The main observation tool that will be used in this study is Immersive three dimensional
Virtual Reality, which will enable me to observe the actions that will be taken by several
emergency responders to remedy a VR-initiated mass casualty incident. Virtual reality
environments offer more benefits than paper methods or check sheets because they enhance
live drills in mass casualty training and assessment (Vincent et al., 2008). It helps in the
acquisition of triage skills that will be essential in remedying mass casualty incidents.
The participants in the immersive three dimensional VR exercise will be donned with
head-mounted display (HMD) and three motion tracking sensors, for both their hands as well
as their head. The command system will be based on gestures, and the participants will use this
command system to interact with different VR casualties. This VR environment will enable
the participants to immerse themselves in a live drill emulating a real mass casualty incident,
hence enabling the determination of the functional or effective triage programs as well as the
ineffective ones, in order to identify the programs that need to be improved on.
The VR triage programs will then be scored based on the excellence with which the
participants remedy their respective situations. For correctly identifying a major problem, the
triage category, or the required intervention, one point will be awarded. Under the intervention
category, a point will be awarded for a correct VR intervention. The self-efficacy of the
participants, as well as their reaction to the training will be determined by observing the way
they interact with the VR casualties and intervene in situations that require their intervention.
Improved intervention and triage scores will indicate an exceptional performance and high
degree of preparedness for a possible mass casualty incident that could happen at any moment.
More observation information from the Virtual Reality exercise will be recorded in an
observation checklist structured in the following format;
Is the VR environment realistic enough to
provide an immersive experience for the
Are the materials required for intervention
and high level performance available?
Does the environment reflect that chaotic
state of affairs that is always the case in a
Mass Casualty Incident? How so?
Which programs were virtually implemented
to enhance effective intervention and VR
Do the participants’ actions display evidence
of effective preparation?
Are the materials for intervention clearly
organized and available?
Do the directions or steps the participants
follow clearly thought out and well
Provides appropriate materials for the VR
Allows for collaborations among more than
one participant to tend to a single casualty or
Are participants engaged and active?
Do participants demonstrate awareness of
the individual needs of the victims of the VR
Does each participant solicit the input of
other participants when needed?
What are the participants’ scores in the
Identifying a major problem’
How do these scores reflect the self-efficacy
of the participants, as well as their reaction to
Vincent, D. S., Sherstyuk, A., Burgess, L., & Connolly, K. K. (2008). Teaching Mass
Casualty Triage Skills Using Immersive Three-dimensional Virtual
Reality. Academic Emergency Medicine, 15(11), 11601165. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1553-2712.2008.00191.x
"What observable behaviors are currently demonstrated by the public in response to COVID19”
Visit a local grocery market
Make sure you check tick appropriately as it relates to the observation you make
Has anything changed in the grocery marker since the last time you visited?
List the common changes you observed
What is the predominant behavior do you observe among the people in the grocery?
What attracts you most among the people you see on the street and in the market?
Are people putting on face masks or gloves?
What kind of groceries are they buying?
b. the dried canned food
c. Both canned and perishable foodstuffs
d. Which are the brands of the canned food to they take most, has it run out of
Are the sellers encouraging certain types of products while limiting others?
Are there any precautions in the pathways to the grocery?
Have they provided sanitizers or hand washing measures?
How are people taking Corona virus in this locality? Has it affected them psychologically
from your observation?
Any other observations
Data Analysis Plan
This section describes the research design and technical details for releasing and collecting
survey responses, as well as conducting the analytical work to develop insights.
The study will be a qualitative data study to understand more about the overall theme of
emergency preparedness of individuals in Puerto Rico. The study will also look to understand
subthemes of perceived threats and concerns detailed by the subjects, first-hand experiences to
understand gaps in the current system for providing assistance to individuals during these
Population and Sample
The population to be studied is the adult population of Puerto Rico. To complete the study, 50
participants will be sampled from this population by recruiting through Facebook and other
social media outlets. Those who sign up and qualify to participate will receive a secure link to a
Qualtrics survey. This is a one-time survey.
Social media channels will be used to source participants who meet the criteria. For those who
sign up and qualify, a Qualtrics survey tool will be used to create and distribute the survey. The
participant will answer open ended, qualitative survey questions that relate to their level of
preparedness for a disaster, what past experiences they’ve had with major disasters, and what
their needs were during those times. Examples of open-ended questions include, “describe a
major disaster that you’ve experienced” and “tell me about that experience, what resources were
most important to you at that time? Did you feel that you were able to obtain those resources?”
Because this study is designed to understand more on individual habits, the only closed questions
relate to demographic categorization.
Although data will be collected electronically through Qualtrics, which can also support some
analysis, the bulk of the analysis for this project will have to be done outside of that platform.
Each response will need to be read, and the sentiment captured. Then similar sentiments will be
clustered together to help understand magnitude of the common answers and trends. From these
clusters, insights will be developed by looking deeper at what participants said and find patterns
between responses to the different questions. These links will aid in the use of deductive
reasoning to understand additional needs that the people of Puerto Rico have in the event of a
disaster, and what actions can be suggested to local relief.
Consolidating this data into these insights will happen in Excel. The specific sentiments can be
categorized and counted to help understand frequency and links between different types of
answers. This will allow graphs and word clouds to be created to help illustrate the findings.
Strengths and Weaknesses
The strength of this method of research is that raw data is captured from the mouths of the public
and in a very open-ended way. Responses have not been predicted and the raw emotions and
thoughts can be captured without restricting people’s answers. This allows the research to
capture deeper insights than in a qualitative survey.
The weaknesses are the lack of statistical significance obtained by using such a small number of
participants. This type of research cannot be conducted with large enough numbers of people to
obtain significance, since the data analysis would take too long. That means that a representative
sample is needed, with further research plans written up, that could obtain more quantitative data
at a later date to validate the insights from this study.
Data Analysis Plan
Observing and recording, the use of questionnaires, interviews, or surveys are a few of the
most effective quantitative data collection methods. In this case, semi-structured interviews
will be used to collect essential information from first responders to a recent MCI, the available
survivors of the incident, as well as the medical professionals in different healthcare institutions
who played a role in remedying the situation by attending to the injured in dire need of
emergency healthcare. Different professionals in emergency departments will also be
interviewed to provide a way forward in ensuring that the number of casualties in MCI events
is significantly minimized through effective emergency response. The use of semi-structured
interviews (open-ended questions) will allow the people being interviewed to answer the
questions they will be presented with more openly, engaging in a discussion about their
experiences and how they were able to overcome the difficulties of the MCI, while also
providing the experts with an opportunity to provide an in-depth explanation of the way
forward in the case of future MCI events.
The main focus of the semi-structured interview will be to investigate the success of past triage
programs, or explore the possible effectiveness of future triage programs that will be
implemented in the case of another MCI event. This will, therefore, make the emergency
responders and experts in the emergency departments the most important participants in this
interview since they have the most essential information regarding triage programs. Protocols
such as the START Triage Protocol, as well as Primary and Secondary Triage, will be explored
during the process of interviewing the emergency response team and experts in the emergency
department. The interview questions will include whether they have devised different response
programs that will address the response gaps that currently exist to improve on past MCI events
that resulted in too many casualties. Moreover, emergency response experts will be interviewed
on the state of the effectiveness of managing mass fatalities, emergency and trauma care
systems, training and exercises, planning and organization, and communications planning,
among other programs or systems. Data Organization
The data collected will be organized in order of importance. The information or data
collected from interviewing the emergency department experts will be given top priority since
the information they provide will entail their views on the current or existing triage programs,
as well as the possible improvements to these programs that will ensure that future MCI events
do not result in too many casualties. Information collected from survivors of MCI events will
come next in the data organization, as they will also provide information regarding their
experiences and their views on the programs that were in use during the triage. This information
will also entail their view on the possible improvements that need to be implemented to ensure
that future MCI occurrences do not result in as many casualties or fatal injuries.
The Monte Carlo Simulation will be the main method used in an attempt to understand
the collected data to determine the effect of the unpredictable variable, a future mass casualty
incident, and predict the degree of impacts it would have on the population and the emergency
department. It will stage possible outcomes that MCI events can produce. Through the testing
of a variety of outcomes, all the possible random outcomes to any MCI event will be assessed
to ensure preparedness. The data collected from the interviews, which will include propositions
for improvements on the triage programs, will be used to inform emergency responders the
possible outcomes of the mass casualty incidents to ensure that they are well prepared for future
MCI events and implement effective programs to prevent future casualties.
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