UWG Pablo Picasso Artwork Comparison with Georges Braque & Juan Gris Discussion

University of West Georgia

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INSTRUCTIONS FOR RESEARCH PAPER Please submit as PDF! Artist Research Paper 3 pages typed, double-spaced, Times New Roman, size 12 font APA Format Choose any artist that interests you. Below is an artist list but these are only suggestions; you do not have to choose an artist on this list. Please make sure you can find enough information about your artist to complete the paper. Artist Chosen: Pablo Picasso Please consider the following information. Each artist will have different information. These topics are suggestions, but most should be included in your research on any artist. Approach the biographical information how you choose. Suggested Biographical Info: 1. Place/date of birth 2. Place/date of death 3. Primary type of artwork (ex: painting? drawing? sculpture? printmaking? ceramics?) 4. Media (materials used?) 5. Style or period of art 6. Short definition of that style or period 7. Interesting/Personal information on the artist 8. Favorite Quote NOTE: Required information: All information below is required in your artist research paper. • Artist Comparisons - Two (2) other artists who work in the same style (from the time period of the artist - or contemporary artists working in this same style). How is the work similar? How is the work different? Do these artists influence your artist and/or did your artist influence these artists? The artists can be from different time periods. Artist chosen for comparison: • Georges Braque. • Juan Gris 2. Critiques -Formal, Expressive or Contextual Critique of at least two works of art by selected artist. Research Resources (minimum of three -use authoritative sites and books). Include author, title, date, URL (for sites), publisher (for books), and page numbers. No Wikipedia. Cite in APA format. *Label each section of your research paper in bold: Biographical Information Artist Comparisons Critiques Images Pablo Picasso “A painter paints to unload himself of feelings and visions.” Pablo Picasso 1 Early Years in Paris Pablo Ruiz Picasso (1881 – 1973) was one of the most inventive artists of all time. He continually searched for fresh ways to represent the world, and he is admired for his experimentation with different styles, materials, and techniques. The years 1901 to 1906 are often described as Picasso’s Blue and Rose periods because he was exploring the way color and line could express his ideas and emotions. Born in southern Spain, Picasso studied at art academies in Barcelona and Madrid. He first visited Paris, then the center of the art world, in 1900 at the age of nineteen, and he was captivated by the vibrant city and its museums and art galleries. Four years later Picasso settled in Paris, and France became his adopted home. 2 Why So Blue? Being an immigrant to Paris, Picasso sympathized with the city’s poor and hungry people, with their struggles and their sense of isolation. He also felt great sorrow over the death of his best friend. These feelings literally colored his works. From 1901 to 1904 Picasso experimented with using dark, thick outlines to create figures and shapes on his canvas. He filled in the outlines with lighter and darker tones of blue. The Tragedy, one painting from his Blue period, shows three unnaturally tall, thin figures on an empty beach. Consider: How might the people be feeling? left: Pablo Picasso at Montmartre (detail), Place Ravignan, c. 1904, Musée Picasso, Paris. Réunion Musées Nationaux / Art Resource, NY (photo: RMN-J. Faujour) 134 Questioning Traditions above: Pablo Picasso, The Tragedy, 1903, oil on wood, National Gallery of Art, Chester Dale Collection © 2013 Estate of Pablo Picasso / Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York 3 “Colors, like features, follow the changes of the emotions.” Pablo Picasso Feeling Rosy A few years later, Picasso began to paint with lighter and more delicate colors, such as rosy pinks, reds, and warm browns. He also discovered a new subject of interest: the circus. He was fascinated by the clowns and acrobats who performed in the Cirque Médrano, which was based in Montmartre (his neighborhood in Paris). Picasso felt a strong connection with these saltimbanques, or street performers. They were all outsiders who worked here and there, making art. The entertainers who appear in his paintings and drawings, however, are not shown performing. Instead, Picasso presents them in quiet, unexpected moments. These years, from late 1904 to early 1906, are called Picasso’s Rose or circus period. Family of Saltimbanques shows a circus family in a sparse setting. A harlequin, or jester, wears a diamondpatterned suit. He holds the hand of a young girl in a pink dress carrying a basket of flowers. A large clown in a red costume and two young acrobats — one holds a tumbling barrel — complete the circle. A woman with a hat decorated with flowers sits off to one side. Wonder: What is the relationship among the people? Compare: How are these two paintings similar? How are they different? Which words best describe each painting? cold delicate warm sad bleak strong mysterious frail silent somber dreamy isolated Pablo Picasso, Family of Saltimbanques, 1905, oil on canvas, National Gallery of Art, Chester Dale Collection © 2013 Estate of Pablo Picasso / Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York 135 Questioning Traditions try this Watercolor Resist Painting To better understand how artists communicate feelings, experiment with color and contour line to create a “moody” watercolor resist painting. You will need: Crayons Watercolor paints and brush Watercolor paper In the works from his Blue and Rose periods, Picasso explored line and color. He used dark, heavy outlines — called contour lines — to define the figures and shapes in his paintings. He then limited his palette to only a few colors so he could focus on the emotional quality of the scene. Ask your family or friends to strike a pose for you. Take some time to study the poses. Try tracing the outlines of the figures in the air with your finger. On a piece of watercolor paper, use a pencil to draw the contour lines of the figures and objects you see. Trace over your lines with a crayon. Press hard to make the lines thick. top: Pablo Picasso, Juggler with Still Life, 1905, gouache on cardboard, National Gallery of Art, Chester Dale Collection © 2013 Estate of Pablo Picasso / Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York bottom: Pablo Picasso, Le Gourmet, 1901, oil on canvas, National Gallery of Art, Chester Dale Collection © 2013 Estate of Pablo Picasso / Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York Next, decide which mood or emotion you wish to communicate in your painting. Choose two colors that might best express that feeling. Use this limited watercolor palette to paint over the crayon lines. Cover the entire paper with color. Create light and dark shades by adding more or less water to the paint. Mix the two colors together to create a third color. Discover: The lines made with the wax crayon will show through, or resist, the watercolor. This results in a painting made of both lines and colors. 136 Questioning Traditions Cubism - the first style of abstract art Pablo Picasso (1881-1973) Factory, Horta de Ebbo (oil on canvas, 1909) Cubism was a truly revolutionary style of modern art developed by Pablo Picasso and Georges Braques. It was the first style of abstract art which evolved at the beginning of the 20th century in response to a world that was changing with unprecedented speed. Cubism was an attempt by artists to revitalise the tired traditions of Western art which they believed had run their course. The Cubists challenged conventional forms of representation, such as perspective. Their aim was to develop a new way of seeing which reflected the modern age. In the four decades from 1870-1910, western society witnessed more technological progress than in the previous four centuries. During this period inventions such as photography, cinematography, sound recording, the telephone, the motor car and the airplane heralded the dawn of a new age. The problem for artists at this time was how to reflect the modernity of the era using the tired and trusted traditions that had served art for the last four centuries. Photography had begun to replace painting as the tool for documenting the age and for artists to sit illustrating cars, planes and images of the new technologies was not exactly rising to the challenge. Artists needed a more radical approach - a 'new way of seeing' that expanded the possibilities of art in the same way that technology was extending the boundaries of communication and travel. This new way of seeing was called Cubism - the first abstract style of modern art. Picasso and Braque developed their ideas on Cubism around 1907 in Paris and their starting point was a common interest in the later paintings of Paul Cézanne. The Influence of Cézanne on Cubism Paul Cézanne (1839-1906) Bibemus Quarry (oil on canvas, 1895) Cézanne was not primarily interested in creating an illusion of depth in his painting and he abandoned the tradition of perspective drawing. Perspective, which had been used since the Early Renaissance, was a geometric formula that solved the problem of how to draw three-dimensional objects on a two dimensional surface. Cézanne felt that the illusionism of perspective denied the fact that a painting is a flat two-dimensional object. He liked to flatten the space in his paintings to place more emphasis on their surface - to stress the difference between a painting and reality. He saw painting in more abstract terms as the construction and arrangement of colour on a two-dimensional surface. It was this flat abstract approach that appealed to the Cubists and their early paintings, such as Picasso's 'Factory at Horta de Ebbo' (1909) and Braque's 'Viaduct at L'Estaque' (1908,) took it to an extreme. The Cubist Vision Georges Braque (1882-1963) Viaduct at L'Estaque (oil on canvas, 1908) The limitations of perspective were also seen as an obstacle to progress by the Cubists. The fact that a picture drawn in perspective could only work from one viewpoint restricted their options. As the image was drawn from a fixed position, the result was frozen, like a snapshot - but the Cubists wanted to make pictures that reached beyond the rigid geometry of perspective. They wanted to introduce the idea of 'relativity' - how the artist perceived and selected elements from the subject, fusing both their observations and memories into the one concentrated image. To do this the Cubists examined the way that we see. When you look at an object your eye scans it, stopping to register on a certain detail before moving on to the next point of interest and so on. You can also change your viewpoint in relation to the object allowing you to look at it from above, below or from the side. Therefore, the Cubists proposed that your sight of an object is the sum of many different views and your memory of an object is not constructed from one angle, as in perspective, but from many angles selected by your sight and movement. Cubist painting, paradoxically abstract in form, was an attempt at a more realistic way of seeing. A typical Cubist painting depicts real people, places or objects, but not from a fixed viewpoint. Instead it will show you many parts of the subject at one time, viewed from different angles, and reconstructed into a composition of planes, forms and colours. The whole idea of space is reconfigured: the front, back and sides of the subject become interchangeable elements in the design of the work. The Cubists - Picasso, Braque and Gris Juan Gris (1887-1927) Violin and Glass (oil on canvas, 1915) Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque conceived and developed Cubism but other artists also adopted the style. The Spanish artist Juan Gris, who is often referred to as the 'Third Musketeer of Cubism', was the best of these and he refined the Cubist vocabulary into his own instantly recognisable visual language. Other notable artists associated with Cubism were Fernand Leger, Robert Delaunay, Albert Gleizes, Jean Metzinger, Louis Marcoussis, Marie Laurencin and Roger de La Fresnaye. The Influence of African Art on Cubism Pablo Picasso (1881-1973) Left: Head of a Woman, (oil on canvas, 1907) Right: Dan Mask The Cubists believed that the traditions of Western art had become exhausted and another remedy they applied to revitalize their work was to draw on the expressive energy of art from other cultures, especially African art. However, they were not interested in the true religious or social symbolism of these cultural objects, but valued them superficially for their expressive style. They viewed them as subversive elements that could be used to attack and subsequently refresh the tired tradition of Western art. This inspiration to cross-reference art from different cultures probably came from Paul Gauguin, the French postimpressionist artist, whose paintings and prints were influenced by the native culture of Tahiti and the Marquesas Islands where he spent his final years. Analytical Cubism Georges Braque (1882-1963) Violin and Jug (oil on canvas, 1910) Cubism had two distinct phases. The early phase which lasted until about 1912 was called Analytical Cubism. Here the artist analysed the subject from many different viewpoints and reconstructed it within a geometric framework, the overall effect of which was to create an image that evoked a sense of the subject. These fragmented images were unified by the use of a subdued and limited palette of colours. Pablo Picasso (1881-1973) Still Life with Chair Caning (oil on canvas, 1912) Around 1912, the styles of Picasso and Braque were becoming predictable. Their images had grown so similar that their paintings of this period are often difficult to tell apart. Their work was increasingly abstract and less recognisable as the subject of their titles. Cubism was running out of creative steam. In an attempt to revitalise the style and pull it back from total abstraction, Picasso began to glue printed images from the 'real world' onto the surface of his still lifes. His painting 'Still Life with Chair Caning', was the first example of this 'collage' technique and it opened the door for himself and other artists to the second phase of the Cubist style: Synthetic Cubism. Synthetic Cubism Pablo Picasso (1881-1973) Still Life with Mandolin and Guitar (oil on canvas, 1924) Influenced by the introduction of bold and simple collage shapes, Synthetic Cubism moved away from the unified monochrome surfaces of Analytic Cubism to a more direct, colourful and decorative style. Although synthetic cubist images appear more abstract in their use of simplified forms, the other elements of their composition are applied quite traditionally. Interchanging lines, colours, patterns and textures, that switch from geometric to freehand, dark to light, positive to negative and plain to patterned, advance and recede in rhythms across the picture plain. Beyond Cubism Umberto Boccioni (1882-1916) Dynamism of a Soccer Player (oil on canvas, 1913) Cubism was born in France but emigrated across Europe and integrated with the artistic consciousness of several countries. It emerged as Futurism in Italy (illustrated above), Vorticism in England, Suprematism and Constructivism in Russia, and Expressionism in Germany. It also influenced several of the major design and architectural styles of the 20th century and prevails to this day as mode of expression in the language of art. Cubism Notes • • • • • • • Cubism was invented around 1907 in Paris by Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque. Cubism was the first abstract style of modern art. A Cubist painting ignores the traditions of perspective drawing and shows you many views of a subject at one time. The Cubists introduced collage into painting. The Cubists were influenced by art from other cultures, particularly African masks. There are two distinct phases of the Cubist Style: Analytical Cubism (pre 1912) and Synthetic Cubism (post 1912) Cubism influenced many other styles of modern art including Orphism,Futurism, Vorticism, Suprematism, Constructivism and Expressionism. Juan Gris 1887 -1927 Cubism was the first abstract art form and the most revolutionary art movement of the 20th century. It was originally conceived and developed in France by Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque around 1907, but other artists soon adopted the style. The Spanish artist Juan Gris (his real name was José Victoriano González-Pérez), a friend and neighbour of Picasso in Paris, was the best of these and he refined the cubist vocabulary into his own instantly recognizable visual language. He is often referred to as 'the third cubist'  Juan Gris was born in Madrid and his real name was José Victoriano González-Pérez.  Gris studied engineering drawing before he became an artist.  He was a friend and neighbour of Picasso in Paris.  After Picasso and Braque, Juan Gris is thought of as the third Cubist but he was the artist who was the most consistently dedicated to the style.  Gris painted mostly still lifes in a synthetic cubist style often using bold colours and collage techniques.  Although his paintings may appear quite methodical in their design he was quoted as saying, 'I prefer the emotion that corrects the rule', which suggests his instinct and not his intellect was the controlling factor in his art.  Gris also created sculptures and worked on set designs for Diaghilev's ballets.  Juan Gris died at the young age of 39. 'Still Life with Violin and Glass', 1915 (oil on canvas) Still life was the most popular of the cubist themes as it allowed artists to use everyday objects whose forms were still recognizable after they had been simplified and stylized. 'Still Life with Open Window, Rue Ravignan' is a great example of Gris' cubist style. It contains some of the traditional objects commonly associated with still life: a bowl of fruit, a bottle and a glass, a newspaper and a book, all carefully arranged on a table top at a balcony window. The objects are lit by electric light which contrasts with the moonlit scene outside the window. The subject may have been clichéd and predictable but its arrangement was revolutionary. Juan Gris was more calculating than any other Cubist painter in the way he composed his pictures. Every element of a painting was considered with classical precision: line, shape, tone, colour and pattern were carefully refined to create an interlocking arrangement free from any unnecessary decoration or detail. Gris flattens the composition of 'Still Life with Open Window, Rue Ravignan' into a grid of overlapping planes. Within the structure of this grid, he delicately balances and counterbalances different areas of the work. Sections shift from light to dark, positive to negative, monochrome to colour, transparency to opacity, and from lamplight inside the room to moonlight outside. The relationships of these juxtaposed elements leave us with a sense of the still life group in its surroundings - the kind of fragmented sense that our memory would retain had we seen them for ourselves. Cubism a new way of seeing Before Cubism, all art obeyed the convention of perspective. This was the technique that artists had used since the Renaissance to arrange objects in space. However, perspective only works from one fixed viewpoint and the Cubists believed that it was a limited visualization technique which did not reflect the way that we see the world. Their aim was to develop a new way of seeing which reflected the complexity of the modern age. In Cubist painting artists depict real objects, but not from a fixed viewpoint as in perspective. They combine different viewpoints of a subject in the one image. The whole idea of space is rearranged – the fr ...
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Artist Research paper
Institutional Affiliation



Artist Research paper

Pablo Picasso
Pablo Picasso was a Spanish painter, sculptor and play writer who was considered one of
the one of the influential of the 20th century. Pablo portrayed extraordinary artistic talents and
abilities at his tender age as well as adolescence. He showed improvement in his artistic work as
he advanced in age, in which his artistic styles were associated with several theories and ideas.
By the 20th century, there was no artist in Spain who had impact on world art as Pablo Picasso.
He produced art items that were astonishing in style such that, even after his death, his artwork
remained to be an inspiration to other artists. Additionally, Picasso was credited for coming up
with and pioneering the collage art style. He is also recognized for defining components for
plastics arts. More significantly, this artist was the founder of the Cubist movement. This
movement was one of the art movement that altered and transformed the painting and sculpture
of the European while at the same time affecting the contemporary literature...

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