Health Medical
ACU Diabetes Disease Disaster Medicine & Management Essay & Presentation

Abilene Christian University

Question Description

I’m stuck on a Health & Medical question and need an explanation.

I need ALL work for the same topic:

the Topic is: Disaster Preparedness and the Diabetic Disease needs of Vulnerable Older adults

I have done the outline for the paper ( include 3 references) I will attach the outline. So follow the outline contents

1- Annotation bibliography of 10 references ( 3 are selected in the outline and need 7 more)

  • Annotation is simply a brief summary of the articles highlights, relevance to your paper etc.

2- Final paper ( 15-18 pages)

Abstract - An overview of the paper topic, importance of the topic etc. Begin your abstract with "The purpose of this discussion is to..."

Targeted topics - Sample paper subheadings, major areas to be covered in your paper. Use bullets to help separate each subheading.

Selected references - cite at least three at this point (but will need to cite more in final paper). Also, see “Annotated Bibliography” below.

Expected conclusions - what you expect at this point, recognizing that your final conclusions may be different; expect to discuss the difference(s) in your final paper.

3- Final paper presentation:

  1. 10-15 slide PowerPoint presentation specific to special needs populations based in their research paper. The PowerPoint is due to instructor by week of November 26. Presentation topic will be chosen by faculty. Grade will reflect individual effort in the final product. The Power Point should include:
    1. Topic under discussion
    2. Overview of the problem
    3. Literature Review
    4. Findings
    5. Areas for action
    6. Summary
    7. References

Unformatted Attachment Preview

Running head: OUTLINE Disaster Preparedness and the Diabetic Disease needs of Vulnerable Older adults I. Abstract 1 OUTLINE 2 When disasters strike, the elderly population often suffers more casualties and tortures than the rest of the population. Therefore, disaster relief plans must take into account the special needs of older persons who may also have been diagnosed with diabetes. In 2005, Hurricane Katrina affected mostly the elderly. Although the elderly over 60 years old accounted for only 15% of the local population, they suffered up to 75% of the deaths. II. Introduction: a) Frail older adults are usually worst affected by disasters. There is a growing degree of disability occasioned by terminal illnesses such as diabetes. b) Gross and chronic health problems are mostly associated with chronic conditions among the elderly people. During emergencies, such elderly diabetic patients need extra assistance to be evacuated from scenes of disasters. c) Those who are aged above 60 years may also need external help during evacuation. d) Thesis: Elderly patients diagnosed with diabetes need extra care during emergencies. III. Diabetes and disability a) The elderly patient with diabetes needs individualized treatment. b) That is, there are active and healthy elderly people, as well as fragile people who are dependent on care, especially when disasters strike. c) In particular, the main objective should be to treat diabetic patients and its complications during emergencies (Wakui, Agree, Saito, & Kai, 2017) OUTLINE 3 d) Avoiding glucose drops (hypoglycemia), pressure drops (hypotension) as much as possible is highly recommended. e) Taking care of the interactions between different medications is a challenge to the elderly when disasters strike. f) Since many elderly diabetic patients often take their prescriptions, they need help in emergencies. g) Alternatively, they can be trained on how to follow their prescriptions even when alone or in less ordinary conditions IV. Existing gaps in elderly care during emergencies a) The elderly patient is subject to precisely the same complications of diabetes as the younger patient albeit with a significant difference b) Another critical point in disaster preparedness and management of diabetes among the elderly is the change in lifestyle. c) Many people over 60 are sedentary. Vision problems, osteoarticular, depression, or only insecurity, contribute to the elderly to move less. d) Therefore, physical activity guided by a qualified professional, accompanied by appropriate food, contribute significantly to the improvement in the management of diabetes. In studies, patients over 60 years of age improve diabetes much more by modifying their lifestyle than younger patients. V. Education a) They should be educated on the potential disasters that may occur within their residential areas b) Emergency procedure needs within the areas they live OUTLINE 4 c) The need to sign up for disaster notifications and alerts d) Following the required disaster guidelines during emergencies VI. Evacuation a) The elderly patients should be trained on the importance of leaving early before disasters strike b) The necessity of being ready all the time even before evacuation begins c) Carrying their disaster supply kits so that they can be quickly replenished whenever the need arises d) Being alert during the evacuation to avoid secondary injuries \ VII. Shelter a) Elderly diabetic patients may be grossly impacted in terms of shelter during emergencies b) Need to provide additional warm and well-equipped shelter c) Prescription medication and conducive sleeping space should be considered when seeking alternative shelter for elderly evacuees. d) Personal hygiene and healthy food choices that are suitable for elderly diabetic patients should be considered. VIII. Emergency preparedness OUTLINE 5 a) Due to the increased cardiovascular risk, the elderly patient with diabetes must maintain optimal blood pressure and cholesterol levels even when faced by severe environmental conditions b) As mentioned earlier, the treatment of hypertension must be calibrated to avoid hypotension (Al-Rousan, Rubenstein & Wallace, 2014). c) An elderly diabetic person should also be prepared to manage symptoms such as dizziness. It can be a symptom of hypoglycemia or low blood pressure. To differentiate, the elderly patient must measure his pressure and glucose level at the fingertip when suspicious symptoms manifest. IX. Recommendations a) Regular eye evaluation, as diabetes increases the risk of loss of vision due to retinal problems and cataracts. For older people, the symptoms are worse b) Assessment of renal function as part of the prevention of chronic renal failure c) Foot care, as around 30% of elderly patients are unable to reach or check their feet regularly (Aldrich & Benson, 2008). X. Conclusion As the prevalence of diabetes is also increasing, it can be concluded that we will have more elderly diabetics in need of endocrinological assistance during disasters. People over aged 65 and above are more likely to be diagnosed with diabetes, and therefore they should be fairly handled well during emergencies. OUTLINE 6 References Aldrich, N., & Benson, W. F. (2008). Disaster Preparedness and the Chronic Disease Needs of Vulnerable Older Adults. Preventing Chronic Disease: Public Health Research, Practice, and Policy, 5(1), 1-7. Al-Rousan, T. M., Rubenstein, L. M., & Wallace, R. B. (2014). Preparedness for natural disasters among older US adults: a nationwide survey. American journal of public health, 104(3), 506-511. Wakui, T., Agree, E. M., Saito, T., & Kai, I. (2017). Disaster preparedness among older Japanese adults with long-term care needs and their family caregivers. Disaster medicine and public health preparedness, 11(1), 31-38. ...
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Final Answer

Attached.

Running head: ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Annotated Bibliography
Name of student
Institution of affiliation
Date

1

ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY

2
Annotated Bibliography

Aldrich, N., & Benson, W. F. (2008). Disaster Preparedness and the Chronic Disease Needs
of Vulnerable Older Adults. Preventing Chronic Disease: Public Health Research,
Practice, and Policy, 5(1), 1-7.
Aldrich & Benson (2008) discuss the disaster preparedness of the elderly suffering from
chronic conditions. According to the authors, more than 14 million Americans aged 65 and
above have some sort of disabilities that affect their evacuation or recoveries after disasters
strike. The authors use examples of Hurricane Katrina of 2005 and the 1995 heat waves in the
Midwest, Chicago, to discuss the vulnerabilities of the elderly during disasters. The authors are
advocating for adequate planning to protect old and vulnerable adults from disasters. This article
is crucial since it details how adults with chronic conditions can be disadvantaged during
disasters.
Al-rousan, T. M., Rubenstein, L. M., & Wallace, R. B. (2014). Preparedness for natural
disasters among older US adults: a nationwide survey. American journal of public
health, 104(3), 506-511.
This article is an analysis of the disaster preparedness of the elderly in the US. According
to the authors, disasters have become common in the country, and the elderly are the most
affected. The vulnerabilities of the elderly are attributed to chronic conditions and disabilities
that limit their responses to disasters. Al-rousan, Rubenstein & Wallace (2014) conducted
surveys in the US, and they found that two-thirds of the participants had no emergency plans,
and they had never participated in disaster preparedness drills. The authors assert that since the
elderly are susceptible to disasters, robust emergency preparedness is necessary to increases their

ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY

3

resilience to disasters. This article is essential since it gives the overall situation on the
emergency preparedness of the elderly in the country.
Wakui, T., Agree, E. M., Saito, T., & Kai, I. (2017). Disaster preparedness among older
Japanese adults with long-term care needs and their family caregivers. Disaster
medicine and public health preparedness, 11(1), 31-38.
The article is about the preparedness of adults in the wake of disasters. Wakui et al.
(2017) use the 2011 earthquake that affected Japan, Hurricane Katrina, and the Chicago heat
waves of 1995 to assess the impacts of disasters on the aged. In all the disasters, the authors state
that the aged were affected and specifically those with chronic conditions. According to Warui et
al. (2017), many older adults and their caregivers are not prepared for disasters, and therefore
improving their preparedness will help in improving their resilience during disasters. This article
is essential as it offers insights into the emergency preparedness of older adults.
Allweiss, P., & Albright, A. (2011). Diabetes, disasters, and decisions. Diabetes
Management, 1(4), 369-377. doi: 10.2217/dmt.11.31
This article focuses on the impacts of disasters on patients who have diabetes. According
to Allweiss & Albright (2011), people with diabetes are increasing, and this has led to an
increase in the number of diabetic people affected by diabetes during disasters. The authors use
the cases of Hurricane Katrina, Hurricane Iniki, earthquakes Hanshin /Kobe, California heatwave
of 2006, and the gulf war to explain how disasters affect people who have diabetes. Allweiss &
Albright (2011) state that preparedness is essential in protecting people who have diabetes and
other chronic conditions when disasters happen. The article is essential since it focuses on the
need for emergency preparedness and how disasters have affected people who have diabetes in
the past.

ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY
Torani, S., Majd, P. M., Maroufi, S. S., Dowlati, M., & Sheikhi, R. A. (2019). The
importance of education on disasters and emergencies: A review article. Journal of
education and health promotion, 8, 85. https://doi.org/10.4103/jehp.jehp_262_18
Torani et al. (2019) discuss the need for educating people about disaster preparedness to
improve their resilience when disasters strike. The authors acknowledge that some disasters
cannot be prevented, but educating the community members about the disasters and how they
can protect themselves can improve their resilience. Torani et al. (2019) claim that seniors,
children, and women are some of the vulnerable people that should be educated on emergency
preparedness. Professionals should train vulnerable groups on how they can protect themselves,
and they will protect themselves better when faced with disasters. This article explains the
importance of educating people in increasing their resilience to disasters.
Shih, R. A., Acosta, J. D., Chen, E. K., Carbone, E. G., Xenakis, L., Adamson, D. M., &
Chandra, A. (2018). Improving Disaster Resilience Among Older Adults: Insights
from Public Health Departments and Aging-in-Place Efforts. Rand health
quarterly, 8(1), 3.
Shih et al. (2018) studied the resilience of older adults in the event of disasters.
According to the authors, disasters are increasingly happening because of climate change and
hence the need to prepare resilient communities. According to the authors, older adults are
vulnerable because they are not included in emergency preparedness. The authors claim that if
the older adults are given a role to play in emergency preparedness, they can make significant
contributions given their experience and resources. From their research, the authors found that
members of communities, including the elderly, are willing to contribute to the emergency
preparedness in their communities when given a chance.

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ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY

5

Shay, Elizabeth & Combs, Tabitha & Salvesen, David & DeTrizio, Diane & Horney,
Jennifer. (2014). Closing the gap: Assessing emergency preparedness and awareness
in two North Carolina counties. Journal of Geography and Natural Disasters. in
press.
This article talks about the preparedness of communities when disasters strike. The
authors use the districts of North Carolina, namely Alamance and Cabarrus, to explain
emergency preparedness of communities living in the area. According to Shay et al. (2014),
many households who participated in the study reported that they were vulnerable to disasters
since they were not adequately prepared. The residents want the emergency management
officials of the district to increase their preparedness to respond to vulnerable populations. The
residents are also aware that they are responsible for keeping themselves safe during disasters.
This article is relevant for the paper since it focuses on the emergency preparedness of
households.
Wyte-Lake, Tamar & Claver, Maria & Der-Martirosian, Claudia & Davis, Darlene &
Dobalian, Aram. (2018). Education of Elderly Patients About Emergency
Preparedness by Health Care Practitioners. American journal of public health. 108.
S207-S208. 10.2105/AJPH.2018.304608.
This article by Wyte-Lake et al. (2018) is about the preparedness of the elderly to respond
to emergencies. The authors note that adults above 65 years are the most affected by disasters in
the US and, therefore, the need for formulation of policies to increase their resilience. According
to the authors, Home Based Primary Care (HBPC) and Veterans Health Administration (VHA)
are some programs in the United States intended to help the aged veterans. The two programs

ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY

6

have guidelines that practitioners can use to enlighten the aged on the need for emergency
preparedness. The article is relevant as it focuses on emergency preparedness measures for the
elderly.
Adams, V., Kaufman, S. R., van Hattum, T., & Moody, S. (2011). Aging disaster: mortality,
vulnerability, and long-term recovery among Katrina survivors. Medical
Anthropology, 30(3), 247–270. https://doi.org/10.1080/01459740.2011.560777
Using Hurricane Katrina that affected New Orleans in 2005, the authors are discussing
the effects of disasters on the elderly. According to Adams et al. (2011), the aged were among
the first to die when the hurricane struck. The aged are vulnerable when it comes to caring,
evacuation, and stabilization. The authors also discuss the effects of the hurricane on the
wellbeing of the residents. Some of the factors that made the elderly vulnerable during disasters
are poverty, isolation, infirmities, and dysfunctional emergency response. The houses of the
elderly were destroyed, and some opted to live in rental houses after the disaster was over. This
article provides insights into the effects of the disasters on the shelters of the elderly.
Halter, J. B., Musi, N., McFarland Horne, F., Crandall, J. P., Goldberg, A., Harkless, L.,
Hazzard, W. R., Huang, E. S., Kirkman, M. S., Plutzky, J., Schmader, K. E.,
Zieman, S., & High, K. P. (2014). Diabetes and cardiovascular disease in older
adults: current status and future directions. Diabetes, 63(8), 2578–2589.
https://doi.org/10.2337/db14-0020
The article by Halter et al. (2014) explains the relationship between diabetes and
cardiovascular disease among the elderly. According to the authors, diabetes is prevalent in the
US among persons aged above 65 years at one person for every four adults. Cardiovascular

ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY
disease is a result of hyperglycemia. Persons who have diabetes have high chances of suffering
from cardiovascular diseases because of narrow blood vessels. The authors assert that for
individuals with type 2 diabetes, excess deposits of fats increase their risks of cardiovascular
disease. This article is vital because it discusses how diabetes increases the risks of having
cardiovascular disease.

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Running head: DISASTER PREPAREDNESS AND DIABETIC ADULTS

Disaster Preparedness And Diabetic Adults
Name of student
Institution of affiliation
Date

1

DISASTER PREPAREDNESS AND DIABETIC ADULTS

2

Abstract
The purpose of this discussion is to shed light on the preparedness of the elderly during
disasters. Disasters have happened in the past, and this paper aims to discuss the emergency
preparedness of the elderly in the event of disasters. Even though disasters affect all ages, the
elderly, especially those with chronic conditions, are the most affected by disasters. When
disasters strike, the elderly population often suffers more casualties and tortures than the rest
of the population. Therefore, disaster relief plans must take into account the unique needs of
older persons who may also have been diagnosed with diabetes. In 2005, Hurricane Katrina
affected mostly the elderly. Although the elderly over 60 years old accounted for only 15%
of the local population, they suffered up to 75% of the deaths.

DISASTER PREPAREDNESS AND DIABETIC ADULTS

3

Int...

agneta (51428)
Duke University

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