UoN Wk 12 Organization Leadership and Decision Making Discussion

University of Nairobi

Question Description

I need help with a Writing question. All explanations and answers will be used to help me learn.

Discussions 1 to 10: Organization Leadership and Decision Making

Discussions 11 to 22: Emerging Threats and Counter Measures

Discussion 23: Analyzing and Visualizing Data


Need 23 Responses

Need a minimum of 150 words for each response

Need 2 PEER Reviewed APA References

In Response need to cover

What did you learn from this posting?

What additional questions do you have after reading the posting?

What clarification do you need regarding the posting?

What differences or similarities do you see between your idea and this posting?


Response 1: 150 words, Reference 1, Reference 2

Response 2: 150 words, Reference 1, Reference 2




Response 23: 150 words, Reference 1, Reference 2

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Organ Leadership Initial Post 1: Demand management is a multi-process to identifying various new ideas, projects, and needs during the creation of a portfolio. Proper balancing in product and services with production ability, including resources and supplies, is mandatory to control planning, production, and delivery, else it might produce lack of resource management, poor quality in product, and finally customer satisfaction (Gentle, 2007). The more the process can capture the real strategic commitment of the organization and merge it with the past, ongoing activities, the more demand is a success factor in building the correct portfolio. Demand management should be treated as a specific matter to manage within portfolio management and assigned as a clear responsibility to a specific team. Strategic initiative management is to prioritize and to fund IT investments at the enterprise level. It is the administrative technique, and the ability to develop and implement new strategic initiatives and change rapidly is becoming a key differentiator (Designing cost-effective demand, 1999). Organizations focus on defining major strategic initiatives, but many companies struggle to implement those initiatives. Strategic initiative management helps to enable this by actively supporting the implementation of critical vital programs by allocating enough budget for IT if possible. APM focuses on existing applications, unlike PPM does to their future projects, which tries to balance expenses against the value (Caruso, 2007). APM helps an organization to reduce operating costs related to technology as well as produce business value with proper staff and maintenances needs. Determining and updating IT functions performance, shapes, used technology, and cost improvement are processed by APM, which helps the organization to accomplish its goal effectively. Enterprise Architecture, the primary intent of EA is to create a secure connection between technology and business EA is the key. To successfully execute on business strategies, the organization must practice analyzing, designing, planning, and implementation, which are significant parts of EA. There are many different suggested frameworks to develop an enterprise architecture, as discussed later on. IT must take responsibility and leadership in managing demands. The relationship between IT and the business was not nearly as well established and lacked the requisite foundation of mutual trust (Smith and McKeen 2010). It by and large have almost no comprehension of its interest and supply chains, and would make some hard memories having the option to respond to critical inquiries like, "What is as of now in the funnel?" or, "What do we need to convey throughout the following a half year?" or, "What is our anticipated asset use for the following quarter?". One organization mapped out a set of generic attributes for an effective IT–business partnership capable of shaping demand for IT resources like, Relationship management, Leadership, Clear business requirements, Marketing skills. Governance & Transparency in every organization wants the business managers to manage the IT demands, and business managers always want to control their business with technology. IT managers are also motivated to provide a system that can help to accomplish the business manager's requirements. Identifying both IT and business needs are in the governance mechanism. Transparency and governance stay together. It is mandatory to understand the process by everyone to manage the goal. Understand all information, raise the question when there are concerns, apply them correctly for effective decision making. Initial Post 2: Demand management is the process an organization puts in place to internally collect new ideas, projects, and needs during the creation of a portfolio. Demand management is successful when the final output is useful to prioritize and select a valuable, strategically aligned portfolio (Designing cost-effective demand, 1999). The more the process can capture the real strategic commitment of the organization and merge it with the past, ongoing activities, the more demand is a success factor in building the correct portfolio. Demand management should be treated as a specific matter to manage within portfolio management and assigned as a clear responsibility to a specific team. The critical organizational enablers for effective demand management are: Strategic initiative management: For many businesses today, generally, only two things are certain: uncertainty and an accelerating pace of change. In this environment, the ability to develop and implement new strategic initiatives and change rapidly is becoming a key differentiator (Designing cost-effective demand, 1999). Organizations focus on defining major strategic initiatives, but many companies struggle to implement those initiatives. Strategic initiative management helps to enable this by actively supporting the implementation of critical strategic programs by allocating enough budget for IT if possible. Application Portfolio management: Application portfolio management is like taking a proactive approach to managing our wardrobe. That t-shirt we bought on impulse before arriving home and realizing it does not match anything we already have? Chances are it is still gathering dust in the back of a drawer. Things would have worked out better had we taken a more methodical approach. For example, we could have looked at our existing clothes before we went shopping, identified the gaps, and selected items to fill them. Coincidentally, it is the same story with enterprise applications (Mariolis, Ntemiroglou & Soklis, 2018). As organizations grow, IT departments and even individual employees buy applications to solve urgent problems without giving any (or at least enough) thought to the implications. As a result, apps pile up that are difficult or impossible to integrate with existing apps or other systems. Similar apps for completing the same tasks are purchased multiple times. Others fall out of favor and are no longer used, but are still paid for, and never uninstalled. Furthermore, still, others are bought and never used at all! Enterprise architecture: Many organizations today are establishing an Enterprise Architecture (EA) business function. However, the knowledge about enterprise architecture concepts, frameworks, and processes within many organizations is still quite limited and at a low level of maturity. Very often, there is a good understanding of the technology and infrastructure architecture and, to a lesser extent of the application architecture but far less understanding of the enterprise architecture discipline. According to many surveys, the majority of organizations usually choose to create their own EA framework rather than adopt an existing one. The reasons for this vary, from the requirement to support a service-oriented architecture, object orientation, and component-based development viewpoints, to a pure desire to use different terminology that is tailored to the language used within the organization (Baev, Aleksandrovna & Dzyuba, 2018). The purpose of this EA Wiki is to provide organizations with a standard reference for the leading Enterprise Architecture concepts, frameworks, processes, and best practices that can be used today to create a tailored enterprise architecture. Business IT Partnership: In order to manage the planning, production, and delivery, any adequately run business has to be able to balance orders for its products and services (i.e., demand) with its ability to produce them in terms of resource and scheduling constraints (i.e., supply). Otherwise, it might produce too little of what is required, too much of what is not required, or deliver late, or have problems with the product quality or customer satisfaction. The average IT department, though not a business from a profit and loss perspective (the exceptional IT profit-center notwithstanding), has a resource base comprising highly paid specialists, produces highly sophisticated products and services, and has an annual budget of anywhere from two to 10 percent of annual revenue. Nevertheless, it does an abysmal job of managing—when managing at all necessary supply and demand (Grandzol & Grandzol, 2018). It generally has very little understanding of its demand and supply chains, and would have a hard time being able to answer fundamental questions like, "What is currently in the pipe?" or, "What do we have to deliver over the next six months?" or, "What is our projected resource utilization for the next quarter?" Governance and Transparency: There is growing recognition among enterprises of all types and sizes that the key to getting great business results from IT is to run IT like a business. It is no longer enough to focus on managing IT projects and outcomes. Executives are embracing IT governance strategies that focus on the business outcomes of IT projects. They are keenly aware that optimizing IT governance processes is a prerequisite for optimizing the business. Furthermore, they are implementing IT governance solutions that can manage the priorities, processes, and people needed to transform IT from a cost center into a competitive weapon (Dzyuba & Soloveva, 2018). Demand management, or the management of all the requests made to IT, is a core element of IT governance and is, in fact, an excellent starting point for implementing a comprehensive governance strategy. Many CIOs today view IT governance not as a "process" but as an iterative cycle of planning and execution. Initial Post 3: For IT demand management, various processes are involved. To have organizational demand management, five key enablers are used. Firstly, there is strategic initiative management that deals with coming up with priorities on what is to be covered and funded. This process also involves considering infrastructure projects and also providing governance and directions. Strategic initiatives form a vital step because it gives the organization the required structure for alignment of different activities (McKeen, 2015). Secondly, is the application management portfolio. This capability deals with the existing applications whereby assessment is done to find the business value of the applications. Other factors to be considered include the usability as well as the technical value and obsolescence (McKeen, 2015). The portfolio has to be adequately managed to facilitate productive organizational activities. The application management portfolio helps an organization to avoid redundant and duplication applications (Müller, 2015). Thirdly, there is enterprise architecture that involves working with different stakeholders in the company to provide a holistic approach to organizational strategy. This means that enterprise architecture provides a platform for harmonizing business mission, processes as well as strategies in the company. The architecture should support IT operations with the aim of satisfying business needs (McKeen, 2015). Therefore, enterprise architecture can shape business demands and strategies by bringing into folding technology to help in the processes. Fourthly, there is the business-IT partnership in the company (Müller, 2015). The two should complement each other to realize the goal of the company. There should be a utility, business as well as technological partnerships. The business department can come up with the value for the organization while the IT counterpart can come up with the metrics and assessment of different products and services. Finally, there is governance and Transparency, and this implies that leveraging different opportunities in the organization is crucial. Business cases should be developed to assess different processes and technological costs. Paying for novel developments in the role of the business and can include investors in the process. There should be a template for governance and value deliverance by including the business as well as IT management in decision-making processes. Transparency enhances a better understanding of the goals and strategies. There will be accurate information being passed across the organization (McKeen, 2015). Initial Post 4: The critical organizational enablers for effective demand management; Strategic initiative management: Sufficient funding of critical IT-related investments is very primary for the success of any organization. Various projects usually need formal approval for them to be executed. The necessary step undertaken to achieve all these is by ensuring that there is effective management of various strategic initiatives. The process prioritizes the IT investments, among other issues that are forming part of organizational operations. Subsequently, the capability of a firm to increase the level of information technology demand is ascertained (McKeen & Smith, 2015). When strategic initiative management is not taken into consideration, the resultant repercussion is always daunting and severe, whereby there the organization fails to carry out capacity planning. Governance and Transparency: Both governance and Transparency are vital enablers for any given organization to manage the demand for information technology efficiently. Proper governance contributes immensely to ensure that accountability for various anticipated gains can be associated with concerned stakeholders like the managers (McKeen & Smith, 2015). This enhances the IT demand since convenience is created. Moreover, Transparency acts as a door that allows for different parties in an organization to understand the concepts of information technology for improved decision making. Application portfolio management: Another enabler of managing IT demand is application portfolio management (APM). It is essential to mention that APM help organizations in determining the contribution of various towards profitability and stability of the business (McKeen & Smith, 2015). The portfolio of applications that are already available in a given organization requires constant maintenance to enhance efficiency in that organization. Enterprise architecture: Enterprise architecture is essential for effective management of IT demand by providing a link between the IT strategies and mission of an organization. It ensures that a common approach exists between the IT and the commercial operations (Gelinas, Sutton Jr & Federowicz, 2019). This is very critical since it promotes the practical usage of information technology in different dimensions of an organization. Business-IT partnership: Business-IT partnership is equally important when it comes to IT demand management. By creating precise requirements for the business, ensuring effective leadership and relevant relationship management, this form of partnership enables commercial activities and projections to be undertaken and achieved (McKeen & Smith, 2015). Initial Post 5: Today I would like to discuss my views on crucial organizational enablers for effective demand management. Individuals contended that IT request the executives is anything but a solitary procedure that an association can distinguish. That is, because of the inquiry, no association could state, "We utilize this procedure." Instead, the gathering proposed that request the executives is a created hierarchical ability that outcomes from five key authoritative empowering agents: vital activity the executives, application portfolio the executives, venture design, business-IT organization, and administration and straightforwardness. These key variables work synergistically with the instruments recently portrayed to empower powerful interests on the board. Having a fruitful application portfolio, the board (APM) activity, for instance, does not ensure viably IT requests the board, but rather the nonappearance of APM would endanger the adequacy of interest the executives. Every one of these critical, authoritative empowering agents is depicted straightaway. Essential activity the executives is the hierarchical system for organizing and financing IT speculations at the undertaking level. Even though the attention is principally on huge optional/pivotal ventures, as the name infers, this procedure additionally settles enormous framework ventures. One association built up a vital undertaking office (SPO) with a command to give administration and course over big businesswide venture endorsements and wanting to guarantee these speculations are lined up with the association's center methodologies (Kwok, 2004). This last view proposes how to approach the board request. Rather than requesting that IT associations go about as "traffic cops" or potentially forcing assents on capital spending to reduce request misleadingly, the financial matters approach is to arrange of strategies and techniques combined with sufficient administration to guarantee that the assignment of rare IT administrations goes to the most noteworthy worth chances (Cramm, 2004). The objective is to catch and organize requests, allot assets dependent on business goals, and participate in tasks that convey business benefits. In any case, as is much of the time the case, what seems essential adroitly in actuality shows an imposing arrangement of difficulties. The center gathering talked about three usually utilized devices for interest the board and distinguished what they viewed as five key authoritative empowering influences for its compelling administration request. Initial Post 6: Demand management is not a single process that can be easily identified by an organization. One of the questions that business leaders ask them these days is how to manage demand effectively. There is no specific process that is used to manage demand since demand is a developed organizational capability that results from organizational enablers (McKeen & Smith, 2015). Five of these enablers are discussed below: Strategic Initiative Management: This refers to an organizational mechanism for funding all IT investment at the enterprise level. This is an organizational enabler for effective demand management because it is a vital step that helps organizations to prioritize IT funding opportunities. This is important because it helps an organization to align its IT investments with its corporate strategy. Application Portfolio Management: Application Portfolio Management or popularly known as APM, helps a company to balance its expenses and value (Fahrioglu & Alvarado, 2010). However, for this to work effectively, the existing portfolio of applications should be continually maintained in order to support organizational operations successfully. The most important thing about the maintenance of the application portfolio is that it creates a demand for IT resources. Enterprise Architecture: Enterprise architecture will lead to effective demand management because it will create a room for working with stakeholders, leadership, and subject matter experts. All these come together to build a holistic view of the company's information, processes, and strategy. The enterprise architect plays the role of linking the mission, strategy, and processes of the business to its IT strategy, and this leads to effective demand management (Seik, 2014). Business-IT Partnership: Effective demand management requires a proper business-IT relationship. This means that an organization should align its business activities with its IT operations. This is necessary because it will help an organization to forecast the current and future demand for its goods and services. All IT organizations should be more proactive for them to become successful within their organizational service role (McKeen & Smith, 2015). The most crucial point to note here is that IT should be on the driver seat in demand management. Governance and Transparency: There is a need for all organizations to shape the demand for IT resources. However, t ...
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Response 1
According to the post, demand management is generally a process that can be employed
in the identification of new needs, projects, and ideas during portfolio management. I learned
that demand management should be dealt with as an independent process during portfolio
management and assigned to a well-trained team. Concerning Strategic Initiative Management,
the author feels that it implies that it relates to funding or prioritizing IT investments in the
business. The posts imply that unlike PPM, application Portfolio Management can help the
business cut on operation costs concerning technology and operation needs (Piccoli & Ives,
2005). The post has significant similarities to my ideas on demand management, especially
regarding Strategic Initiative Management, where it relates poetizing and funding IT-related
initiatives. However, the only clarification I may need from the author is whether enterprise
architecture relates to creating a holistic ideology of the objectives, processes, and the
information technology strategy of an organization (Croxton et al 20112).

Piccoli, G., & Ives, B. (2005). IT-dependent strategic initiatives and sustained competitive
advantage: a review and synthesis of the literature. MIS quarterly, 29(4), 747-776.

Croxton, K.L., Lambert, D.M., García-Dastugue, S.J. and Rogers, D.S., 2012. The demand
management process. The International Journal of Logistics Management, 13(2), pp.5166.



Response 2
It was surprising to learn that that demand management is only successful when the
resulting outcomes are useful to select a strategically aligned portfolio or valuable. This implies
that the more the activities can capture the strategic commitment of the organization and its past,
the more demand becomes a vital factor in creating the best portfolio. Regarding business and IT
partnerships, the author feels that in the bid to handle delivery, planning, and production, any
business should be able to balance orders for its goods and services. Thus, an active partnership
between these two aspects of the business is critical in forming a strong organization brand ad
management of the processes of the company (Symons, Cameron, Orlov & Sessions, 2016).
There are various distinctions between my ideas and the one presented in the post, especially
concerning proactive application management. I would also need clarifications on whether
application portfolio management is generally used to reduce costs, or there are some other
functions (McKeen & Smith, 2015).

Symons, C., Cameron, B., Orlov, L. M., & Sessions, L. (2016). How IT must shape and manage
demand. Best Practices. June, 15.

McKeen, J. D., & Smith, H. A. (2015). IT strategy: Issues and practices. Pearson Higher Ed



Response 3
The post posits that for effective IT demand management, the five key enablers ought to
be implemented to the latter. I noted that enterprise architecture relates to working with different
personnel in the organization. This implies that the tool offers a platform for interaction between
business strategies, mission, and processes (Symons et al 2016). Concerning governance and
transparency, the authors suggest that it generally means leveraging the various business
opportunities. Transparency and governance are essential in the business as they enhance the
understanding of the mission of the organization as well as ensuring the transfer of accurate
information. The posts seem to have covered a good chunk of the topic, but the only concern is
whether demand management can be successful through other factors aside from the ones
presented (Chung & McLeod, 2012). There is also a considerable similarity with my ideas on the
topic, particularly on Enterprise Architecture and its relation to providing a platform for
interaction between business strategies, mission, and processes.

Chung, H. M., & McLeod, G. (2012, January). Enterprise architecture, implementation, and
infrastructure management. In Proceedings of the 35th Annual Hawaii International
Conference on System Sciences (pp. 1256-1257). IEEE.

Symons, C., Cameron, B., Orlov, L. M., & Sessions, L. (2016). How IT must shape and manage
demand. Best Practices. June, 15.



Response 4
The post basically looks into the five enablers of demand management. Regarding
governance and transparency, the author suggests that they are critical enablers as they enhance
the accountability of the organization (Fung, 2014). Additionally, transparency allows the
various parts of the organization to understand the ideology of IT for improved decision making
in the long run. Concerning strategic initiative management, the post implies that enough funding
of information technology-related investments is vital for the success of any business (Haufler,
2010). From the post, I learned that when strategic initiative management is not handled
properly, the organization can fail to live up to its potential. The post is a pretty good article, but
it requires clarification on the meaning and importance of demand management. Other than that,
most of the ideas presented in the post are similar to my take on the topic and the five factors on
demand management (Fung, 2014).

Fung, B. (2014). The demand and need for transparency and disclosure in corporate
governance. Universal Journal of Management, 2(2), 72-80.

Haufler, V. (2010). Disclosure as governance: The extractive industries transparency initiative and
resource management in the developing world. Global Environmental Politics, 10(3), 5373.



Response 5
The most important point of the post is that demand management is a broad aspect that
cannot be handled as a single front that I why various tools can be significant in achieving the
feat. The author feels that some of the most important factors include Application Portfolio,
Straightforwardness, Administration, Business-IT Organization, and Venture Design. These
variables work hand in hand with the instruments recently portrayed, such as APM, in pursuit of
empowering interest on the board (Esmaili, Gardesh & Sikari, 2010). The author posits that the
objective of all these activities is to capture and organize requests as most company assets rely
on business goals. The post present distinct ideas from my concepts on the topic, especially
concerning the five enablers as the author suggest they include Application Portfolio,
Straightforwardness, Administration, Business-IT Organization, and Venture Design (Fung,
2014). I woul...

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