Writing
WU Community Leaders Impact in School Community Partnership Bibliography

Walden University

Question Description

I don’t know how to handle this Writing question and need guidance.

I have already written the paper but the annotated bibliography portion of my paper is lacking.

I have already found all the articles that will be used they just need to annotated. I will attach a copy of my paper and I will attach some examples of annotated bibliography highlighted in yellow.

The first portion of the annotated bibliography should be summarizes the source. It outlines the main findings and primary methods of the study.

This second portion of the annotation analyzes the source. It explains the benefits of the source but also the limitations.

This third portion of the annotation applies the source. It explains how the source’s ideas, research, and information can be applied to my paper.

Comments from my professor: a minimum of fifteen relevant, scholarly and timely sources [preferred within three to five years]. Within each annotation is three statements. An article/source overview, what was discovered/determined and how does the source relate to the specific proposed work.

I highlighted the areas in all the attachment two are just examples the one that needs work is labeled my annotated prospectus in that I have also highlighted in the reference area the full article so that you can look them up. If by some chance you cant find one just let me know and I will send an attachment to you.

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Prospectus Understanding the Community Leader’s Impact in School-Community Partnership in Urban Education Understanding the Community Leader’s Impact in School-Community Partnership in Urban Education Background 1. Authors Lenhoff, Pogodzinski, and Jones (2019) used the Advocacy Coalition Framework to study how community organizations create their own structures to change education policy. The project also applied the qualitative method to analyze how coalition members’ implemented policies for the Detroit School District. 2. Smith, Ralston, Naegele, and Waggoner (2019) explored a district-community partnership including seven nonprofit community organizations serving five elementary schools in an urban neighborhood. This study provides insight of how a collective impact improved student literacy. 3. In a case study on community partnership and district leadership transition, LeChasseur (2017) indicated the importance of recruitment and retention of school-community partnerships by ensuring community member alignment with a shared theory of change. 4. In a study on four rural early childhood development schools to improve teaching and learning conditions in Zimbabwe, Bhengu and Svosve (2019) support partnering with parents and various community organizations to meet the high need of resources for early childhood students. This article affirms school leadership requires community support to improve student achievement. 5. Researchers Youn, Patrick, Baldwin, Chabani et al. (2019) study provided strong evidence community-based partnerships are needed to address challenges when implementing evidence-based models of community collaborations. 6. Ortega, McAlvain, Briant, Hohl, and Thompson (2018) interviewed healthcare advisory board members of academic-partnerships who perceived their involvement as a 1 representative of the community, a knowledgeable insider of the neighborhood, and had a clear understanding of their partnership role. 7. Casto, Sipple, and McCabe (2016) reveal the success of a school-community partnership relates to the increase vitality of a community implying thriving communities have stronger community support than developing and high-risk neighborhoods. 8. Groundwork Ohio (2018) advocates for children in Ohio to receive quality early education to ensure kindergarten readiness that leads to successful postsecondary options. This advocacy group has found success collaborating with community organizations to educate key decision makers the importance of early learning as the most transformative strategy for improve school improvement. Framework The applied framework for this study will focus on Masmuto and Brown-Welty (2009) transformative Research Questions Nature of Study This will be a qualitative study to explore the leadership styles of community organization leaders who partner with schools in urban schools. This qualitative approach will explore the community leaders’ perspectives of school-community partnerships and their impact in urban education. Possible Types and Sources of Data 1. Interview two directors from non-profit organization and a private foundation who have initiated a collective impact model within the public-school district. 2 2. Observing and shadowing the two community leaders to discover best practices in leadership when collaborating with urban schools. 3 References Au, W., & Ferrare, J. (2015). Mapping corporate education reform: Power, policy, networks in neoliberal states. New York, NY: Routledge. Bhengu, T. T., & Svosve, E. (2019). Transforming education through school-community partnerships: Lessons from four rural early childhood development schools in Zimbabwe. Africa Education Review, 16(2), 16–35. doi:10.1080/18146627.2016.1257918 Brezicha, K., Bergmark, U., & Mitra, D. (2015). One size does not fit all: Differentiating leadership to support teachers in school reform. Educational Administration Quarterly, 51(1), 96-132. doi: 10.1177/0013161X14521632 Casto, H. G., Sipple, J. W., & McCabe, L. A. (2016). A typology of school–community relationships. Educational Policy, 30(5), 659–687. doi: 10.1177/0895904814557770 Creswell, J. (2009). Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches (3rd ed.). Erscheinungsort nicht ermittelbar: SAGE Publications. Dantley, M.E., Tillman, L.C. (2012). Leadership for change in education for laureate education. Boston, MA: Pearson Learning Solutions. Duncheon, J. C., & Relles, S. R. (2019). Brokering College Opportunity for First-Generation Youth: The Role of the Urban High School. American Educational Research Journal, 56(1), 146–177. https://doi.org/10.3102/0002831218788335 Epstein, J.L. & Sheldon, B. (2016). Necessary but not sufficient: The role of policy for advancing programs of school, family, and community partnerships. RSF: The Russell Sage Foundation Journal of the Social Sciences, 2(5), 202-219. doi:10.7758/rsf.2016.2.5.10. 4 Green, T. (2015). Leading for urban school reform and community development. Educational Administration, 51(5), 679-711. doi: 10.1177/0013161X15577694. Gross, J.M., Haines, S.J., Hill, C., Francis, G.L., Blue-Banning, M., & Turnbull, A.P. (2015). Strong school–community partnerships in inclusive schools are “Part of the Fabric of the School.…We Count on Them”. The School Community Journal, 25(2), pp.9-34. Retrieved from http://www.schoolcommunitynetwork.org/SCJ.aspx Gross, S.J. & Shapiro, J.P. (2016). Democratic ethical educational leadership: Reclaiming school reform. New York, NY: Routledge. Groundwork Ohio (2018). 2018 Impact Report. Retrieved from https://docs.wixstatic.com/ugd/d2fbfd_9ecae149f597489fb9d2a25bb668adc4.pdf Hargreaves, A. & Ainscow, M. (n.d.). The top and bottom of leadership and change. PHI DELTA KAPPAN, 97(3), 42–48. doi:10.1177/0031721715614828 LeChasseur, K. (2017). Sustaining Community Partnership across Transition in District Leadership. Journal of Cases in Educational Leadership, 20(3), 3–17. doi: 10.1177/1555458916679207 com.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/login.aspx?direct=true&db=eric&AN=EJ1149824&site=eds -live&scope=site. Lenhoff, S. W., Lewis, J. M., Pogodzinski, B. & Jones, R. D. (2019). “Triage, transition, and transformation”: Advocacy discourse in urban school reform. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 27(31–33), 1–31. doi: 10.14507/epaa.27.423 Masumoto, M. & Brown-Whelty, S. (2009). Case study of leadership practices and schoolcommunity interrelationships in high-performing, high-poverty, rural California High Schools. 5 Journal of Research in Rural Education, 24(1), pp1-18. Retrieved from http://jrre.psu.edu/articles/24-1.pdf McAlister, S. (2013). Why community engagement matters in school turnaround. Voices in Urban Education, 36, pp35-42. Retrieved from https://searchebscohostcom.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/login.aspx?direct=true&db=eric&AN=EJ1046328 &site=eds -live&scope=site McCullick, B. A., & Tomporowski, P. D. (2018). Physical activity and learning after school: The PAL program. New York: The Guilford Press. Ortega, S., McAlvain, M. S., Briant, K. J., Hohl, S., & Thompson, B. (2018). Perspectives of community advisory board members in a community-academic partnership. Journal of Health Care for The Poor and Underserved, 29(4), 1529–1543. Johns Hopkins University Press. ISSN 1548-6869. Peck, C. & Reitzug, U. (2017). Discount stores, discount(ed) community? Parent engagement, community outreach, and an urban turnaround school. Education and Urban Society, 50(8), 675-696. doi:10.1177/0013124517713819. Saldana, ̃ J. (2016). The coding manual for qualitative researchers (3rd ed.). Los Angeles, CA: SAGE. Schueler, B. E. (2019). A third way: The politics of school district takeover and turnaround in Lawrence, Massachusetts. Educational Administration Quarterly,55(1), 116-153. doi:10.1177/0013161x18785873 Smith, R., Ralston, N., Naegele, Z., & Waggoner, J. (2019). Connecting the classroom and the community: Exploring the collective impact of one district-community 6 partnership. Educational Forum, 83(1), 44–59. Retrieved from https://searchebscohostcom.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/login.aspx?direct=true&db=eric&AN=EJ1200891 &site=eds -live&scope=site. Suh, R. (2019). External Partnering with Public Schools. Salem Press Encyclopedia. Retrieved from https://searchebscohostcom.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/login.aspx?direct=true&db=ers&AN=89164214&s ite=edslive&scope=site. Thompson, R., Jocius, R. (2017). Collective impact: What does it mean for educational leaders? AASA Journal of Scholarship and Practice, 14(2), 4-14, 11. Valli, L., Stefanski, A., & Jacobson, R. (2016). School-community partnership models: Implications for leadership. International Journal of Leadership in Education,21(1), 3149. doi:10.1080/13603124.2015.1124925. Winston, S. & Evans, M.P. (2016). Consulting, mediating, conducting, and supporting: How community-based organizations engage with research to influence policy. Leadership and Policy in Schools, 15(1), 4-25. doi:10.1080/15700763.2015.1052522 Youn, S. J., Valentine, S. E., Patrick, K. A., Baldwin, M., Chablani-Medley, A., Aguilar Silvan, Y., Shtasel, D.L., & Marques, L. (2019). Practical solutions for sustaining long-term academic-community partnerships. Psychotherapy, 56(1), 115–125. doi: 10.1037/pst0000188 7 1 Prospectus Principals’ Reported Knowledge Regarding Special Education Laws and Regulations for Relationship to Service Compliance 2 Prospectus: Principals’ Reported Knowledge Regarding Special Education Laws and Regulations for Relationship to Service Compliance Problem Statement There is little to no research on principals’ practical and applied knowledge of special education laws and regulations in relation to the provision of mandated services (Roberts & Guerra, 2017). Primary and secondary school principals often lack knowledge regarding laws and regulations governing special education, and administrative roles and responsibilities, which contributes to non-compliance (Roberts & Guerra, 2017). The focus of this study will be determining principals’ reported knowledge regarding special education laws, regulations and special education services adminstrtaion and supervision. The proportion of special needs students within public schools grew rapidly over the past decade and the complexity of disabilities and service provisioan models has increased the demands on principals’ ability to deliver special needs services (Samuels, 2016). With the expansion of individuals qualifying for special services, the need for principals well-versed in special education law and regualtions must increase to ensure compliance with special education laws and regulations (Berman, 2018). Special education involves supporting the unique needs of each identified student to develop in all areas of cognitive and academic development (Berman, 2018). Children with special needs require instructional modifications to develop academically and personally (Roberts & Guerra, 2017). However, many school administrators have different perceptions of administrative roles in ensuring instructional modifications and system supports required for special needs students (Lynch, 2016). Principal’s level of knowledge of laws and regulations governing special education, and regulated administrative roles and responsibilities should be studied for relationship to non-compliance and inadequate provision of special education services within assigned schools. 3 Purpose The purpose of the proposed qualitative case study using interviews is to investigate principals’ knowledge of special education laws and regulations for relationship to provision of mandated services (Roberts & Guerra, 2017). Principal’s knowledge regarding laws and regulations governing special education is a necessary predicate to fully comply and deliver high quality special needs services (Schulze & Boscardin, 2018). Many principals are unaware of mandatory roles in the delivery of special education services within assigned schools unknowingly contributing to or sustaining non-complaince (Schulze & Boscardin, 2018). Semistructured interviews of 12 to 15 middle school principals will be engaged to collect data to determine whether middle school administrators are aware of mandate roles and responsibilities of special education laws and regulations and whether each engage the roles to actively contribute to a school’s compliance and the contributing factors as to why or why not their school is in compliance (Savin-Baden & Major, 2013). Significance Within public middle and secondary schools, the incidents of non-compliance within special education service delivery exposing districts to mediation and litigation are on the rise (Samuels, 2016). Research indicates in schools were non-compliance is perpetuated, principals are neither knowledgeable of special education laws and regulations nor mandated roles in special education administration and supervision (Schulze & Boscardin, 2018). Understanding educational leaders’ practical knowledge of the educational needs for students with disabilities is important to the implementation of quality programs, and the creation of conducive environments that can facilitate delivery of appropriate knowledge in a appropriate manner to students with special needs (Mosley, Boscardin, & Wells, 2014). The discoveries that transpire 4 from this study may guide in the future preparation and development of prinicpals who lack the knowledge on what is necessary to keep their school in compliance with special education laws and regulations. The phenomenon of prinipals’ perception of special education knowledge correlates with the constructivist epistemology and ontology that students with disabilities need special programs to facilitate their learning. Existing programs in educational institutions are not always inclusive of students with special needs (Lynch, 2012). The national average of schools with special needs students is approximately 13%. The settings for the study are Texas schools. These schools are appropriate for the phenomena of interest because 8.8% of the student population have special needs (National Center for Education Statistics, 2015). The possible sources of data would be the school principals, assistant principals, teachers, special education team leader, and public school records. Many educational administrators are challenged with modifying academic facilitation to fit the learning needs of all students (Roberts & Guerra, 2017). As most principals lack the course work and field experience needed to lead and produce learning environments that highlight academic success for special education student, school administrators should have fundamental knowledge and skills to perform essential special education tasks (Dipaola & Walther-Thomas, 2003). Principals often believe that students with special needs can learn in same environments as the regular education students, and such biases in their perceptions lead to the implementation of programs that are not all-inclusive for special education students (Schulze & Boscardin, 2018). 5 Background Literature Selected articles relating to administrators’ perceptions on their knowledge of special education and the role of special education training during administrators’ preparation are described here: 1. Bateman et al. (2017), Christensen et al. (2013), Hussey et al. (2019), Council for Exceptional Children (2015) & (2018) and the Council of Chief School Officers (2017) provided research on whether principals were provided with enough comprehensive knowledge as related to special education during leadership preparation programs, 2. Lynch (2012) & (2016), Losinski et al. (2017), and Leckie (2016) provided suggestions for principal preparation programs to better prepare principals for the role and responsibilities of being leaders to students with disabilities and effective instruction for students with disabilities. 3. Roberts & Guerra (2017), Rose (2018), Schechter & Feldman (2019) and Popham et al. (2017) provided areas that principals felt they needed additional support and content regarding special education laws. 4. Schulze & Boscardin (2018) and Thompson (2017) provided the effects of school principals with and without special education background and demographic variable on the perceptions of leadership styles. 5. Articles and books focusing on compliance within special education include Tingley (2017), Robertson (2016), Sun et al. (2020) and Voulgarides (2018.) 6 Theoretical Framework Leadership plays a critical role in the administration of education for special needs students. The theoretical framework for this study will be Burns’ (1978) theory of transformational leadership it will explore the crucial aspects of leadership behavior to demonstrate a model for leadership development necessary to set the right atmosphere for knowledge acquisition for the administration of special needs education. Leadership is the process of defining the current circumstances and highlighting goals for the future; making appropriate decisions to resolve the situation and attain the set goals; and gaining the right level of commitment from the right individuals to implement the decisions. The Transformational Theory of leadership is appropriate in this framework. Transformational theory of leadership suggest leaders inspire the followers to surpass their own self-interests for the progression of the organization. The leaders pay more attention to the developmental needs as well as the concerns of their followers and inspire them to assume a new perspective for the existing problems and hence, motivate the team towards achieving the set goals, by giving them new perception (Ghasabeh, Soosay, & Reaiche, 2015). Research Questions RQ1. What are principals’ perceptions of their knowledge of special education laws and regulations? RQ2. How do principals with special education knowledge engage with stakeholders to comply with laws and regulations to provide special education services? RQ3.What are principals’ perceptions of the adequacy of learning opportunities to gain knowledge of special education laws and regulations to effectively serve students with disabilities? 7 RQ4. What scores did principlas’ earn on the Knowledge of Special Education Law Survey and how can that data be used to improve knowledge regarding special education laws and regulations? Research Methodology and Design The research will employ a qualitative design using a purposive sampling method to recruit primary and secondary school principals from a single geographic area. Semistructured face-to-face interviews, and the Knowledge of Special Education Law Survey will be employed to collect deep, richly textured data. Content analysis will be used to analyze and study data (Taylor, Bogdan, & DeVault, 2015). Possible Types and Sources of Information or Data The possible types and sources of data that could be used to address the proposed research questions include survey data, public school records with the relevant documents and texts related to special education, as well as interviews with school principals, assistant principals, special education team leader or department chair and special education teachers. 8 References Bateman, D., Gervais, A., Wysocki, T. A., & Cline, J. L. (2017). Special education competencies for principals. Journal of Special Education Leadership, 30(1), 48–56. Retrieved from https://ezp.waldenulibrary.org/login?url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=t rue&db=eue&AN=122350924&site=ehost-live&scope=site Berman, S. (2018). The practice base for how we learn: Supporting students' social, emotional, and academic development: Consensus statements of practice from the Council of Distinguished Educators. Aspen Institute, 1-20. Retrieved from https://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED585501 Burns, J. M. (1978). Leadership. New York, NY: Harpe ...
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Final Answer

I have provided two documents for the annotations, you can pick the style that you prefer.

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Background Literature: Annotated Bibliography
Bateman et al. (2017) sought to explore the provision of guidance on knowledge of
special education to principals. The authors use a systematic review of multiple
recommendations and expert suggestions from studies focusing on special education
competencies for principals, and what different entities provide on the principals' training
standards on special education. They established that there is a lack of consistent knowledge base
on special education for principals and highlights a list of what principals wished they knew
about special education. This article provides relevant information for this paper as it proposes a
particular set of principals' competencies for special education as informed by the
recommendations from different principals.
Christensen et al. (2013) conducted a quantitative study using a survey to research the
belief of principals in what the programs for leadership preparation must include providing the
knowledge of success for learners with diverse learning needs. The findings indicated that
curriculum modification, state testing options, knowledge of the pertinent laws, discipline
guidelines, creating a culture that is inclusive, as well as mentorship opportunities for new
special educators are the critical program areas of importance. The study makes a difference in
the quest to reduce the achievement gap experienced between general and special education
learners by highlighting the areas that must be included in leadership preparation programs.
In a qualitative study, Hussey et al. (2019) conducted a survey to explore the level of
responsibilities, workload, and satisfaction levels of the special education administrators. They
established that special education administrators were highly satisfied, more involved in
executing their responsibilities in facilitating special education, professional growth, and
leadership development. The findings of this survey are crucial in designing a working

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environment with favorable conditions that will augment the levels of motivation and satisfaction
for special education administrators.
In a quantitative study, Losinski et al. (2017) conducted a meta-analysis of various
interventions aimed at enhancing the compliance of special needs students in school settings. The
researchers carried out experimental investigations on compliance and non-compliance. The
findings established multiple interventions that were seen to be effective but failed to meet the
standards of the Council for Exceptional Children. The results of this study will contribute to the
efforts of special education administrators to develop the appropriate evidence-based
interventions that will enhance the compliance of learners with disabilities.
Through a qualitative multiple case study approach, Lynch (2016) examined a school
system for a rural mid-Atlantic school to ascertain the special education administrators'
understanding of the appropriate instruction for students with special disabilities. According to
the findings, principals have an inadequate understanding and application of the core aspects of
effective instruction for learners with disabilities. This study sets an appropriate ground for
enhancing the preparation of principals and administrators for special education in a way that
will prepare and equip them with the knowledge of administering the appropriate instruction for
special education students. However, a limitation of this study is that the findings therein cannot
be generalized beyond the study since the necessary data was limited.
Lynch (2012) conducted a qualitative inquiry to understand the responsibilities of today's
special education principals and establish the necessary elements for reforming the programs for
principal preparation. The author established that despite the principals' crucial role as the
instructional leaders, they are inadequately equipped and not have the lack the basic knowledge
of the learning disposition of students with special disabilities as well as the fundamental

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education policy. This paper contributes to the efforts to enhance the competencies of special
education administrators by restricting preparation programs for principals to prepare them to be
effective in their role as instructional leaders.
Roberts and Guerra (2017) conducted a quantitative study using mixed approaches to
establish how the preparation programs for principals can be improved in preparing them to be
effective leaders in special education. The authors analyze the survey response of principals ...

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