Simon Fraser University Impact of Tourism in Tibet Discussion

GEOG 327

Simon Fraser University


Question Description

I’m studying for my Geography class and need an explanation.

This consultant report focus on the presentation slides and further research of Tibet tourism issue. Talking about tourism issue in Tibet, sustainable development and further ideas combined and support by academic papers and theories. Try to think comprehensively in different fields, environment, economy, history, social, sustainable development and heritage. Please think of ICE idea format that I have attached below while writing the report. The report format and detailed I have attached below and an important reading as well.

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Tibet Tourism influence on Tibet local economy and sustainable development https://www.gadventures.com/trips/nepal-himalaya-highlights/ANENG/ https://www.tibetanreview.net/china-calls-tibetan-plateau-one-of-cleanest-on-earth-in-new-white-paper/ Average elevation: 4500m Substance agriculture, livestock raising GDP 78.3% -> 8.8% ⬇ Tertiary industry - Tourism GDP 48.7% 2016 2017 2018 https://www.dangerousroads.org/asia/china/6072-yunnan-tibet-highway.html “According to the work report, more than 400,000 rural residents worked in Tibet's tourism industry.” http://en.people.cn/n3/2016/0701/c90000-9079977-3.html 23million 25.6 million 33.68 million Tourism population Capability increases rapidly until 2030 and the evaluation value peaks at 0.8304. But after 2030, the capability drops rapidly, and the evaluation value is only 0.6929 in 2050. Tourism sustainability in TAR is divided into two phases: rapid growth (2014–2030) and rapid decline (2031–2050). (Zhang, 2015) Resources Capacity levels for many variables will have been reached or exceeded, with attendant environmental, social, and economic problems. (Butler, 1980) (Butler,1980) Building on your class presentation you will write a brief consultant's report on your chosen topic (i.e., destination, sector, trend, issue). You should develop your initial presentation idea and the final report should be a robust yet succinct analysis of your chosen topic. My presentation main idea is Tourism in Tibet has great portion of local economy. Leading Tibet towards tertiary industry(Tourism). However, it is very vulnerable when it meets some global or domestic event like SARS, COVID-19 or policy change. The local economy will easily collapse if they do not have other industry to support. Moreover, the overtourism problem like pollution will give pressure to the Tibet unique ecological system. Overall sustainable development is essential and important to Tibet tourism. Report Sections Title and Executive Summary (1 paragraph) This is the most important part of any consultant-type report. The title should be clear and concise and the executive summary should be one paragraph and carefully summarise the full report to follow (i.e., not just an introduction, should include the outcome too). Introduction (2 paragraphs) Start with “Why?” What made you decide on this particular topic? What is the issue at hand? Review (2 paragraphs) What is the past, present, and future for your case study (provide the background information)? Outline the geographical dimension to your analysis of the case study. What value does your geographical perspective add to the analysis of your issue? (1 paragraph) Theory (3-4 paragraphs) Source some (3-5) academic articles relating to your case study. Summarise each paper in one paragraph and clearly show why it is relevant for your particular case (connect theory to case). Outcome (2 paragraphs) What was the main lesson learned from your case study? Why does your report matter and who does it matter to (audiences)? What further action would you recommend on your issue? Your final submission should be 10-11 paragraphs long (approximately 3 pages, Times New Roman, size 12, 1.5 line spacing). Try to present your chosen issue in as interesting and compelling a way as possible. Make sure you include an accurate list of all references used (e.g., academic articles, websites, government reports, etc.). For assessment purposes, please make sure you have covered relevant IDEAS, that you have made CONNECTIONS from those ideas to your case (as well as connections with other ideas from the course or other courses), and please include some selective EXTENSIONS (critical analysis, ideas for theoretical enhancement) as and where appropriate. Good luck! THE CONCEPT OF A TOURIST AREA CYCLE OF EVOLUTION: IMPLICATIONS FOR MANAGEMENT OF RESOURCES R.W. BUTLER University of Western Ontario The concept of a recognizable cycle in the evolution of tourist areas is presented, using a basic s curve to illustrate their waving and waning popularity. Specific stages in the evolutionary sequence are described, along with a range of possible future trends. The implications of using this model in the planning and management oftourist resources are discussed in the light of a continuing decline in the environmental quality and, hence, the attractiveness of many tourist areas. Le concept principal de cette communication est que les endroits touristiques ont leur propre cycle d’evolution. Le concept se traduit en modele theorique, qui utilise une courbe s pour demontrer I’accroissement et la diminution subsequente de la popularite d’endroits touristiques. La communication se concentre sur certains stages, les plus importants, de I’evolution, et vise a etablir une gamme de directions eventuelle qui pourront itre suivies par ces endroits. On examine les implications de I’utilisation de se modele dans I’amenagement de resources touristiques, surtout dans I’optique des problemes causes par la diminution de la qualite de I’environnement et, par suite, de I’attraction de beaucoup d’endroits touristiques. There can be little doubt that tourist areas are dynamic, that they evolve and change over time. This evolution is brought about by a variety of factors including changes in the preferences and needs of visitors, the gradual deterioration and possible replacement of physical plant and facilities, and the change (or even disappearance) of the original natural and cultural attractions which were responsible for the initial popularity of the area. In some cases, while these attractions remain, they may be utilized for different purposes or come to be regarded as less significant in comparison with imported attractions.’ The idea of a consistent process through which tourist areas evolve has been vividly described by Christaller: The typical course of development has the following pattern. Painters search out untouched and unusual places to paint. Step by step the place develops as aso-calledartist colony. Soon a cluster of poets follows, kindred to the painters: then cinema people, gourmets, and the jeunesse dorde. The place becomes fashionable and the entrepreneur takes note. The fisherman’s cottage, the shelter-huts become converted into boarding houses and hotels come on the scene. Meanwhile the painters have fled and sought out another periphery periphery as related to space, and metaphorically, as ‘forgotten’ places and landscapes. Only the painters with a commercial inclination who like to do well in business remain; they capitalize on the good name of this former painter’s corner and on the gullibility of tourists. More and more townsmen choose this place, now e n vogue and advertised in the newspapers. Subsequently the gourmets, and all those who seek real recreation, stay away. At last the tourist agencies come with their package rate travelling parties; now, the indulged public avoids such places. At the same time, in other places the same cycle occurs again; more and more places come into fashion, change their type, turn into everybody’s tourist haunt.2 While this description has most relevance to the European and, particularly, to the Mediterranean setting, others have expressed the same general idea. Stansfield, 5 CANADIAN GEOGRAPHER, X X I V , 1, 1980 6 T H E CANADIAN GEOGRAPHER in discussing the development of Atlantic City, refers specifically to the resort cycle,3 and Noronha has suggested that ‘tourism develops in three stages: i) discovery, ii) local response and initiative, and iii) institutionalized ‘institutionali~ation).’~ It is also explicit in Christaller’s concept that types of tourists change with the tourist areas. Research into the characteristics of visitors is widespread, but less has been done on their motivations and desires. One example is a typology conceived by Cohen, who characterizes tourists as ‘institutionalized’ or ‘noninstitutionalized,’ and further as ‘drifters’, ‘explorers,’ ‘individual mass tourists,’ and ‘organized mass t o ~ r i s t s . Research ’~ by Plog into the psychology of travel, and the characterization of travellers as allocentrics, mid-centrics, and psychocentrics, substantiates Christaller’s argument.6 Plog suggests that tourist areas are attractive to different types of visitors as the areas evolve, beginning with small numbers of adventuresome allocentrics, followed by increasing numbers of mid-centrics as the area becomes accessible, better serviced, and well known, and giving way to declining numbers of psychocentrics as the area becomes older, more outdated, and less different to the areas of origin of visitors. While the actual numbers of visitors may not decline for a long time, the potential market will reduce in size as the area has to compete with others that are more recently developed. Plog sums up his argument thus: ‘We can visualize adestination moving across a spectrum, however gradually or slowly, but far too often ineroxably toward the potential of its own demise. Destination areas carry with them the potential seeds of their own destruction, as they allow themselves to become more commercialized and lose their qualities which originally attracted tourists.’ While other writers, such as Cohen,’ have warned against the problems of unilinear models of social change, there seems to be overwhelming evidence that the general pattern of tourist area evolution is consistent. The rates of growth and change may vary widely, but the final result will be the same in almost all cases. A HYPOTHETICAL CYCLE OF AREA EVOLUTION The pattern which is put forward here is based upon the product cycle concept,whereby sales of a product proceed slowly at first, experience a rapid rate of growth, stabilize, and subsequently decline; in other words, a basic asymptotic curve is followed. Visitors will come to an area in small numbers initially, restricted by lack of access, facilities, and local knowledge. As facilities are provided and awareness grows, visitor numbers will increase. With marketing, information dissemination, and further facility provision, the area’s popularity will grow rapidly. Eventually, however, the rate of increase in visitor numbers will decline as levels of carrying capacity are reached. These may be identified in terms of environmental factors (e.g. land scarcity, water quality, air quality), of physical plant (e.g. transportation, accommodation, other services), or of social factors (e.g. crodding, resentment by the local population). As the attractiveness of the area declines relative to other areas, because of overuse and the impacts of visitors, the actual number of visitors may also eventually decline. The stages through which it is suggested that tourist areas pass are illustrated in Figure 1. The exploration stage is characterized by small numbers of tourists, 7 A TOURISM AREA CYCLE OF EVOLUTION Rejuvenation / A I / TIME FIGURE1 . Hypothetical evolution of a tourist area. (For explanation O f A-E see ‘Implications.’) Plog’s allocentrics and Cohen’s explorers making individual travel arrangements and following irregular visitation patterns. From Christaller’s model they can also be expected to be non-local visitors who have been attracted to the area by its unique or considerably different natural and cultural features. At this time there would be no specific facilities provided for visitors. The use of local facilities and contact with local residents are therefore likely to be high, which may itself be a significant attraction to some visitors. The physical fabric and social milieu of the area would be unchanged by tourism, and the arrival and departure of tourists would be of relatively little significance to the economic and social life of the permanent residents. Examples of this stage can be seen in parts of the Canadian Arctic and Latin America, to which tourists are attracted by natural and culturalhistorical features. As numbers of visitors increase and assume some regularity, some local residents will enter the involvement stage and begin to provide facilities primarly or even exclusively for visitors. Contact between visitors and locals can be expected to remain high and, in fact, increase €or those locals involved in catering for visitors. As this stage progresses, some advertising specifically to attract tourists can be anticipated, and a basic initial market area for visitors can be defined. A tourist season can be expected to emerge and adjustments will be made in the social pattern of at least those local residents involved in tourism. Some level of organization in tourist travel arrangements can be expected and the first pressures put upon 8 LE GEOGRAPHE CANADIEN governments and public agencies to provide or improve transport and other facilities for visitors. Some of the smaller, less developed Pacific and Caribbean islands exhibit this pattern, as do some less accessible areas of western Europe and North America. The development stage reflects a well-defined tourist market area, shaped in part by heavy advertising in tourist-generating areas. As this stage progresses, local involvement and control of development will decline rapidly. Some locally provided facilities will have disappeared, being superseded by larger, more elaborate, and more up-to-date facilities provided by external organizations, particularly for visitor accommodation. Natural and cultural attractions will be developed and marketed specifically, and these original attractions will be supplemented by man-made imported facilities. Changes in the physical appearance of the area will be noticeable, and it can be expected that not all of them will be welcomed or approved by all of the local population. This stage can be seen in parts of Mexico, on the more developed Pacific islands, and on the north and west African coasts. Regional and national involvement in the planning and provision of facilities will almost certainly be necessary and, again, may not be completely in keeping with local preferences. The number of tourists at peak periods will probably equal or exceed the permanent local population. As this stage unfolds, imported labour will be utilized and auxiliary facilities for the tourist industry (such as laundries) will make their appearance. The type of tourist will also have changed, as a wider market is drawn upon, representing the mid-centrics of Plog’s classification, or Cohen’s institutionalized tourist. As the consolidation stage is entered the rate of increase in numbers of visitors will decline, although total numbers will still increase, and total visitor numbers exceed the number of permanent residents. A major part of the area’s economy will be tied to tourism. Marketing and advertising will be wide-reaching and efforts made to extend the visitor season and market area. Major franchises and chains in the tourist industry will be represented but few, if any, additions will be made. The large numbers of visitors and the facilities provided for them can be expected to arouse some opposition and discontent among permanent residents, paticularly those not involved in the tourist industry in any way, and to result in some deprivation and restrictions upon their activities. Such trends are evident in areas of the Caribbean and on the northern Mediterranean coast. The resort cities will have well-defined recreational business districts,* and, depending upon the length of time involved, old facilities may now be regarded as second rate and far from desirable. As the area enteres the stagnation stage the peak numbers of visitors will have been reached. Capacity levels for many variables will have been reached or exceeded, with attendant environmental, social, and economic problems. The area will have a well-established image but it will no longer be in’fashion. There will be a heavy reliance on repeat visitation and on conventions and similar forms of traffic. Surplus bed capacity will be available and strenuous efforts will be needed to maintain the level of visitation. Natural and genuine cultural attractions will probably have been superseded by imported ‘artificial’ facilities. The resort image becomes divorced from its geographic e n ~ i r o n m e n t .New ~ development will be peripheral to the original tourist area and the existing properties are likely to A TOURISM AREA CYCLE OF EVOLUTION 9 experience frequent changes in ownership. The Costa Brava resorts of Spain and many cottage resorts in Ontario manifest these characteristics. The type of visitor can also be expected to change towards the organized mass tourist identified by Cohen and the psychocentric described by Plog. In the decline sfuge the area will not be able to compete with newer attractions and so will face a declining market, both spatially and numerically. It will no longer appeal to vacationers but will be used increasingly for weekend or day trips, if it is accessible to large numbers of people. Such trends can be clearly seen in older resort areas in Europe, such as the Firth of Clyde in western Scotland. Miami Beach would also appear to be entering this stage. Property turnover will be high and tourist facilities often replaced by non-tourist related structures, as the area moves out of tourism. This latter factor, of course, is cumulative. More tourist facilities disappear as the area becomes less attractive to tourists and the viability of other tourist facilities becomes more questionable. Local involvement in tourism is likely to increase at this stage, as employees and other residents are able to purchase facilities at significantly lower prices as the market declines. The conversion of many facilities to related activities is likely. Hotels may become condominiums, convalescent or retirement homes, or conventional apartments, since the attractions of many tourist areas make them equally attractive for permanent settlement, particularly for the elderly. Ultimately, the area may become a veritable tourist slum or lose its tourist function completely. On the other hand rejuvenation may occur, although it is almost certain that this stage will never be reached without a complete change in the attractions on which tourism is based. Two ways of accomplishing this goal can be seen at present. One is the addition of a man-made attraction, as in the case of Atlantic City’s gambling casinos. Obviously, though, if neighbouring and competing areas follow suit, the effectiveness of the measure will be reduced; a major part of Atlantic City’s anticipated success is the element of uniqueness which it has obtained by the change. An alternative approach to rejuvenation is to take advantage of previously untapped natural resources. Spa towns in Europe and the summer holiday village of Aviemore in Scotland have experienced rejuvenation by a reorientation to the winter sports market, thus allowing the areas to experience a year-round tourist industry. The development of new facilities becomes economically feasible, and simultaneously serves to revitalize the older summer holiday trade. As new forms of recreation appear, it is not impossible that other tourist areas will find previously unappreciated natural resources to develop. In many cases, combined government and private efforts are necessary, and the new market may be not the allocentric section of the population (which would suggest a recommencement of the complete cycle), but rather a specific interest or activity group. Ultimately, however, it can be expected that even the attractions of the rejuvenated tourist area will lose their competitiveness. Only in the case of the truly unique area could one anticipate an almost timeless attractiveness, able to withstand the pressures of visitation. Even in such a case, human tastes and p ...
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Final Answer



Running head: TIBET TOURISM

Impact of Tourism in Tibet
Insert Name
Institution Affiliation


Executive Summary

This paper provides an overview of Tibet tourism. It gives a detailed analysis of different
factors that are affecting the tourism industry in this region. Tibet tourism industry is growing at
a rapid rate, and it has become a pillar industry which a significant number of locals depend on
for income generation. However, Tibet tourism has faced a lot of challenges, and it is continuing
to face challenges related to sustainability, pollution and erosion of culture and heritage, and
other pandemics such as COVID-19. Tibet tourism is still in the development stage, and it has a
huge potential, and that is why the government has initiated many projects to increase the flow of
tourism in the region.


Tourism in Tibet was officially opened in the year 1984, and up to date, it has proven to
be a major pillar to the economy in the region. Most of the tourists in this region are Chinese
nationals. Although there have been a lot of controversies facing the industry, it has been able to
thrive, and the locals have come to appreciate its importance. The Chinese government has also
invested a lot of resources in the area, and this has boosted tourism activities. As a result, the
number of tourists has been increasing every year (Zhang, 2015). This area is highly isolated,
and this has made it a center of tourist attraction because it has a lot of things that the outside
world is yet to see and discover.
Tibet has, for a long time, been a mysterious forbidden place where foreigners were
prohibited from visiting, and after it opened, only a few visitors travelled to the region. The
initial visits were governed by the CITS, and this was still viewed as restricted tourism. At the
initial stage, there were minimal socio-economic impacts on the local people. However, with
time tourism become a major source of income. The reason for the selection of this topic is due

to the huge growth of the tourism industry in this region, despite it facin...

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