, in recent years the high school graduation rate has been stabled at approximately 83% (Wolf, David, Butler-Barnes, & Zile-Tamsen, 2017). However, educators and policymakers alike in the United States would like to achieve a graduation rate of 90% by the year 2020 and some states have shown tremendous improvements with regards to their graduation rate in recent decades; yet, most states must reach the national or desired average (Allensworth, Healey, Gwynne & Crespin, 2 2016). Student acquisition of a high school diploma is preparation for the students to participate positively in the economy and in civic life, among other positive life outcomes (Zaff et al., 2017). On a daily basis, students in the United States discontinue their high school education for complex reasons and circumstances, and some of these circumstances may include personal and family issues, school discipline, and suspensions (Samuels, 2015). The attrition rate of students with disabilities (SWD) in high school will and has had significant impact both on the student, the school, the family, and the society as a whole (Samuels, 2015). In general, an earned high school diploma for an employee may result in more opportunities and provided additional incentives to enable the individual to stay employed, earn a higher salary, further their education, and secure a foundation for some type of career opportunity. Students dropping out of high school have a significant impact on all aspects of life and is highly important because reducing the dropout rate is seen by educators as well as policy makers as a national priority (MárquezVera et al., 2016). Over the years, the graduation rates for SWD have improved, but wide disparities remain. These students have struggled to graduate in the same numbers as their peers. There is a standard expectation that the provision of special education and related services are expected to be provided with the supports and related services that will help them in matriculating successfully through high school. SWD suffer a greater risk of not completing high school when compared to their non-disabled peers (McBurney, Eaton, & Torunski, 2017). SWD are more challenged in earning a high school diploma than their non-disabled peers. A student with a disability has a disorder of one or more psychological processes involved in understanding or using language, spoken or written, which may manifest itself in an imperfect ability to listen, 3 think, speak, read, write, spell or make mathematical calculations (Hallahan, Kauffman & Pullen, 2009). When students do not earn a high school diploma, they are considered to be a dropout. SWD stand a greater chance of dropping out of high school. There are predictive data that is capable of providing education professionals, local, as well as state education agencies with vital information that determine dropout. Some of these predictors include; low attendance, truancy, grades, and how they are able to accumulate the needed credits to graduate (Ahmad & Miller, 2015). There are researchers in the field that have individually examined graduation rate, dropout rate, retention, and high school completion of SWD. An in-depth study examining the relationship that exists if any for the graduation rate, retention rate, dropout rate, and high school completion of SWD is warranted. Studies have been completed in the field which have been specified to various ethnic groups. Studies have been completed to examine the factors that are impacting the graduation rate of American Indians males with disabilities and subsequently, there is a call for further research to identify and publicize existing dropout prevention strategies specific to American Indian males with disabilities (Faircloth et al., 2014). The phenomenon of SWD dropping out of high school have been studied as well as compared with gender with regards to their respective ethnicities. Further research also investigated measures in decreasing the dropout rate of African American male youth with disabilities and the exploration of the factors that caused Latino males with disabilities to drop out of school (Lucio, 2014; Toldson, 2014). Statement of the Problem The problem was that SWD not graduating from high school were not be able to become productive citizens and contribute effectively to the society socially or economically (Grindal & 4 Schifter, 2016; Kineavy, 2016). Graduation rates for SWD varied considerably among states; this; however, may be attributed to the differences in data reporting (Butrymowicz & Mader, 2017; Depaoli, Balfanz, & Bridgeland, 2016). Albeit, SWD that are covered under the Individuals with Disabilities Act (IDEA) can remain in school until they are 21 years old and do less rigorous work to earn a regular diploma and graduate from high school; some failed to stay the course and complete high school (Samuels, 2015). SWD drop out of school at disproportionately higher rates than their peers, and over 30% of SWD have dropped out of school and their graduation rate is approximately 20% lower than the national average (Grindal & Schifter, 2016). Results from previous studies outlined within the United States, only 63% of SWD graduated from high school in 2014 (Grindal & Schifter, 2016). This was far below the 83% for American students. The state of Georgia was ranked third from the bottom compared to other states with respect to the graduation rate of SWD, which averaged 36.5% (National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), 2017). The state’s high school graduation rates for SWD is typically half the rate of their non-disabled peers (Grindal & Schifter, 2016). Ultimately, the gap between the graduation of SWD and those without disabilities, in the state of Georgia is one of the widest in the nation (NCES, 2017). SWD are not graduating from high school at the same rate as their non-disabled peers in the state of Georgia (Rubin, 2016). Purpose of the Study The purpose of this quantitative correlation study was to examine whether relationships and predictive values exist among graduation rate, retention rate, and dropout rate for SWD in Southwest Georgia. The correlation designed was deemed appropriate for this study as this design was considered to be a more precise means to measure the extent to which two variables were related (Simon & Goes, 2013). The research setting was the Southwest Georgia School 5 Districts where 72 school districts reside, and the target population was the 6,643 SWD that attended high school between the school years 2015 to 2017. A random sample was collected from archival data and a minimum sample of 68 was determined based on a G*Power analysis for linear regression (.80 power; .15 effect size; .05 alpha). Data collection involved the of use archival data from the 2014-2015, 2015-2016, and 2016-2017 academic school year of students that were identified as students with a disability from the Governor’s Office of Student Achievement. Data analysis employed Pearson’s correlation and multiple r ...
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Final Answer

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Running head: QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH

Research
Student’s Name:
Instructor’s Name:

1

QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH

2

Part 1
There are different techniques used to perform research before making a decision. These
methods vary from field to field, and the choice of the process is determined mostly by choice of
the researcher. In this discussion, we will elaborate more on the reason why I do quantitative
research on education. Besides, I will discuss what this method fits my interest than qualitative
analysis. Moreover, I will give more details on this method to align with what I wish to
contribute to education, as well as some challenges I am likely to encounter when using this
method.
To start with, quantitative research fits my skills than qualitative research in that there is a
wide range of data from which I have to research on. This makes quantitative research more
applicable, for it is much based on quantity. Another reason is that the type of analysis used is
variable based, which allows mathematical and statistical techniques to be implemented while
qualitative use case base analysis. This will help in ensuring that I have done thorough research
in different fields of education. Another reason why quantitative research matches my skill set is
that it uses hard data, while qualitative research uses soft data. I am more skilled in using hard
data; thu...

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