Health Medical
TU Emergency Preparedness among the Elderly during Al Hajj Period Discussion

Taif university

Question Description

I need an explanation for this Health & Medical question to help me study.

Observation tool: Create a tool, or instrument, to collect data about human behavior by observation. Essentially, a check sheet or prompts of what activities or signals (non-verbal behavior) you wish to collect for your research problem or question. Should your research proposal not require direct observation, use the question: "What observable behaviors are currently demonstrated by the public in response to COVID-19

Data Analysis Plan: Build for your chosen research proposal your Data Analysis Plan. This should include how you will obtain your primary data (data or information collected by you personally, directly from humans), how you will organize it, and what methods or statistical processes you will use to extract meaning from that data. Include your understanding of the method, strengths, weaknesses, and interpretation of the statistical measures that you choose.

  1. Leedy Ch 7,11
  2. (76 pages)
  3. Creswell ch 3,7 (review) 8,10
    (61 new pages; 95 total)
  4. Statistics Resource folder:
    1. Probability
    2. T-tests
    3. Regression Analysis
    4. ANOVA

this resources will help you

final proposal: Write a complete research proposal with all appropriate citations, reflecting the Universal Intellectual Standards, covering all appropriate aspects in focused, rich detail. Cf. Leedy

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DMM- 651-1 Wael Alotaibi Observation Tool The main observation tool that will be used in this study is Immersive three dimensional Virtual Reality, which will enable me to observe the actions that will be taken by several emergency responders to remedy a VR-initiated mass casualty incident. Virtual reality environments offer more benefits than paper methods or check sheets because they enhance live drills in mass casualty training and assessment (Vincent et al., 2008). It helps in the acquisition of triage skills that will be essential in remedying mass casualty incidents. The participants in the immersive three dimensional VR exercise will be donned with head-mounted display (HMD) and three motion tracking sensors, for both their hands as well as their head. The command system will be based on gestures, and the participants will use this command system to interact with different VR casualties. This VR environment will enable the participants to immerse themselves in a live drill emulating a real mass casualty incident, hence enabling the determination of the functional or effective triage programs as well as the ineffective ones, in order to identify the programs that need to be improved on. The VR triage programs will then be scored based on the excellence with which the participants remedy their respective situations. For correctly identifying a major problem, the triage category, or the required intervention, one point will be awarded. Under the intervention category, a point will be awarded for a correct VR intervention. The self-efficacy of the participants, as well as their reaction to the training will be determined by observing the way they interact with the VR casualties and intervene in situations that require their intervention. Improved intervention and triage scores will indicate an exceptional performance and high degree of preparedness for a possible mass casualty incident that could happen at any moment. More observation information from the Virtual Reality exercise will be recorded in an observation checklist structured in the following format; Observation Checklist Questions Environment Is the VR environment realistic enough to provide an immersive experience for the participants? Are the materials required for intervention and high level performance available? Does the environment reflect that chaotic state of affairs that is always the case in a Mass Casualty Incident? How so? Effective Planning Which programs were virtually implemented to enhance effective intervention and VR responder performance. Do the participants’ actions display evidence of effective preparation? Are the materials for intervention clearly organized and available? Do the directions or steps the participants follow clearly thought out and well implemented? Methods Provides appropriate materials for the VR situation Allows for collaborations among more than one participant to tend to a single casualty or victim Participant-Victim Interaction Are participants engaged and active? Do participants demonstrate awareness of the individual needs of the victims of the VR MCI? Does each participant solicit the input of other participants when needed? Comments Completion What are the participants’ scores in the following areas; • • • Identifying a major problem’ Triage category Required intervention How do these scores reflect the self-efficacy of the participants, as well as their reaction to the training? References Vincent, D. S., Sherstyuk, A., Burgess, L., & Connolly, K. K. (2008). Teaching Mass Casualty Triage Skills Using Immersive Three-dimensional Virtual Reality. Academic Emergency Medicine, 15(11), 11601165. "What observable behaviors are currently demonstrated by the public in response to COVID19” Visit a local grocery market Make sure you check tick appropriately as it relates to the observation you make Has anything changed in the grocery marker since the last time you visited? NO Yes List the common changes you observed _____________________________________________________________________ What is the predominant behavior do you observe among the people in the grocery? What attracts you most among the people you see on the street and in the market? Are people putting on face masks or gloves? Yes ……………… No ……………… What kind of groceries are they buying? a. perishables b. the dried canned food c. Both canned and perishable foodstuffs d. Which are the brands of the canned food to they take most, has it run out of stock? Are the sellers encouraging certain types of products while limiting others? Yes………… No………… Are there any precautions in the pathways to the grocery? Yes………… No………… Have they provided sanitizers or hand washing measures? How are people taking Corona virus in this locality? Has it affected them psychologically from your observation? Any other observations ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… Data Analysis Plan This section describes the research design and technical details for releasing and collecting survey responses, as well as conducting the analytical work to develop insights. Research Design The study will be a qualitative data study to understand more about the overall theme of emergency preparedness of individuals in Puerto Rico. The study will also look to understand subthemes of perceived threats and concerns detailed by the subjects, first-hand experiences to understand gaps in the current system for providing assistance to individuals during these circumstances. Population and Sample The population to be studied is the adult population of Puerto Rico. To complete the study, 50 participants will be sampled from this population by recruiting through Facebook and other social media outlets. Those who sign up and qualify to participate will receive a secure link to a Qualtrics survey. This is a one-time survey. Technology Social media channels will be used to source participants who meet the criteria. For those who sign up and qualify, a Qualtrics survey tool will be used to create and distribute the survey. The participant will answer open ended, qualitative survey questions that relate to their level of preparedness for a disaster, what past experiences they’ve had with major disasters, and what their needs were during those times. Examples of open-ended questions include, “describe a major disaster that you’ve experienced” and “tell me about that experience, what resources were most important to you at that time? Did you feel that you were able to obtain those resources?” Because this study is designed to understand more on individual habits, the only closed questions relate to demographic categorization. Data analysis Although data will be collected electronically through Qualtrics, which can also support some analysis, the bulk of the analysis for this project will have to be done outside of that platform. Each response will need to be read, and the sentiment captured. Then similar sentiments will be clustered together to help understand magnitude of the common answers and trends. From these clusters, insights will be developed by looking deeper at what participants said and find patterns between responses to the different questions. These links will aid in the use of deductive reasoning to understand additional needs that the people of Puerto Rico have in the event of a disaster, and what actions can be suggested to local relief. Consolidating this data into these insights will happen in Excel. The specific sentiments can be categorized and counted to help understand frequency and links between different types of answers. This will allow graphs and word clouds to be created to help illustrate the findings. Strengths and Weaknesses The strength of this method of research is that raw data is captured from the mouths of the public and in a very open-ended way. Responses have not been predicted and the raw emotions and thoughts can be captured without restricting people’s answers. This allows the research to capture deeper insights than in a qualitative survey. The weaknesses are the lack of statistical significance obtained by using such a small number of participants. This type of research cannot be conducted with large enough numbers of people to obtain significance, since the data analysis would take too long. That means that a representative sample is needed, with further research plans written up, that could obtain more quantitative data at a later date to validate the insights from this study. DMM- 651-1 Wael Alotaibi Data Analysis Plan Data Collection Observing and recording, the use of questionnaires, interviews, or surveys are a few of the most effective quantitative data collection methods. In this case, semi-structured interviews will be used to collect essential information from first responders to a recent MCI, the available survivors of the incident, as well as the medical professionals in different healthcare institutions who played a role in remedying the situation by attending to the injured in dire need of emergency healthcare. Different professionals in emergency departments will also be interviewed to provide a way forward in ensuring that the number of casualties in MCI events is significantly minimized through effective emergency response. The use of semi-structured interviews (open-ended questions) will allow the people being interviewed to answer the questions they will be presented with more openly, engaging in a discussion about their experiences and how they were able to overcome the difficulties of the MCI, while also providing the experts with an opportunity to provide an in-depth explanation of the way forward in the case of future MCI events. The main focus of the semi-structured interview will be to investigate the success of past triage programs, or explore the possible effectiveness of future triage programs that will be implemented in the case of another MCI event. This will, therefore, make the emergency responders and experts in the emergency departments the most important participants in this interview since they have the most essential information regarding triage programs. Protocols such as the START Triage Protocol, as well as Primary and Secondary Triage, will be explored during the process of interviewing the emergency response team and experts in the emergency department. The interview questions will include whether they have devised different response programs that will address the response gaps that currently exist to improve on past MCI events that resulted in too many casualties. Moreover, emergency response experts will be interviewed on the state of the effectiveness of managing mass fatalities, emergency and trauma care systems, training and exercises, planning and organization, and communications planning, among other programs or systems. Data Organization The data collected will be organized in order of importance. The information or data collected from interviewing the emergency department experts will be given top priority since the information they provide will entail their views on the current or existing triage programs, as well as the possible improvements to these programs that will ensure that future MCI events do not result in too many casualties. Information collected from survivors of MCI events will come next in the data organization, as they will also provide information regarding their experiences and their views on the programs that were in use during the triage. This information will also entail their view on the possible improvements that need to be implemented to ensure that future MCI occurrences do not result in as many casualties or fatal injuries. Data Analysis The Monte Carlo Simulation will be the main method used in an attempt to understand the collected data to determine the effect of the unpredictable variable, a future mass casualty incident, and predict the degree of impacts it would have on the population and the emergency department. It will stage possible outcomes that MCI events can produce. Through the testing of a variety of outcomes, all the possible random outcomes to any MCI event will be assessed to ensure preparedness. The data collected from the interviews, which will include propositions for improvements on the triage programs, will be used to inform emergency responders the possible outcomes of the mass casualty incidents to ensure that they are well prepared for future MCI events and implement effective programs to prevent future casualties. ...
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Final Answer




Observation Tool


Observation Tool
Description of the Tool

For the study regarding emergency preparedness for the elderly during the Al-Hajj
period, a checklist will be applied as the major observation tool. The observation check sheet
will be comprised of the list of questions that need to be answered by an observer as he or she
observes the behavior of the participants within the study. In this case, the participants within the
study will be the older adults as well as the individuals who will be taking care of the people
during the Al-Hajj period. The checklist is advantageous compared to other observation tools
since it assessed each behavior at a time. The behaviors that are the participants demonstrates are
indicated while the ones that are not seen are left unfilled in the sheet.
Since the observer is supposed to fill in the check sheet based on the behaviors
demonstrated by the participants, he or she will not be required to interfere with the behavior of
the involved people in any way. Besides, the observer will be required to keep a distance from
the participants so that the participants will not realize whether any person is observing them. If
most cases, if the participants realize so, they might change their behavior, thus interfering with
the findings of the study.
The check sheet will be comprised of both open-ended and closed-ended questions. In
closed-ended questions on the check sheet, multiple choices will be provided where the observer
will be required to tick the answer that he considers to be appropriate based on how the
participants will be behaving. In the open-ended part, the observer will be required to record the
exact behavior that the participant is demonstrating at a given time. The behaviors from different
participants will determine whether the elderly are responding positively to emergence
preparedness during the Al-Hajj period or not.


Observation Check Sheet



How many older adults turn up for the Al-Hajj pilgrimage in the


area of study?
Does every older adult has a caregiver who can assist him or her

A) Yes

B) No

A) Yes

B) No

A) Yes

B) No

in case of a disaster?
Does the presence of the caregivers give any comfort to older
Do they respond positively to any unnecessary sound, such as
that of a thunderstorm or a bang?
What are some of the items that the caregivers have carried for


the elderly for disaster preparedness?
Does the availability of disaster preparedness items make the

A) Yes

B) No

A) Yes

B) No

elderly more comfortable?
Is there is other observation seen? If any, what is it?




Data Analysis Plan


Data Analysis Plan
Sample Population and Data Collection

A sample of 20 older adults will be selected from the entire population of the older adults
aging over 65 years who will be attending the Al-Hajj pilgrimage. The study will be qualitative
research where the behavior of the participants will be recorded based on how positively or
negatively they respond to disaster preparedness measures. During the study, the data will be
collected through several methods where observation will be prioritized to other methods. As the
observer observes the behavior of the participants, he or she will be required to record their
actions and how they will be responding to various scenarios. The researcher will also be needed
to fill a questionnaire based on the verbal or written responses that he or she will get from the
elderly and their caregivers.
Data Organization and Analysis
Data The information that will be obtained from the study will be organized based on
their degree of relevance starting with the most important aspects. The data will then be
presented put in a table to be analyzed in a Microsoft Excel tool. The information will then be
displayed in graphs and pie charts to illustrate the response of the elderly to disaster
Strengths and Weaknesses
One of the advantages of using observation as a method of data collection is that the
information obtained is first-hand. Therefore, there are low chances of information being
exaggerated. Besides, the data collected is considered to be primary data, and therefore it can be
relied on in several instances due to its accuracy. Besides, using Microsoft Excel as a data
analysis tool ensures that various groups of data are analyzed precisely and represented in an
organized way. However, the disadvantages associated with the observation as a method of data



collection is that it is time-consuming since the observer needs to monitor the behavior of every
participant one at a time. On the other hand, the disadvantage of Microsoft Excel as a tool of
analyzing data is that its accuracy reduces with an increase in the number of participants and the
variables involved.

A Proposal on Emergency Preparedness among the Elderly during Al-Hajj Period - Outline
Abstract: Several aspects will be discussed where some of them include the introduction of the
study, the literature review, the methods, and the work plan.

A. Context of the Study
B. Purpose of the Study
C. The Objective of the Study
D. Hypothesis
E. Research Questions
F. Significance of the Study
G. Limitation of the Study


Literature Review
A. Example of a Recent Emergency Case
B. Preparedness Condition during Al-Hajj Season
C. Creating an Emergency Plan
D. Stocking an Emergency Medical Kit
E. Making a Disaster Supplies Kit


A. Research Design
B. Population and Sample
C. Instrumentation
D. Data Collection Techniques and Procedures


Work Plan


A Proposal on Emergency Preparedness among the Elderly during Al-Hajj Period




Emergency preparedness involves the practices that are carried out for the preparation of the
occurrence of an incident that might take place. Some instances of emergencies that commonly
take place in different countries include a terrorist attack, disease outbreaks, flooding,
earthquakes, hurricanes, and tornadoes. Besides, the Al-Hajj period is the time when Muslims
meet in Mecca, Saudi Arabia, during the annual Islamic pilgrimage. About the issue of disaster
management, an incident may take place at any time at any site, and therefore preparedness is
necessary. Based on the events that have taken place recently in Saudi Arabia, mainly in the
Mecca region, preparation is essential. The elderly are among the individuals who are considered
to be vulnerable to incidents, and therefore it is necessary to consider them in the preparedness.
Several aspects will be discussed where some of them include the introduction of the study, the
literature review, the methods, and the work plan.



A Proposal on Emergency Preparedness among the Elderly during Al-Hajj Period
Context of the Study
Emergency preparedness is critical during the Al-Hal period, especially among the
elderly. The elderly are considered as the most vulnerable people to injuries whenever a disaster
or an emergency takes place. Several older adults have been severely injured while others lose
their life during various incidents due to lack of preparedness. The event that took place in
Mecca in 2015, causing the death of over 700 people is one of the evidence that the elderly are
much susceptible to emergencies. Among the total number of deaths that occurred, most of the
people who lost their lives were the elderly. Based on the effects that have been witnessed
among the elderly when a disaster takes place, emergency preparedness must be conducted.
Purpose of the Study
Emergency preparedness is a critical aspect when it comes to issues regarding disaster
management. In this case, emergency preparedness involves the practices that are carried out to
minimize the impact of an incident when it takes place. Since the elderly have been considered
as the most vulnerable people to injuries and deaths during an incident, emergency preparedness
for this population is necessary, especially during the Al-Hajj period. Therefore, this study aims
at developing emergency preparedness measures that are necessary among the elderly during the
Al-Hajj period. By conducting emergency preparedness practices among the elderly, the
likelihood of this population being affected by the occurrence of a disaster will be minimized.
Therefore, the emergency preparedness measures to be carried out increases safety among the
elderly during the Al-Hajj period.



The Objective of the Study
The main objective of the study is to conduct an emergency preparedness for the elderly
during Al-Hajj period.
H1: Emergency preparedness increases the safety among the elderly when an emergency
takes place.
H0: Emergency preparedness has no effect on safety during the occurrence of an
Research Questions
1. Does emergency preparedness measures increase safety among the population involved?
2. How susceptible to injury are the older adults during an occurrence of a disaster?
3. Which measures reduces the vulnerability of the elderly during an emergency?
Significance of the Study
The consideration of emergency preparedness measures among the elderly during the AlHajj period is critical. Based on research, several older adults have sustai...

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