UF How Two Branches of the US Congress Negotiate to Deal with the COVID 19 Essay


University of Florida

Question Description

The specifications for this paper are as follows: Write a concise paper on a negotiation issue or case of your choice. It is recommended that you choose a subject that you are interested in studying. All topics must be approved by your instructor before you begin writing. Please note that the length of your term paper is intentionally limited to a strict minimum and maximum in order to ensure that you will organize your thoughts very carefully, and express them through a rigorous choice of words and sentences that minimizes the quantity and maximizes the quality of the paper. All term papers will be MS Word-processed, double spaced, Times New Roman, 12-point font, left aligned with one-inch margins. Term papers are to be submitted using the APA formatting and citation style. The papers should be 14 pages long excluding references. A minimum of four references should be used. Academic sources and credible scholar.

Paper Rubrics – Paper Grading guide

An "A" is awarded to outstanding, unusually fine work. Outstanding work means that the student not only masters the negotiation theory and practice, knows the details of assigned reading and of class presentations, but goes beyond the bounds of memorization to integrate, apply, critique and reflect on the facts and ideas presented. A grade of "B" is awarded to above average, strong work that reveals these same qualities but is perhaps less consistent or less thorough. A "C" is awarded to work that meets the requirements, with some ambiguity about its adequacy. An "F" is awarded when work is not completed and when work is inadequate.

1. Logical Organization (30% of paper grade)

A. Is or are the negotiation issue (s) clearly stated? (Are the major issues/questions presented concisely in the introduction so that the reader knows what the paper is about?)

B. Does the paper keep the promise of the introduction?

C. Is the method of presentation and analysis clear? Is it justified?

D. Is the sequence of ideas and information logical?

E. Do you do something worthwhile with each idea you present or each source you cite?

F. Is its clear what ideas are yours and what you got from someone else?

G. Is the negotiation process clearly articulated and its import assessed?

2. Development (30% of paper grade)

A. Are transitions between paragraphs and topics clearly stated and integrated?

B. Do you basically present one full idea per paragraph?

C. Do you use the best ideas or every idea you could get your hands on?

D. Does the size of your paragraphs fit the size of the ideas and/or issues and processes?

3. Content (30% of paper grade) A.

Originality and creativity (1. Do you have anything interesting to say? Do you have your own interpretation? 2. Have you thought about what you learned and analyzed it, or do you just copy it?) B. Support (1. Do you support your ideas with evidence from readings, with clear reasoning, with examples, or with a combination? Is your support relevant and persuasive? 2. Is language from what you have read quoted? Are the quotations that you use necessary and helpful?)

4. Style (10% of paper grade) A.

A. Are sentences clear and concise? Generated: 3/7/2020 Page 8 of 9

B. Are sentences grammatical? (1. Do you have pronoun-verb agreement? 2. Do you have verb tense consistency? 3. Do you put commas in the right places?)

C. Does each of your sentences say something?

D. Do you cite your sources and follow the formatting style you have chosen consistently?

E. Is your spelling correct? Are your possessives and plurals correct? Have you used the right words and used them correctly?

More information to follow

Materials and Resources

Section Required Texts and Material:

Lewicki, R.J., Saunders, D.M., Minton, J.W.,and Barry, B. Essentials of Negotiation. 6 th Edition. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill/Irwin.

I will send you the book chapters as an attachment.

Student has agreed that all tutoring, explanations, and answers provided by the tutor will be used to help in the learning process and in accordance with Studypool's honor code & terms of service.

Final Answer


The Way the Two Branches of the U.S. Congress Negotiate to Deal with the COVID-19 –
Thesis Statement: U.S. Congress, as one of its way of addressing the Coronavirus crisis, has
come up with some measures to bail the United States out of the possible economic fallout. With
no business going on, many companies will close down, and families will struggle a lot. For this
reason, the U.S. Congress has been negotiating over an economic stimulus that will help the U.S.
recover from the crisis.

Congress Negotiations Over the Economic Stimulus Bill




Resistance Points


Settlement Points
A. Economic Stabilization
B. Economic Stabilization
C. Support to Individuals
D. Support to Small Business
E. Healthcare
F. Education
G. Food and Nutrition




The Way the Two Branches of the U.S. Congress Negotiate to Deal with the COVID-19




The Way the Two Branches of the U.S. Congress Negotiate to Deal with the COVID-19
U.S. Congress has two branches; the Senate and the House of Representatives. The two
branches discharge the legislative responsibilities of government. However, the legislative duties
of each branch are unique. But when it comes to matters affecting the whole nation, the two
branches must come together and legislate in unison. Working together for the two branches
implies negotiation. For the last few days, the two branches have been negotiating over the
Coronavirus crisis that America and the world at large are experiencing. Coronavirus, also
known as COVID-19, has paralyzed the whole nation. It has brought everything to a standstill.
The small businesses, associations, and corporations have been brought into a halt. This brings a
lot of anxiety and economic anxiety in the United States. If adequate measures are not taken,
America might get itself into a depression or global recession soon. In regard to this, the U.S.
Congress, as one of its way of addressing the Coronavirus crisis, has come up with some
measures to bail the United States out of the possible economic fallout. With no business going
on, many companies will close down, and families will struggle a lot. For this reason, the U.S.
Congress has been negotiating over an economic stimulus that will help the U.S. recover from
the crisis. This is a serious debate that both branches of the U.S. Congress must participate in.
During the appropriate law to address the situation, every house has its demands. This prolonged
the debate. More so, the two parties are highly partisan. Negotiation helps to harmonize the
interests of both sides for the common good (Lewicki et al., 2016). If the proposed economic
stimulus bill is passed, it is going to be beneficial to both the Democrats and the Republicans.



Congress Negotiations Over the Economic Stimulus Bill
Following the Coronavirus crisis, it is necessary for the government to come up with a
plan to cushion Americans from the sudden economic slowdown that may be experienced
anytime soon. In this regard, the government planned to induce the economy to some emergency
aid. However, this would only be done through legislation. In regard to this, Mitch McConnell,
the Senate Majority Leader, came introduced a bill in Congress known as Coronavirus Aid,
Relief, and Economic Security Act. Six chairmen of various committees sponsored the bill. The
proposal got into the floor of the house on March 19, 2020 (Cohrs, 2020). All members
welcomed it. The bill was contentious because it is the most expensive legislative act to have
ever been passed in America. However, given the condition that the country is in and the need to
restart the economy, the Representatives and Senators have to agree on the measures necessary
to improve the economy. Nonetheless, negotiation is important in order to agree on the specific
amount that should be used as the economic stimulus and how to go about it.
In negotiation, parties go with an open mind. Every party seeks its demands to be
attended to. But, the parties enter into a negotiation knowing that not all their demands will be
accepted (Lewicki et al., 2016). This is because a room has to be left to accommodate the
demands of the other parties. This process of pushing one’s demands in the negotiation is called
bargaining. The government of the United States is the initiator of the debate on economic
stimulus. Its initial position for the amount of aid to be given by the government was $45 billion.
However, the Democrats challenged it, saying that $45 billion is too little to help the country
overcome the crisis (Arnold & Porter, 2020). So, they called upon the government to increase
this amount. In response, the government increased it to $340 billion. The main negotiations



were to happen in the Senate. The government went into the negotiation table with the proposal
of $340 billion as the financial aid. The negotiations took for days before a conclusion was
reached. These negotiations were private. In essence, this negotiation would culminate the final
details of the proposed bill. In these negotiations, Trump’s Administration was represented by
Steven Mnuchin, who is the Treasury Secretary (Arnold & Porter, 2020). Other parties during
these negotiations were Democrat and Republican Senate leaders. After intensive debate, the
team reached into negotiations. These negotiations led to bipartisan support of the deal to have
US$2 trillion package to help the country to recover from the economic slowdown brought about
by the Coronavirus pandemic. Further negotiations proceeded in the Senate. Ultimately, the bill
was passed by bipartisan support of 96-0. The other four senators were absent due to
Coronavirus illness-related issues. Now, the bill awaits deliberations by the members of House
of Representatives for it to become a law.
Resistance Points
During negotiations, there are things that the parties disagree (Lewicki et al., 2016).
Though the bill is necessary for the country at this moment, the legislators disagree on some
issues regarding its implementation. Primarily, the disagreement comes from Democrat Senators.
Since the bill has been introduced by a Republican senator and its sponsors are also Republican,
it is obvious for it to meet some resistance from the Democrat Senators. One of the reasons
which the Congressional Democrats are opposing the bill is that the funds proposed under this
economic stimulus are inadequate. They cannot meet the needs of families, individuals, and even
small businesses. In this regard, the Democrats Senators are opposing the increase of the funds
used in this stimulus (Cohrs, 2020). Secondly, the bill is rarely concerned with the medical
providers who are in the frontline of fighting the Coronavirus pandemic. It only cares about



individuals, families, and businesses. In this regard, the Congressional Democrats argue that the
bill ought to increase the salaries of the healthcare workers, especially those who will be treating
coronavirus patients. Also, the bill should call for increased safety measures in the hospitals to
prevent the healthcare providers from contracting the coronavirus as they treat the patients. So
far, several doctors have died as they treat this pandemic. Thirdly, the Congressional Democrats
argued that the proposed economic stimulus had little concern for the corporate world. Hence,
the economy may not be restored as expected (Arnold & Porter, 2020). In light of this, the bill
does not balance the needs of families and individuals with that of the corporates. Hence, no
tangible economic gain will be caused by the stimulus. In this regard, the Congressional
Democrats suggest an increase in the proportion set for bailing out companies. By doing this, the
companies will recover the loss that they made during this pandemic. The Congressional
Republicans should consider the resistance point and then argue from it to develop a settlement
Settlement Points
After a lengthy negotiation between the two branches of government, an agreement was
reached. The issues in which parties to the negotiations agree are called the settlement points
(Lewicki et al., 2016). Hence, settlement points form the basis of an agreement. In regard to
resistance points, the Congressional Democrats claimed that the money proposed for the
economic stimulus was inadequate. This was one of the resistance points. After negotiations, the
two parties settled at $1.2 trillion. However, further negotiations concerning the inadequacy of
this money were made. Ultimately, the Congress members agreed that the economic stimulus
should be $2 trillion (Arnold & Porter, 2020). The Senators cast their votes concerning this
decision where the bill got 90-0 support. In this regard, the bill is set to be passed into law by the



president. However, the Representatives also have to vote for it. Since the majority leader of the
House of Representatives was involved in the negotiation process, it is expected that the House
of Representatives will pass the bill. Besides the amount of money that will be used as the aid,
the two branches of Congress have agreed on so many points.
Economic Stabilization
The main objective of the CARES Act is to help the United States overcome the
Coronavirus pandemic. In this regard, the bill seeks to help the sectors that are severely
distressed from recovering. This is the reason why the Congressional members have increased
the economic stimulus to $2 trillion. The members have agreed that $500 billion will go to the
economic sectors that are severely distressed. The money will be used to support various
businesses. $17 billion of this money will go to the national security. This is to help ensure the
protection of the businesses during this crisis time (Cohrs, 2020). $300 will go directly into
businesses, especially large corporates. This is because large businesses will be most adversely
affected by the pandemic. By closing down, many people will lose their jobs. In light of this
economic stimulus, the employees will continue receiving salaries even during these difficult
times. Besides, the bill allocates more money to passenger and cargo carriers. This sector will be
severely affected since essentials have to be supplied, yet there is no money to cater to the
services. In this regard, the cargo and passenger carriers will get $25 billion as grants. The air
cargo carriers will also get a $4 billion grant each (Arnold & Porter, 2020). However, these
grants will have a loan guarantee. The payment will commence one the pandemic comes to an
end. The Congressional members also agree that $ 454 should set for loans and other investment
support programs. This mainly targets the sectors of the economy that are severely distressed.



The unused money will be taken back to the state and be used for national security purposes.
These measures will ensure economic stabilization.
Support to Individuals
The two branches of Congress have agreed that some of the money in this aid will be
given to individuals and families. This is to cushion them from the prevailing hard economic
times. Most of the people in America are living in lockdown. Henc...

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Carnegie Mellon University

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