1. Compare and contrast the role of a model versus the role of a theory in informing practice change.
Note: List at least three differences and three similarities.
There are many differences in a model versus theory informed practice change. Practice changes in
healthcare today are mostly all changes utilizing evidence-based practice (EBP). EBP is the integration of
the best research evidence with clinical expertise, including internal evidence, and patient values to
facilitate clinical decision making (Melnyk & Fineout-Overholt, 2019). EBP can encompass nursing and
health discipline theories.
Three differences of a model informed practice change versus a theory based practice change is the
systematic approach that a model promotes, a scientific approach proven by recent research exists or is
planned, and a reflection is performed of whether the practice change was successful and/or needs revision
prior to disseminating results and enrolling the change into practice. A significant difference is model
informed practice is based on current and future research/studies to promote change whereas theory
informed is based on past models and past results that have been proven effective. Three similarities of a
model informed and theory informed practice change are that a need for change is identified, prior
outcomes and/or effective approaches are considered, and both models and theories are used to help guide
2. Based on your answer above, describe how both components stand-alone and work synergistically at
the same time in guiding practice change? In your response provide at least two specific detailed examples.
Model informed practice change and theory informed practice change can stand alone or be used
synergistically. One example is that practice change can take place using solely a model or solely a theory
that has be recognized as beneficial in promoting the change the workplace needs. Model and Theory
informed practice can work synergistically as well. A second example uses Jean Watson's Human Caring
theory. Durant, McDermott, Kinney, and Triner (2015) note that Jean Watson’s Human Caring theory
can be translated across disciplines to provide high-quality health care services and to improve the health
of our members and the communities we serve. For example, Jean Watson’s theory can be used to
reinforce value-based purchasing by exhibiting that patients are more apt to feel cared for and included in
their health when providers take the time and effort to care for them and involve the patient in their
treatment plan. This can potentially have a positive effect on the patient’s perspective of the care they
receive and improve value-based purchasing and reimbursement. This theory can be used independently
or paired with a model informed approach to use workplace data to identify areas that can be improved
upon. Imagine a workplace, such as a hospital setting, attempting to improve their patient satisfaction
scores used for insurance and Medicare reimbursement. They can follow the steps of a model (such as The
Iowa Model discussed in our reading) by identifying the problem, form a committee, research ways and/or
areas to be improved upon (in addition to consideration of Jean Watson’s theory), pilot the changes, and
after a period of time piloting the changes, reflect whether or not there was improvement in the patient
satisfaction surveys, and implement or revise the changes accordingly (Melnyk & Fineout-Overholt,
2019). The hospital facility where I previously was employed would often pilot changes on the medicalsurgical floors and depending on the outcomes, implement or revise aspects to promote change of practice
and policy facility-wide.
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