Law
MSCJ 5600 BU Criminological Theory and Crime Explanation Discussion

MSCJ 5600

Bethel University

MSCJ

Question Description

Help me study for my Law class. I’m stuck and don’t understand.

There should be a minimum of 1750 words. Preferably 2,000 words.

Perfect APA format is a MANDATORY requirement. APA (American Psychological Association, 6th ed.) style guide

1. Our text tells us that criminal behavior can be an expression of general needs and value and that criminal behavior is learned. Why do some people try to achieve those goals through crime and others do not if they have learned the same behavior?

2. Name three social controls that keep us from breaking the law beyond fear of punishment and why. What keeps you from breaking the law? Include a discussion of containment theory in your answer.

3. Explain the ramifications of Labeling Theory in relation to a youth who has been in secure detention and is now back in school. What can be done to assist the youth reintegrate?

4. What is the difference between stigmatic shaming and reintegrative shaming? Give an example of each. What are the consequences of each?

5. Explain persistence and desistance in terms of life course theory.

6. What are the policy implications of social development theory?


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Gina Sanders/Fotolia CHAPTER 8 C H A P M A N , THEORIES OF SOCIAL PROCESS AND SOCIALKA DEVELOPMENT LEARNING OUTCOMES After reading this chapter, you should be able to answer the following questions: How does the process of social interaction contribute to criminal behavior? ● What are the various social process perspectives discussed in this chapter? ● What kinds of social policy initiatives might be based on social process theories of crime causation? 1 8 3 4 T S ● What are the shortcomings of the social process perspective? ● What are the various social development perspectives discussed in this chapter? ● What are the central concepts of social development theories? ● What kinds of social policy initiatives might be suggested by social development perspectives? ● What are the shortcomings of social development perspectives on criminality? ISBN 1-323-65050-4 ● R I S S A Criminology Today: An Integrative Introduction, Eighth Edition, by Frank Schmalleger. Published by Pearson. Copyright © 2017 by Pearson Education, Inc. 184 CHAPTER 8  t 7+(25,(62)62&,$/352&(66$1'62&,$/'(9(/230(17 ■ social process theory A theory that asserts that criminal behavior is learned in interaction with others and that socialization processes that occur as the result of group membership are the primary route through which learning occurs; also called interactionist theory. ■ social development theory An integrated perspective on human development that simultaneously examines many different levels of development—psychological, biological, familial, interpersonal, cultural, societal, and ecological. In 2012, 24-year-old Joran van der Sloot stood before a Peruvian judge and pled guilty to the 2010 murder of 21-year-old Stephany Flores in a Lima, Peru, hotel room. “Yes, I want to plead guilty. I wanted from the first moment to confess sincerely,” he told the judge. “I truly am sorry for this act. I feel very bad.”1 Van der Sloot, who gained notoriety as the prime suspect in the 2005 disappearance of 18-year-old Alabama cheerleader Natalee Holloway while she was vacationing on the island of Aruba, fled to Chile after the murder but was extradited to face prosecution in Peru. Prior to sentencing, attorneys for Van der Sloot asked the judge for leniency, saying that their client killed Flores as a result of “extreme psychological trauma” Social process theories that he had suffered as a of the intense negadraw their explanatory result tive publicity he had repower from the process ceived in the international news media following of interaction between Holloway’s disappearance. his pleas, the individuals and society. Rejecting judge imposed a sentence of 28 years in prison and ordered him to pay the Flores family $75,000 in reparations. He will be eligible for parole in 2026.2 The Perspective of Social Interaction C H A P M A N , K -RUDQYDQGHU6ORRWLQD3HUXYLDQFRXUWURRP Van der Sloot, who A plead guilty to the murder of a 21-year-old Peruvian woman, R remains the main suspect in the disappearance of Alabama cheerleader Natalee Holloway. How would social process I theories explain his behavior? S as the result of group membership is seen as the primary route S through which learning occurs. Among the most important groups A contributing to the process of socialization are the family, peers, work groups, and reference groups with which one identifies because they instill values and norms in their members and commu1 nicate their acceptable worldviews and patterns of behavior. 8 Social process perspectives hold that the process through which criminality is acquired, deviant self-concepts are estab3 lished, and criminal behavior results is active, open-ended, and ongoing throughout a person’s life. They suggest that individu4 als who have weak stakes in conformity are more likely to be T influenced by the social processes and contingent experiences that S lead to crime, and that criminal choices tend to persist because they are reinforced by the reaction of society to those whom it has identified as deviant. Types of Social Process Approaches A number of theories can be classified under the social process umbrella: social learning theory, social control theory, labeling theory, reintegrative shaming, and dramaturgical perspective. Criminology Today: An Integrative Introduction, Eighth Edition, by Frank Schmalleger. Published by Pearson. Copyright © 2017 by Pearson Education, Inc. ISBN 1-323-65050-4 The theories discussed in the first part of this chapter are called social process theories, or interactionist perspectives, because they depend on the process of interaction between individuals and society for their explanatory power. The various types of social process theories include social learning theory, social control theory, and labeling theory. The second part of this chapter focuses on social development theories, which tend to offer an integrated perspective and place a greater emphasis on changes in offending over time. Figure 8–1 details the principles of social process and social development theories. Social process theories of crime causation assume that everyone has the potential to violate the law and that criminality is not an innate human characteristic; instead, criminal behavior is learned in interaction with others, and the socialization process occurring Paolo Aguilar/EPA/Newscom Introduction: Labeling a Killer 7<3(62)62&,$/352&(66$3352$&+(6   ■ social learning theory A perspective that places primary emphasis on the role of communication and socialization in the acquisition of learned patterns of criminal behavior and the values that support that behavior; also called learning theory. ■ social control theory A perspective that predicts that when social constraints on antisocial behavior are weakened or absent, delinquent behavior emerges. Rather than stressing causative factors in criminal behavior, social control theory asks why people actually obey rules instead of breaking them. ■ Follow the author’s tweets about the latest crime and justice news @schmalleger. ■ differential association The sociological thesis that criminality, like any other form of behavior, is learned through a process of association with others who communicate criminal values. Principles of Social Process and Social Development Theories Social process theories of crime causation assume that everyone has the potential to violate the law and that criminality is not an innate human characteristic. Criminal behavior is learned through interaction with others, and the socialization process that occurs as the result of group membership is seen as the primary route through which learning occurs. Among the most important groups contributing to the process of socialization are family, peers, work groups, and reference groups with which one identifies. This is the process through which criminality is acquired; deviant self-concepts are established; and criminal behavior results are active, open-minded, and ongoing throughout a person’s life. Individuals who have low stakes in conformity are more likely to be influenced by the social processes and contingent experiences that lead to crime. Criminal choices, once made, tend to persist because they are reinforced by the reaction of society to those whom it has identified as deviant. The social development perspective understands that development begins at birth (and perhaps even earlier) and occurs primarily within a social context. Human development occurs on many levels simultaneously, including psychological, biological, familial, interpersonal, cultural, societal, and ecological. Hence, social development theories tend to be integrated theories, or theories that combine various points of view on the process of development. ISBN 1-323-65050-4 Social development theories focus more on individual rates of offending and seek to understand both increases and decreases in rates of offending over the individual’s lifetime. Social development theories generally use longitudinal (over time) measurements of delinquency and offending, and they pay special attention to the transitions that people face as they move through the life cycle. Most theories of social development recognize that a critical transitional period occurs as a person moves from childhood to adulthood. | FIGURE 8–1 Principles of Social Process and Social Development Theories Source: Schmalleger, Frank, Criminology. Printed and electronically reproduced by permission of Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, New Jersey. 185 C H A P M A N , K A R I S S A Social learning theory places primary emphasis on the role of communication and socialization in the acquisition of learned patterns of criminal behavior and the values supporting that behavior, whereas social control theory focuses on the strength of the bond people share with individuals and institutions around them, especially as those relationships shape their behavior. Labeling theory points to the special significance of society’s response to the criminal and sees the process through which a person comes to be defined as a criminal, along with society’s imposition of the label “criminal,” as a significant contributory factor in future criminality. Reintegrative shaming, a contemporary offshoot of labeling theory, emphasizes possible positive outcomes of the labeling process; the dramaturgical perspective focuses on how people can effectively manage the impressions they make on others. It is to different social learning theories that we now turn our attention. Social Learning Theory Social learning theory (also called learning theory) says that all behavior is learned in much the same way and that such learning includes the acquisition of norms, values, and patterns of behaviors conducive to crime, meaning that crime is also learned and that people learn to commit crime from others. Criminal behavior is a product of the social environment, not an innate characteristic of particular people. 1 Differential Association 8 One of the earliest and most influential forms of social learning theory was advanced by Edwin Sutherland in 1939, who 3 stated that criminality is learned through a process of differential criminal values and 4 association with others who communicate who advocate the commission of crimes.3 He emphasized the role T of social learning as an explanation for crime because he believed S that many concepts popular in the field of criminology at the time—including social pathology, genetic inheritance, biological characteristics, and personality flaws—were inadequate to explain the process by which an otherwise normal individual turns to crime. Sutherland was the first well-known criminologist to suggest that all significant human behavior is learned and that crime is not substantively different from any other form of behavior. Although Sutherland died in 1950, the tenth edition of his famous book, Criminology, was published in 1978 under the authorship of Donald R. Cressey, a professor at the University of California at Santa Barbara. The 1978 edition of Criminology contained the finalized principles of differential Criminology Today: An Integrative Introduction, Eighth Edition, by Frank Schmalleger. Published by Pearson. Copyright © 2017 by Pearson Education, Inc. 186 CHAPTER 8  t 7+(25,(62)62&,$/352&(66$1'62&,$/'(9(/230(17 THEORY | in PERSPECTIVE Types of Social Process Theories Social process theories (also called interactionist theories) depend on the process of interaction between individuals and society for their explanatory power. They assume that everyone has the potential to violate the law and that criminality is not an innate human characteristic; instead, criminal behavior is learned in interaction with others, and the socialization process that occurs as the result of group membership is seen as the primary route through which learning occurs. crime as a consequence of limited opportunities for acceptable behavior that follow from the negative responses of society to those defined as offenders. Period: 1938–1940, 1960s–1980s, 1990s Theorists: Frank Tannenbaum, Edwin M. Lemert, Howard Becker, John Braithwaite, others Concepts: Tagging, labeling, outsiders, moral enterprise, primary and secondary deviance, reintegrative shaming, stigmatic shaming Social Learning Theory Social learning theory (also called learning theory) says that all behavior is learned in much the same way and that crime is also learned. It places primary emphasis on the roles of communication and socialization in the acquisition of learned patterns of criminal behavior and the values supporting that behavior. Period: 1930s–present Theorists: Edwin Sutherland, Robert Burgess, Ronald L. Akers, Daniel Glaser Concepts: Differential association, differential association– reinforcement (including operant conditioning), differential identification C Dramaturgical Perspective H The dramaturgical perspective depicts human behavior as centered A around the purposeful management of impressions and seeks explanatory P power in the analysis of social performances. MPeriod: 1960s–present Theorists: Erving Goffman, others A Concepts: Total institutions, impression management, back and N front regions, performances, discrediting information, stigma, , spoiled identity Social Control Theory The Social Development Perspective Social control theory focuses on the strength of the bond people share with the individuals and institutions around them, especially as those relationships shape their behavior, and seeks to identify those features of the personality and of the environment that keep people from committing crimes. The social development perspective provides an integrated view of K human development that examines multiple levels of maturity simultaA neously, including the psychological, biological, familial, interpersonal, cultural, societal, and ecological levels. Period: 1950s–present Theorists: Walter C. Reckless, Howard B. Kaplan, Travis Hirschi, Michael Gottfredson, Charles R. Tittle, Per-Olof H. Wikström, and others Concepts: Inner and external containment, self-derogation, social bond, control–balance, general theory of crime (GTC), situational action theory (SAT) Labeling Theory Labeling theory (also called social reaction theory) points to the special significance of society’s response to the criminal and sees continued association (which, for all practical purposes, were complete as early as 1947). Nine in number, the principles read as follows:4 1 8 3 4 T S Concepts: Human development, social development perspective, life course criminology, career criminal, life course, human agency, turning points, social capital, life course–persistent offenders, adolescence-limited offenders, persistence, desistance, evolutionary ecology sometimes very complicated and sometimes very simple, and (b) the specific direction of motives, drives, rationalizations, and attitudes. 5. The specific direction of motives and drives is learned from definitions of the legal codes as favorable or unfavorable. 6. A person becomes delinquent because of an excess of definitions favorable to law violation over definitions unfavorable to law violation. 7. Differential associations may vary in frequency, duration, priority, and intensity. Criminology Today: An Integrative Introduction, Eighth Edition, by Frank Schmalleger. Published by Pearson. Copyright © 2017 by Pearson Education, Inc. ISBN 1-323-65050-4 1. Criminal behavior is learned. 2. Criminal behavior is learned in interaction with others in a process of communication. 3. The principal part of the learning of criminal behavior occurs within intimate personal groups. 4. When criminal behavior is learned, the learning includes (a) techniques of committing the crime, which are R I Period: 1980s-present Theorists: Sheldon and Eleanor Glueck, Terrie E. Moffitt, S Robert J. Sampson, John H. Laub, Glen H. Elder, Jr., David Farrington and Donald J. West, Marvin Wolfgang, Lawrence S P. E. Cohen and Richard Machalek, Terrence Thornberry, and A others 7<3(62)62&,$/352&(66$3352$&+(6   8. The process of learning criminal behavior by association with criminal and anticriminal patterns involves all mechanisms involved in any other learning. 9. Although criminal behavior is an expression of general needs and values, it is not explained by those general needs C and values because noncriminal behavior is also an expres- H sion of the same needs and values. A Differential association found considerable acceptance among mid-twentieth-century theorists because it combinedP then-prevalent psychological and sociological principles into aM coherent perspective on criminality. Crime as a form of learned A behavior became the catchword, and biological and other perspectives were largely abandoned by those involved in the pro-N cess of theory testing. , ISBN 1-323-65050-4 Differential Association–Reinforcement Theory K In 1966, Robert Burgess and Ronald L. Akers published an article titled “A Differential Association–Reinforcement TheoryA of Criminal Behavior.”5 The perspective, often termed differen-R tial reinforcement theory or sociological learning theory, expands I on Sutherland’s original idea of differential association by adding the idea of reinforcement, the concept of the power of punish-S ments and rewards to shape behavior (see the heading “Behavior S Theory” in Chapter 5). In developing their perspective, Burgess and Akers integrated psychological principles of operant condi-A tioning with sociological notions of differential association, and they reorganized Sutherland’s nine principles into seven, the first of which stated, “Criminal behavior is learned according to the1 principles of operant conditioning.”6 Fundamental to this per-8 spective is the belief that human beings learn to define behaviors that are rewarded as positive and that an individual’s criminal3 behavior is rewarded at least sometimes by individuals and groups4 that value such activity. Although the 1966 Burgess–Akers article only alludedT to the term social learning, Akers began to apply that termS to differential association– reinforcement theory with Differential the 1973 publication of his book Deviant Behavior: A association theory Social Learning Approach.7 According to Akers, “The says that criminality basic assumption in sois learned through a cial learning theory is that process of association the same learning process, operating in a conwith criminal others. text of social structure, 187 interaction, and situation, produces both conforming and deviant behavior.”8 Akers identified two primary learning mechanisms: differential reinforcement (also called instrumental conditioning), in which behavior is a function of the frequency, amount, and probability of experienced and perceived contingent rewards and punishments, and imitation, in which the behavior of others and its consequences are observed and modeled. These learning mechanisms, said Akers, operate in a process of differential association involving direct and indirect verbal and nonverbal communication, interaction, and identification with others. As with Sutherland’s theory of differential association, the relative frequency, intensity, duration, and priority of associations remain important because they determine the amount, frequency, and probability of reinforcement of behavior that is either conforming or deviant. Interpersonal association also plays an important role because it can expose individuals to deviant or conforming norms and role models. Akers continued to develop learning theory and in 1998 published the book Social Learning and Social Structure, in which he explained crime rates as a function of social lear ...
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Final Answer

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Running head: CRIMINOLOGICAL THEORY

Criminological Theory
Student’s Name
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CRIMINOLOGICAL THEORY
Criminological Theory

According to Schmalleger & Volk (2017), criminal behavior is an activity that an offender
engages in, leading to an unlawful act. The behavior is triggered by several factors like personal
needs and values. Furthermore, this behavior is learned from other criminals within society.
Important to note, at times, people engage in criminal behavior to benefit themselves in one way
or the other. According to various researches and studies, at times, people engage in unlawful acts
because of the underlying challenges they are facing in their day to day lives. Through criminal
activities, they can satisfy their needs. Notably, as much as the activities are not acceptable within
the law, the affected use them as shortcuts to gain.
Some of the activities that relate to criminal behavior include stealing, killing, harassing,
raping, and torture. In society, people come from different backgrounds. Some can satisfy personal
needs and requirements. On the other hand, others are unable to meet their needs. For example,
criminals from a poor background can steal from people to gain money and other materialistic
items (Andresen, 2019). As such, they will be able to carry out their daily activities conveniently
and effectively. Just to mention, actions like rape, torture, and harassment are brought; as a result,
the main criminal acts like stealing. In every country and law system, there are specified and
unified rules and regulations concerning people who are found committing any of the offenses
mentioned above.
At times, criminal behavior is learned from others. For example, when criminals have
conducted their destructive activities, they go around boasting to their friends on how much they
have done and how they have benefitted. As a result, other individuals are motivated to be part of
the criminal activity to gain and benefit like their friends (Schmalleger & Volk, 2017). In this
process, the learned criminal behavior makes the affected individuals engage in illegal activities

CRIMINOLOGICAL THEORY

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to benefit and gain like their friends. Both learned criminal behavior and criminal behavior that is
stirred to achieve specific values are against the law and should be punished severely with the
nation's constitution.
As such, the rate and number of criminal actions within a nation or region will be highly
minimized. Important to note, the law enforcement officers are required to work hand in hand with
the entire society to ensure that all criminal activities are pointed out and eradicated with
immediate effect. This will play a vital role in creating a conducive and reliable environment
through which community members will be carrying out their activities with fear.
Containment theory is one of the vital sociological controls that keep people from breaking
the law beyond punishment. In this, families, villages, the state, groups of people, and religious
groups can hold people within acceptable norms and expectations. As such, the culprits are unable
to break the law or go against the constitution (Walsh & Jorgensen, 2019)....

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