Business Finance
Hazardous Materials and Industrial Safety in Disaster Management Paper

Question Description

Need help with my Management question - I’m studying for my class.

1. Review the attached PPT, research the two incidents mentioned below. Review and cite various journals outlining Anhydrous ammonia (NH3) uses in the industrial setting and the emergency response planning needed to prevent an event.

Incidents - March 2016 Boston warehouse, and August 2010 Millard Refrigerated Services in Alabama

2. Finally, immerse yourself into the actual incident and list the activities/tasks you need to accomplish to ensure no further damage to live, property, and the community.

Answer each question separately. Do not write a whole paragraph for all of them.

Reference to appropriate authoritative resources and official websites. Must be accessible online. Use New Times Roman 12 font with 1” margins and APA style.

Helpful Readings:

- Stilp, R. and Bevelacqua, A.; Emergency Medical Response to Hazardous Material Incidents, ISBN-10: 0-8273-7829-7 DELMAR CENGAGE Learning.

- Cashman; Emergency Response Handbook for Chemical and Biological Agents and Weapons, second edition, ISBN 978-1-4200-5265-7 (CRC Press).

Unformatted Attachment Preview

Ammonia Refrigeration Risks and Response Priorities ◼ ◼ ◼ ◼ NO impact to the public NO risk to emergency responders Safety of the FD is absolutely #1 Accountability of facility personnel and FD is vital to a successful outcome External Forces ◼ ◼ ◼ ◼ ◼ ◼ ◼ ◼ ◼ Natural Gas Inert Gases-nitrogen etc. Electrical explosion Railroad Truck impact Airplane Human error Flammables/Fire Other chemicals in facility External Forces ◼ ◼ Terrorism Sabotage Anhydrous Ammonia Properties, Uses, Hazards, and Response Physical properties ◼ ◼ ◼ ◼ ◼ ◼ Without water Normal Boiling Point –28 °F Saturation pressure 181 psia at 90 ºF Density 35-40 lb/ft3 (L), 0.02-0.9 lb/ft3 (V) Latent heat 450-600 BTU/lb Freezing point –107.7 ºF Exposure Limits ◼ PEL (Permissible Exposure Limit) • 50 ppm (Federal) • 35 ppm (NIOSH) ◼ IDLH (Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health) • 300 ppm (Federal) • 300 ppm (NIOSH) Acute Toxicity of Anhydrous Ammonia Toxicology of Ammonia ◼ ◼ ◼ ◼ Anhydrous Ammonia is “without water”, kept as a liquid under pressure. When released expands to a gas phase or “vapor”. Is Highly Toxic due to its Corrosive effects, similar to Lye (or Sodium Hydroxide)continues to penetrate tissues after contact. However, it is not a Systemic Poison, no damage at the enzymatic level of cells (unlike for example- Cyanide). Upper Airway and Lung ◼ ◼ ◼ ◼ ◼ ◼ Direct tissue damage results in: Swelling, spasm of the upper airway with closure. Sloughing of the tracheal lining with inability to breathe. Bleeding of tissue. Direct Lung damage- airway spasm (asthma), wet/leaky lungs (pulmonary edema). Poor Oxygenation, Lung Failure, Death. Skin ◼ ◼ ◼ Second Degree Burns (skin red and blistering) and Third Degree (full thickness burns- leathery skin without feeling) are not uncommon outcomes (see attached photo). Results in marked fluid loss, severe pain, mechanical constriction (chest), shock and infections (confirmed in animal studies). 3 Mechanisms: Cryogenic (-28°F), Thermal, and Chemical. Simple flushing with water cannot fully reverse these effects and skin damage continues. Eyes ◼ ◼ ◼ Burns to the Eyes and severe corrosive damage can occur along with pain. Loss of vision and Eye globe loss can occur. Penetration of the eye by ammonia can occur within 5 seconds- water dilution is often ineffective. Conclusions ◼ ◼ ▪ Anhydrous Ammonia has the potential to produce Death or Serious Toxicity with Long Term adverse effects. Actual Exposures Clearly Shows the Acute and Chronic Medical Effects Expected from Significant Anhydrous Ammonia Exposure. Ammonia Systems Designed to Prevent Inadvertent Ammonia Release Saves Lives and Reduces Serious Injuries. Toxicity Levels ◼ ◼ ◼ ◼ ◼ ◼ ◼ 5-50 ppm odor detected 50 ppm OK 8 hr (OSHA PEL limit) <300 ppm air purifying respirator (IDLH) >1000 ppm SCBA with Level A suit 5000 ppm FATAL!!! Unknown PPM- Always wear SCBA!!!!! Highest respiratory protection Flammability ◼ ◼ ◼ ◼ ◼ ◼ ◼ Small (nonflammable for transport) Confined spaces = possible Levels very high (160,000-280,000ppm) Ventilation = safety!! High ignition energy!!! Oil or other entrained combustibles widen flammable region (40,000-70,000) Extended heat above 840 ºF = H2/N2 decomposition Odor ◼ ◼ ◼ The best thing about ammonia is that it stinks! – Milton Garland Human-detectable at 5-50 ppm Unpleasant • Normal human reaction at 50 ppm is to run • Irritating-eyes tear/nose runs • Possible panic hazard ◼ Excellent warning properties Hazards of Compressed Gases ◼ ◼ ◼ ◼ ◼ ◼ Pressure release Burns, cryogenic-frostbite BLEVE Asphyxiation Toxicity-acute and chronic Reactivity BLEVE ◼ ◼ ◼ ◼ ◼ Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapor Explosion Ammonia First Aid ◼ ◼ Skin contactFlush with large quantities of water for at least 15 minutes while removing clothing InhalationRemove from exposure. If breathing has stopped or difficult, administer artificial respiration or oxygen as needed. Ammonia First Aid ◼ Eye contactFlush with large amount of water for at least 15 minutes. Always seek medical attention!!! Hazardous Material Incident Safety ◼ ◼ ◼ General Safety Considerations Safety Do’s and Don’t’s Establish Hazard Zones (q)(2) Elements of an emergency response plan. (v) Site security and control. Hot Line Warm Zone Wind Access Control Points Contamination area Hot Zone Control Line Warm Zone Cold Zone Safety Rules ◼ ◼ ◼ ◼ ◼ Protect Yourself- Use Safe Approach Identify Hazards Secure the Scene Obtain Further Aid and Assistance Safe Site Entry Types of Refrigeration Releases ◼ Typical • Liquid lockup between valves • Seal/packing leak • Relief valve release • Poor pumpout • Heating isolated equipment • Oil-draining errors ◼ Possible • Pressure vessel rupture BLEVE • Explosion ◼ ◼ Released ammonia Ammonia-oil mist • Fire ◼ ◼ ◼ ◼ Refrigeration oil (high flash point, though) Flammable liquids and gases, etc. Electrical Poor housekeeping • Coil rupture-condensers (indoor/outdoor) • Ammonia delivery Other releases ◼ Ammonia down drain • Floor • Storm • Sanitary • Retention Pond ◼ Pipe rupture • Corrosion under insulation • Forklift impact Emergency Response for Ammonia Small leaks ◼ ◼ ◼ ◼ ◼ ◼ Personal Protective Equipment Stop source Stand upwind Water spray/fog (NEVER on liquid!) Contain runoff-watch drains Disposal • Clean,dilute = agricultural fertilizer • Sewerable • Keep away from water systems-rivers, streams, ponds EMERGENCY RESPONSE TEAM ROLES ERT ROLES Command Post ◼ Location where all incident operations are directed and planning functions are performed ◼ ERT Room is Command Post (CP) for internal incidents ◼ CP will be established at time of an external incidents – Uphill, upwind ERT ROLES Command Post ◼ All ERT members will initially meet in Command Post for briefing and planning response ◼ One support person will remain at the CP for documenting times & actions taken ERT ROLES Emergency Response Team consists of: ◼ Incident Commander ◼ Safety Officer ◼ 2 Entry Responders ◼ 2 Rescue/Backup Responders ◼ 1 Decon Officer ◼ Support Personnel ERT ROLES Incident Commander Safety/ Medical Entry Team Rescue/Back Up Team Decon Team Support Members EMERGENCY RESPONSE EMERGENCY RESPONSE Site Control 1. Set up security and physical barriers 2. Minimize persons and equipment responding 3. Establish work zones 4. Establish control points 5. Conduct safe operations 6. Implement appropriate decontamination procedures. EMERGENCY RESPONSE Work Zones: Hot Zone (Exclusion Zone) Warm Zone (Contamination Reduction Zone) Cold Zone (Support Zone) HOT ZONE WARM ZONE COLD ZONE Indoor releases ◼ ◼ ◼ ◼ ◼ ◼ Evacuate Shut OFF Ventilate or Fog vapor releases only NO CO2 / Vinegar Be careful of explosion hazard Outdoor releases ◼ Major issues • Cloud dispersion • Containment/runoff ◼ Evacuations typical for 1500 ft or so • Mainly odor issue (panic) • Also precautionary when amount not known ◼ Water knockdown useful, if streams, ponds protected Ammonia-Fire Potential ◼ ◼ ◼ ◼ ◼ ◼ ◼ Boilers in Engine room Poor housekeeping-combustibles Oil drums Spent ammonia/oil Flammable liquids (gasoline, acetone etc) Flammable gases (ie propane, acetylene) Lift trucks and scissor lifts B.S.A.F.E. ◼ ◼ ◼ ◼ ◼ Burns-thermal, chemical, cold Striking objects-pressure, vehicle Asphyxiation-acute, chronic Falls-heights, foot level,roof,ladder Energy-electrocution, air, hydraulic, mechanical, steam, AMMONIA Upwind and Uphill Definition: the direction from which the wind is coming. ALWAYS WANT TO BE UPWIND AND UPHILL!!!! D.E.C.I.D.E. Process ◼ ◼ ◼ ◼ ◼ ◼ Detect hazardous materials presence Estimate likely harm without intervention Choose response objectives Identify action options Do the best option Evaluate progress Scene Control Guidelines ◼ ◼ ◼ ◼ ◼ Set up perimeters quickly on arrival Move people out of and away from area Gain control of access routes Be prepared for shifts in wind direction Use appropriate resources for perimeter control Emergency Response Plan Review ◼ ◼ ◼ ◼ ◼ Resources-Internal Resources-External Duties and Responsibilities of ER Members Mitigation and Control Techniques Decontamination Procedures ...
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Final Answer



Disaster Management




Hazardous Materials and Industrial Safety in Disaster Management
March 2016 Boston Warehouse
In this incident that happened in Seaport District in South Boston, an ammonia leak saw
one worker die at a seafood warehouse. The casualty was trapped in the building and the rescuers
could not access him. At the time of their arrival, the strong fumes barred them from accessing
him. According to John Walsh who is the Boston Fire Chief of Operations the rescuers were
pushed back by the fierce fire resulting from the ammonia leakage. This example is one of the
demonstrations of how chemical disasters can be a huge danger to industrial safety.
August 2010 Millard Refrigerated Services in Alabama
This incident involved anhydrous ammonia released at the Millard Refrigerated Services
in A...

Timesaver (20100)
Carnegie Mellon University

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