Development Projects and Programmes: Assignment 2020
There is one 3,000 word assignment which is to do with a Project Proposal –details
later- which is due on a date to be confirmed (50% marks). This is an exercise that
involves the majority of the techniques covered in the module. You will be asked to work
up a project proposal from a range of potential options in an imaginary developing
Background to the State of Maendeleo:
All the projects are in an imaginary state of Maendeleo in South Asia. Maendeleo
has a large population of approximately 80 million. It has its own coastline and access to
the sea. It coastal belt is relatively flat and potentially exposed to cyclones. It has a range
of climatic regions but is broadly sub-tropical and tropical to semi-arid. It has a distinct
rainy season and dry season with a typical Asian monsoon climate. It also lies on a major
geological fault line.
Maendeleo has a range of agricultural systems and related population densities. The
Costal area is mainly associated with Rice Production and is densely populated.
Meanwhile other areas of the State are less densely populated and are semi-arid. The
capital city has a population of 7 million and is an important centre for IT, software
development, manufacturing and the service sector. There is a relatively balanced urban
hierarchy with three urban centres in the 1-3 million range and some level of devolution
of industrial and service activity. Nevertheless the IT sector is concentrated in the capital.
The main system of local Government is the District. In total there are 43 Districts –
both urban and rural. The local Government is responsible for primary health and
education, and economic development.
The country is a multi-party and competitive political system with broadly two main
political parties. It has a good democratic reputation – historically with losing
governments accepting defeat without any problems. Nevertheless the politics are to a
large extent dominated by patronage and there is a moderate level of corruption.
Politically the country is quite nationalist and it is relatively easy for opposition parties to
criticize the national government for the “shame” of accepting foreign assistance. There
is a vibrant and well organised Civil Society organization which includes local NGOs,
Trade Unions and Faith based groups. The State Governor (the political leader of the
party in control) is one of the few politicians in the region (South and South East Asia)
that takes HIV/Aids as a series problem and is widely admired by the international
community for this political stand. He is also alert to the importance of the IT sector and
the potential negative effects of climate change.
Overall Maendeleo is a low to middle income country although it still has significant
poverty issues. The latest data suggest that 30% of the Population are below the poverty
line in the rural areas of Maendeleo while the equivalent urban figure is 25%. Life
expectancy is 67 for women and 65 for men. The education and skills are relatively good
with literacy rates of 87% for men and 73% for women. Maendeleo also has a relatively
well developed tertiary education sector. This means that there is a surplus of
professionally and technically qualified labour; indeed Maendeleo has a significant but
modest stream of migrants who hold down well qualified positions in the North and in
the Gulf States. Furthermore there is a small but thriving local consultancy business.
Maendeleo is also composed of different ethnic and linguistic groups; different religions;
caste groups and a small but significantly disadvantaged group of forest dwellers who
have not historically been associated with settled agriculture. Nevertheless this diversity is
usually not a source of tension or conflict; however it can on occasions be mobilised by
populist politicians, especially in urban areas. The religious divide is potentially more
problematic than the class or caste differences. While gender relations have improved
the State remains broadly patriarchal and women (and children) remain disadvantaged.
While the level of security is good there remain pockets of militant politics and terrorist
activity and gender based violence is still fairly common.
The Ulaya Aid is the aid agency (bilateral) of a European State. It has a medium sized
office in the capital city that is responsible for its aid programme. Its management
responsibilities vary on a project by project basis depending upon local circumstances
and other factors; these vary from directly managing projects; to sub-contraction to other
situations where its role is simply monitoring and evaluation.
In practice it broadly but not exclusively follows the Guidelines associated with the EU
Project Cycle Guidelines (2004). Ulaya is a member state of the European Union. In
Policy terms it has a very strong commitment to the following objectives:
A commitment to donor Harmonisation and the Paris 2005 Declaration
A commitment to the SDGs
Poverty reduction and the empowerment of Women
The importance of Environmental sustainability and climate change
A commitment to Democracy and Human Rights
A commitment to Value for Money and a commitment to illustrate success to its
voters in Europe
Your task is to work up one of the following ideas into a project proposal for funding from your HQ in
Political empowerment project
This project is a project that is aimed at political empowerment. This will involve the
Donor agency in collaboration with a local agency in funding Civil Society Organization
(CSO) to lobby the State Government to make it a) more accountable and responsive to
the poor and b) improve its service delivery for the poor. The CSOs will be funded on
basis of competitive applications to fund their work.
The grants that can be awarded are in the range of £100,000 to £150,000 per annum to
any CSO organization. The grants will only cover 50% of the relevant activity in any
application; the remaining 50% must be met by the CSO. The Donor is particularly
concerned that this process should be seen to be transparent. In addition it is very eager
to be able to account for its funds and how they are spent.
It is estimated that the project overall budget will be in the region of £4 million over a
five year period. The mechanism for channelling the funds to the relevant CSOs is
currently under review; at present this is implemented by the Aid Agencies own staff but
this is becoming problematic as they do not have at present sufficient resources, time and
personnel allocated to this task.
SUSTP (State Urban Small Town Project)
SUSTP is a project which is concerned to support urban centres of between 100,000 and
250,000 in population. There are 24 such urban centres in the State. It is not anticipated
that the project will support all 24 centres in this the first phase of the project. The
project will provide for each small urban centre identified the following: funds to be used
for a) basic infrastructure for slum improvement this is primarily funds for water supply,
roads and drains. In addition there are funds (b) for technical support for the
municipality to improve its revenue base by increased local taxation and improving the
financial performance of the municipality. Finally there are funds (c) that can be used by
relevant CSOs in supporting and improving urban service delivery.
It is estimated that the overall budget is in the region of £20 million over five years. The
water supply and roads for a typical slum is approximately£2 to £3 million in total. It is
anticipated that the technical assistance support per small town will be in the region of
£300,000 per annum for consultancy services to improve local revenue collection. For
each town approximately £200,000 is the approximate annual figure for local CSOs.
The costal area of Maendeleo has recently suffered a major disaster from flooding as a
result of a cyclone. An area of approximately 100 kms of coast up to a depth of three
kms inland has been badly flooded. The flood has now ceased but there are major
problems of rehabilitation: there has been some damage to the transport infrastructure: a
substantial amount of housing has been destroyed; the agricultural sector of paddy rice
has been badly affected and finally a large number of small enterprises have been
destroyed. It is estimated that 50,000 individuals have been affected. This relief
programme is to be primarily implemented by the Maendeleo government. It is estimated
that 10 km of basic road needs to be rehabilitated and that this will cost £ 200,000 per
km and will create some limited employment. 5km of this network is deemed as essential
to facilitate the overall relief effort.
Ulaya Aid seeks to work with the Maendeleo Government but also with local NGOs.
The Government is committed to £3million which the Ulaya Aid will match with a
contribution of £3million. There are also significant other Aid Agencies both donor and
NGO working in the region. It is yet not clear how much funds they are committing;
furthermore there are substantial problems of coordination.
HIV/Aids Health Programme
Ulaya Aid is eager to develop a HIV/Aids project in Maendeleo. This is seen as
important as having a “demonstration effect” in the region that the pandemic can be
addressed. The Programme will involve setting up a special unit in the Ministry of Health
in the capital; it will also seek to work with the Ministry of Education on mainstreaming
education on HIV/Aids throughout the state. There are also funds for providing ARVs
on a pilot basis on a few selected Districts. There are also funds for HIV/Aids testing
again on a pilot basis.
The overall budget is £5 million while the figures, are not accurate the best estimates are
that the infection rate is 1% to 2% of the population which is 8,000 to 16,000 people in
an average district. A course of ARVs is estimated at £120 over five years per person in
terms of the cost of the drugs. A health clinic to provide the ARVs and the testing will
require £500,000 in capital costs and the annual staff costs are £100,000 to £200,000
depending upon the number of staff employed.
NGO Vocational Training Project
Ulaya Aid is seeking to scale up and replicate a successful NGO led Vocational Training
project in one of the major slums in the capital city. The NGO Workfare International
runs vocational training courses for young people (age 18-25) to train them in a practical
skill –e.g. car mechanics, construction skills, and garment and cloth manufacturing- with
a view to placing the individuals in permanent employment. It also gives them
placements in local business which can give the trainees employment opportunities.
Workfare has built up a series of partnerships with local employers who have supported
the project. This has been built over the years and is partly based on a long term
commitment to the slum and the charismatic leadership of the CEO of Workfare
Ulaya Aid has earmarked £500,000 to support similar schemes in other slums and
districts in the State. This will include Workfare International but also other International
NGOs. As a guideline the existing Workfare training centre has an annual budget of
£70,000 but this does not include the rent for its centre and payment for the majority of
the training staff who are volunteers. It is estimated that annual rent in similar areas
would be £20,000 in an urban area and £5,000 in a rural district. The cost of the training
staff is approximately £20,000 in urban areas and £15,000 in rural areas.
Public Private Sector pilot project for climate change.
The project is to support innovation to support the climate change agenda of the
Government of Maendeleo. The idea is to establish an agency at the centre that will fund
pilot projects to address climate change. This will include mitigation projects –which aim
to reduce the production of greenhouse gases but also adaption projects which aim to
reduce the impact of the negative effects of climate change. (It is likely that these will be
mainly to address extreme weather events.) Furthermore it is stated that the proposed
projects with involve partnerships between the private and the public sector. It is
anticipated that the majority of the projects will come from local government but other
agencies –the private sector, faith based organisation and other third sector agencies- will
be allowed to bid.
The overall budget for this project is £20 million from Ulaya Aid. This must fund a
central agency that will approve and monitor projects. There is also the provision of
funds to support the development of bids but on a selective basis. It is intended that any
potential bid will require quite a lot of support to work up and develop the proposals,
given the complexity of the public private partnership that will be funded. No individual
project will exceed £3 million and that no project will be funded of less than £500,000.
The funding mechanism, the balance between mitigation and adaption projects is not
pre-determined but it is expected that both will be funded and that there should be some
representation of the different ecological regions of the country. Furthermore the
criteria for project approval and the process remain to be determined.
Section A: Proposal
Your Proposal Broadly speaking you should follow the EU guidelines for a Project
Concept note p.32. The box below is a modification of the EU guidelines. You should
structure your application for funding using the following headings.
1. Policy and Programme context –this should include a simple statement of the
context of the project.
2. Stakeholder analysis and discussion of who will be the beneficiaries of the
project and the relevant stakeholders.
3. Preliminary project description –including an indicative Logical Framework
4. Indicative resource and cost implications –including an indicative budget
5. Discussion of the Management and implementation issues -including a simple
6. Finally a discussion of how the risks with the project identified in the above
sections will be managed
Your task is to work up one of the following ideas into a project proposal for funding
from your HQ in Europe. The word total for the proposal should not exceed 3000
words (this includes all the elments of the proposal).
Twende Project Proposal
Policy and Programme Context
Pasaka is a multi-country county in sub-Saharan Africa. The country's climate is harsh, and
climate change will cause severe drought and flood events. Pasaka's main crop is maize, but
there is also large-scale cultivation of sisal, sugar, coffee and tea. The country's population
distribution mainly depends on annual rainfall. The country is multi-party and has a pluralistic
and competitive political system. The Pasaka local government is responsible for basic services
and local economic growth. This low- to middle-income African country has serious poverty
challenges. About 45% of the population is below the poverty line in rural areas and 37% in
urban areas. The country has enacted relevant laws to promote gender equality, but gender
discrimination still exists in many areas. Education systems and infrastructure in some of the
poorer areas of Pasaka are very underdeveloped. Nordic Aid is a Scandinavian aid agency, it will
implement specific measures according to different actual conditions. Nordic aid tends to
follow instructions related to the EU Project Cycle Guide (2004) and it has a strong commitment
to self-defined goals. The goal of the Nordic aid broadly aligns with the actual situation in
This project proposal for Twende will analyze the project plan from five aspects. To better
implement the development plan, we conducted a stakeholder analysis. Each part of the plan
has a different focus. The main beneficiaries are community residents, especially children,
women, the elderly, farmers and businessmen. The county council is the target group for this
project, and it will achieve common goals. The plan is mainly divided into three parts. The first
is to strengthen the administrative management of county councils. The second is to strengthen
local infrastructure construction, such as road construction and water conservancy projects.
The third is to develop health and education. The plan's indicative budget is mainly divided into
three areas, namely the different stages of the development project, the infrastructure and
development projects of the three counties. To ensure that the plan can proceed smoothly, in
terms of management, we will set up a project implementation unit. According to the specific
aspects of the project, create posts in different categories, and recruit qualified personnel. In
addition, we will use various implementation tools in this project. The project covers multiple
parts, and different levels of problems will occur during the operation of each part. To ensure
that the project is not affected, we will also conduct risk management.
For the stakeholder analysis, a list of actors and interest groups have been prepared according to
who might be affected and who can influence the project. Though the end users or beneficiaries
are the same, that is the citizens of target areas, the project has three different components as
already mentioned. These three components have some common stakeholders and some
stakeholders affected by only one component.
Likely impact Priority
of the project
1. Local community
Improved public service
communication Better water
Ease in collecting water
4. Aged people
Better health service
Ensured water supply
Improved roads to sell their
crops to markets
7. Local labour
Opportunity for work
8. County council
9. Council staff
10. Project staff
Getting employment and
Ownership of the project
11. Local elites or
12. Consultancy firms Getting work opportunity
13. Resource persons Job opportunities
for training local
15. Medical staff or
NGOs (health, Achieving common
17. Ministry of Local
18. Ministry of
19. Ministry of
20. Ministry of Water Achieving common
Matrix Classification of Stakeholders according to Importance and Interest:
*(2, 4, 6)
*(13, 14, 15)
*(17, 18, 19, 20)
Primary beneficiaries of the project are community people, particularly children, women, aged
people, farmers and local traders. Health projects will provide special benefits to children,
pregnant women, aged people and people with limited mobility. Education projects will focus on
the children and illiterate adults. Water supply initiatives will ensure agricultural activities in the
dry season which will benefit the farmers and it will provide safe drinking water for the
households. Improving road communication will help the community to be connected with
growth centres and access the public services and receiv ...
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