Humanities
University of Adelide Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment Sustainability Study

The University of Adelide

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From the given Set sources document ( 7 sources ) - Need to find key challenging issue of e waste management.and followed with minimum 3 sub issues from the same set source.The information written should be from the set sources only. No additional info from various means should not be used. Reference (set source )is required Enclosed are the required documents for the assignment.

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ELEC ENG 7057 Set Sources: Assignment 1 (Onshore) S1 2020 COMMONWEALTH OF AUSTRALIA Copyright Regulations 1969 WARNING This material has been reproduced and communicated to you by or on behalf of The University of Adelaide under Part VB of the Copyright Act 1968 (the Act). The material in this communication may be subject to copyright under the Act. Any further reproduction or communication of this material by you may be the subject of copyright protection under the Act. Do not remove this notice. Source 1 [Harvard] [IEEE] Osibanjo, O and Nnorom IC 2007, ‘The challenge of electronic waste (e-waste) management in developing countries’, Waste Management and Research, vol. 25, pp. 489-501. O. Osibanjo and I. C. Nnorom, “The challenge of electronic waste (e-waste) management in developing countries,” Waste Manage. Res., vol. 25, pp. 489-501, Jun. 2007. Source 2 [Harvard] [IEEE] Source 3 [Harvard] [IEEE] Source 4 [Harvard] [IEEE] Source 5 [Harvard] [IEEE] Source 6 [Harvard] [IEEE] Hossain, Md S, Al-Hamadani, SMZF, Rahman, Md T 2015, ‘E-waste: A Challenge for Sustainable Development’, Journal of Health & Pollution, vol. 5, no. 9, pp. 3-11. Md. S. Hossain et al., “E-waste: A Challenge for Sustainable Development,” J. Health & Pollution, vol. 5, no. 9, pp. 3-11, Dec. 2015. Morris, A and Metternicht, G 2016, ‘Assessing effectiveness of WEEE management policy in Australia’, Journal of Environmental Management, vol. 181, pp. 218-230. A. Morris and G. Metternicht, “Assessing effectiveness of WEEE management policy in Australia,” J. Env. Manage., vol. 181, pp. 218-230, Oct. 2016. Seeberger, J, Grandhi, R, Kim, SS, Mase, WA, Reponen, T, Ho, S, Chen, A 2016, ‘E-waste management in the United States and Public Health Implications’, Journal of Environmental Health, vol. 79, no. 3, pp. 816. J. Seeberger et al., “E-waste management in the United States and Public Health Implications,” J. Env. Health, vol. 79, no. 3, pp. 8-16, Oct. 2016. Yong, YS, Lim, YA, Ilankoon, IMSK 2019, ‘An analysis of electronic waste management strategies and recycling operations in Malaysia: Challenges and future prospects’, Journal of Cleaner Production, vol. 224, pp. 151-166. Y.S. Yong et al., “An analysis of electronic waste management strategies and recycling operations in Malaysia: Challenges and future prospects”, J. Cleaner Production, vol. 224, pp. 151-166, Mar. 2019. Shi, J, Wang, R, Chen, W, Xing, L and Jin, M 2020, ‘Bi-objective design of household E-waste collection with public advertising and competition from informal sectors’, Waste Management, vol. 102, pp. 65-75. J. Shi et al., “Bi-objective design of household E-waste collection with public advertising and competition from informal sectors,” Waste Manage., vol. 102, pp. 65-75, Feb. 2020. Source 7 [Harvard] [IEEE] Aswathi, AK and Li, J 2017, ‘Management of electrical and electronic waste: A comparative evaluation of China and India’, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 76, pp. 434-447. A. K. Aswathi and J. Li, “Management of electrical and electronic waste: A comparative evaluation of China and India,” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 76, pp. 434-447, Mar. 2017. Source 1 Osibanjo, O and Nnorom IC 2007, ‘The challenge of electronic waste (e-waste) management in developing countries’, Waste Management and Research, vol. 25, pp. 489-501. O. Osibanjo and I. C. Nnorom, “The challenge of electronic waste (e-waste) management in developing countries,” Waste Manage. Res., vol. 25, pp. 489-501, Jun. 2007. [p. 496] Repair and reuse activities The second-hand or e-scraps exports into developing countries are rarely tested for functionality; up to 75% of such exports entering Nigeria are unusable junk[ ]. […] [T]here is [a] high level of repair and reuse activity in Nigeria. At the computer village in Lagos, the hub of second-hand EEE [Electrical and Electronic Equipment ] in Nigeria, BAN [The Basel Action Network] observed that there are about 3500 registered businesses involved in all manner of sales and repair of computers, phones, peripherals and software. BAN observed that about half of the businesses located at the computer village are involved in refurbishment and repair of imported used IT [information technology] equipment and parts. Disposal with municipal solid waste Management of discarded electronics in the developing countries is taking place through traditional methods of MSW [municipal solid waste] management, namely landfilling and incineration. Up to 90% of e-scrap was landfilled in 2003, even in the developed countries (Antrekowitsch et al. 2006). A tremendous amount of e-waste exported into the developing countries and the processed residues are not recycled but simply dumped. Materials dumped include leaded CRT [cathode ray tube] glass, burned or acid-reduced circuit boards, mixed dirty plastics including Mylar and videotapes, toner cartridges and considerable material apparently too difficult to separate. Residues from recycling operations including ashes from numerous open burning operations and spent acid baths and sludge are also dumped (Roman & Puckett 2002). Obsolete electronic devices in Nigeria are usually stored for a while for a perceived value (physical or emotional) before disposal with municipal waste. In government agencies and some private establishment[s], these items are usually stored in basements or in storerooms until directives are issued for their disposal. Because of the absence of a special framework for the separate collection and management of e-waste in Nigeria, these devices are disposed with MSW at open dumps and into surface waters. Our survey at selected towns in Nigeria (Lagos, Benin and Aha) indicated there are [ ] attempts at recovering materials from e-scrap using crude processes[, a] typical example of which is the open burning of copper wire and other cable and EEE components to salvage copper. However, there are indications that waste collectors have also started collecting selected components of EEE, especially the printed wiring board, for export probably to Asia for recycling. Crude recycling Informal dismantling and recycling of e-wastes, the so-called ‘backyard activities’ is emerging in developing countries. Crude recycling activities are taking place in Asia and Africa aimed at material recovery from e-waste. In these regions, e-scrap is mostly treated in ‘backyard operations’ using open sky incineration, cyanide leaching and simple smelters to recover mainly copper, gold and silver with comparatively low yields (Hagelekun 2006a). The BAN Study ‘Exporting Harm, the High-tech Trashing of Asia’ described the crude recycling activities Source 1 taking place in China and other Asian countries. For example, wires are collected and burned in open piles to recover re-saleable copper. Circuit boards are treated in open acid baths next to rivers to extract copper and precious metals (Roman & Puckett 2002, Williams 2005). A pilot program conducted by the US EPA [Environmental Protection Authority] that collected scrap in a state in the US (San Jose, CA) estimated that it was 10 times cheaper to ship CRT monitors to China than it was to recycle them in the US (Roman & Puckett 2002). These crude methods result in loss of resources, energy wastages and environmental pollution. Moreover, such ‘backyard recyclers’ do not have wastewater treatment facilities, exhaust/waste gas treatment and personal health protection equipment (Roman & Puckett 2002; Liu et al. 2005). Unfortunately, most of the participants in this sector are not aware of the environmental and health risks and do not know better practices or have no access to investment capital to finance even profitable improvements or implement safety measures (Widmer et al. 2005). Besides the tremendous adverse effects on environment and health in these regions, this also means a huge and mostly irreversible waste of resources. It is of particular irony if materials that had been collected, for example, in Europe under the WEEE [waste electrical and electronic equipment] directive aiming at fostering the environmentally sound reuse/recycling and to preserve resources finally ends up in such a ‘recycling’ environment (Hageluken 2006a). As long as these e-scraps are exported from Europe and North America to developing countries for crude recycling, it is unlikely that there will be sufficient incentives to invest in the necessary infrastructure for efficiently and safely recycling of e-waste in these developed regions (Roman & Puckett 2002).Infrastructure determines the process methods and amounts of waste that can be processed. Collection [497] methodology, sorting and recovery technologies, material recycling processes and disposal methods are key factors in the comprehensive recycling of e-waste (Kang & Schoenung 2004). Hicks et al. (2005) observed that there are number of reasons for the existence of large and effective informal WEEE processing sectors in developing or industrializing countries: • In developing and industrializing countries waste is viewed as a resource and incomegenerating opportunity. • There is a general reluctance to pay for waste recycling and disposal services, particularly when consumers can make some money by selling their old and broken appliances. • Waste collection and disposal services in developing countries cost a higher proportion of the average income than in developed countries. • There is lack of awareness among consumers, collectors and recyclers of the potential hazards of WEEE, crude ‘backyard’ recycling and other disposal practices. […] [p. 498] Pollution from present management practices The actual operation of several end-of-life processes for e-waste such as landfill, incineration with MSW and mechanical recycling results in emissions of heavy metals and organic pollutants to air, water, soil and residual potentially hazardous waste. E-waste contains more than 1000 different substances, many of which are highly toxic (Widmer et al. 2005). WEEE is approximately 1% of total landfill, yet it is responsible for approximately 50–80% of the heavy metals in leachate (Chiodo et al. 2002). In addition, 70% of heavy metals (including Hg and Cd) Source 1 found in the soil are of electronic origin (Milojkovic & Litovski 2005). The processing of e-waste in developing countries is profitable because the labour costs are cheap and environmental regulations are lax in comparison with developed countries (Roman & Puckett 2002, BAN/SVTC 2002). Consequently, crude methods are adopted to reclaim metals and many kinds of pollutants are generated during these processes creating serious problems to [the] ecological environment and human health. Studies at Guiyu, China revealed high levels of environmental pollution from crude recycling activities (Roman & Puckett 2002, Liu et al. 2006). Poly-aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated biphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were detected in environmental samples at levels up to 593, 733 and 2196 mg kg–1, respectively (Leung et al. 2004 cited in Liu et al. 2006). Heavy metals Cu, Pb and Zn were also determined at levels up to 711, 190 and 242 mg kg –1, respectively. Similar investigation by BAN at the same e-scrap recycling site (Guiyu, China) also indicated high levels of environmental contamination. Surface water, sediments and soil samples at one such site revealed alarming levels of heavy metals that correspond very directly with those metals commonly found in computers. Chromium, tin, and barium were found at levels 1388, 152 and 10 times (respectively) higher than the EPA threshold for environmental risk in the soil (Roman & Puckett 2002). Due to high levels of heavy metal pollution of surface and ground water in the town, Guiyu’s drinking water has been delivered from a nearby town since approximately 1 year after the appearance of the WEEE industry over a decade ago (Hicks et al. 2005). Source 2 Hossain, Md S, Al-Hamadani, SMZF, Rahman, Md T 2015, ‘E-waste: A Challenge for Sustainable Development’, Journal of Health & Pollution, vol. 5, no. 9, pp. 3-11. Md. S. Hossain et al., “E-waste: A Challenge for Sustainable Development,” J. Health & Pollution, vol. 5, no. 9, pp. 3-11, Dec. 2015. [p. 7] Electrical and electronic goods contain a variety of metals, many of which are toxic to humans and ecosystems. More than 60% of e-waste consists of these different metal ions and about 2.7% are toxic metals.4 The proper management (collecting, storage, recycling, disposing) of these wastes is important because of hazardous chemicals in the waste such as aluminum (Al), arsenic (As), bismuth (Bi), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb) and antimony (Sb). Furthermore, the combustion of these e-wastes releases polycyclic [p. 8] aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), brominated flame retardants (BFRs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/ Fs) gases that effect some or all bio-physical environments (soil, atmosphere, aquatic). Consequently, these releases adversely affect the surroundings and cause detrimental effects to human health. 36,37 Brigden and Labunska found that PBDEs and PCDD/Fs contaminate the surrounding soil, air and water causing a depletion of fertility and water quality, as well as acting as neuro-toxicants and endocrine disruptors in infants and children.38, 17 These toxic chemical compounds and persistent organic pollutants (POP) affect the environment through the ecological food chain and adversely affect human health and ecosystems. Bioaccumulation (i.e., PBCs, BFRs and several chemical elements) in the food chain affects human health, especially in pregnant and breastfeeding women. In addition, they cause endocrine disruption and this, in turn, affects the nervous system, preand post-natal development and genotoxicity. Dioxins may alter the methylation status of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA).2 Furthermore, they also change the serum levels of mothers and newborns and are a potential hazard to maternal health and child development, as well producing hormonal effects by BFRs and thyroid-disrupting effects in developmental life stages.39, 40 The adverse impacts of e-waste on humans and ecosystems is also crucial in South Asian countries undergoing rapid economic growth, lifestyle change, socio-technical transition and transformation, which is in complete contrast to their lack of effective waste management tools. For example, in Bangladesh, only between 20% to 30% of the 3.2 MT generated e-waste each year is recycled and the rest is dumped in landfills. 41 There are about 120,000 poor urban people involved in the informal e-waste trade chain in Dhaka, of which 50,000 are children. 42,30 The Environment and Social Development Organization (ESDO) report found that the lack of an efficient e-waste management system in Bangladesh was the cause of death for approximately 15% of the illegal child laborers employed in this sector, and 83% were found to be exposed to long term health problems. 8 Furthermore, Chowdhury et al. found that 36.3% of 1,000 women living near the informal recycling sites experienced stillbirths in the Sylhet region of Bangladesh and 64% had hearing and/or vision [p. 9] problems.43 In India, more than 1 million poor people are involved in e-waste handling.44 In addition to these statistics, 50,000 tons of e-waste is dumped in landfills annually, ultimately contaminating the Lyari and Arabian Seas and adversely affecting marine ecosystems.17 Source 2 References 1. Zeng X, Song Q, Li J, Yuan W, Duan H, Liu L. Solving ewaste problem using an integrated mobile recycling plant. J Clean Prod [Internet]. 2015 Mar [cited 2015 Nov 2];90:55-9. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/sc ience/article/pii/S095965261401 0683 Subscription required to view. 2. Frazzoli C, Orisakwe OE, Dragone R, Mantovani A. Diagnostic health risk assessment of electronic waste on the general population in developing countries' scenarios. EnvironImpact Assess Rev [Internet]. 2010 Nov [cited 2015 Nov 2];30(6):388-99. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/sc ience/article/pii/S019592550900 1486 Subscription required to view. 3. 2009 hazardous waste report: instructions and form [Internet]. Washington, D.C.: United States Environmental Protection Agency; 2009 Nov [cited 2015 Nov 2].80 p. Available from: http://www3.epa.gov/epawaste/i nforesources/data/br09/br2009rp t.pdf 4. Widmer R, Krapf HO, Khetriwal DS, Schnellmann M, Boni H. Global perspectives on e-waste. Environ Impact Assess Rev [Internet]. 2005 Jul [cited 2015 Nov 2];25(5):43658. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/sc ience/article/pii/S019592550500 0466 Subscription required to view. 5. Basel conference addresses electronic wastes challenge [Internet]. Nairobi Conference on Basel Convention to Address the Growing Challenge of Electronic Wastes; 2006 Nov 27 - Dec 1; Gigiri, Nairob. Nairobi, Kenya: United Nations Environment Programme; 2006 Nov 27 [cited 2015 Nov 2]. [about 3 screens]. Available from: http://www.unep.org/documents. multilingual/default.asp?Docum entID=485&ArticleID=5431&I= en 6. Schwarzer S, Bono AD, Giuliani G, Kluser S, Peduzzi P. E-waste, the hidden side of IT equipment's manufacturing and use [Internet]. Nairobi, Kenya: United Nations Environment Programme; 2005 Jan [cited 2015 Nov 2]. 5 p. Available from: https://archiveouverte.unige.ch/ unige:23132 7. Ciocoiu CN, Colesca SE, Burcea S. An AHP approach to evaluate the implementation of WEEE management systems [Internet]. Proceedings of the 5th WSEAS International Conference on Renewable Energy Sources; 2011 Jul 1-3; Iasi, Romania. Bucharest, Romania: Recent Researches in Environment, Energy Planning and Pollution; 2011 [cited 2015 Nov 2]. p. 233-8. Available from: http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewd oc/download?doi=10.1.1.473.51 98&rep=rep1&type=pdf 8. Guidelines for e-waste management in Bangladesh [Internet]. Dhaka, Bangladesh: Environment and Social Development Organization; 2012 Dec [cited 2015 Nov 2]. 40 p. Available from: http://www.esdo.org/images/Gui delines%20for%20ewaste%20management%20in%2 0Bangladesh_ESDO.pdf 9. Saranga A. E-waste free Sri Lanka [Internet]. Colombo, Sri Lanka: Daily News; 2014 May 22 [cited 2015 Nov 2]. Available from: http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1 P3-3310881731.html Subscription required to view. 10. Robinson BH. E-waste: an assessment of global production and environmental impacts. Sci Total Environ [Internet]. 2009 Dec 20 [cited 2015 Nov 2];408(2):183-91. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/sc ience/article/pii/S004896970900 9073 11. Borthakur A, Sinha K. Generation of electronic waste in India: current scenario, dilemmas and stakeholders. Afr J EnvironSci Technol [Internet]. 2013 Sep [cited 2015 Nov 2];7(9):899-910. Available from: www.ajol.info/index.php/ajest/ar ticle/ download/94952/84306 12. OECD environmental outlook to 2030 [Internet]. Paris, France: Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development; 2008 [cited 2015 Nov 2]. 14 p. Available form: http://www.oecd.org/env/indicat ors-modellingoutlooks/40200582.pdf 13. Cobbing M. Toxic tech: not in our backyard [Internet]. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Greenpeace International; 2008 Feb [cited 2015 Nov 2]. 12p. Available from: http://www.greenpeace.org/ international/Global/internationa l/planet-2/report/2008/2/not-inour-backyard-summary.pdf 14. Pinto VN. E-waste hazard: the impending challenge. Indian J Occup Environ Med [Internet]. 2008 Aug [cited 2015 Nov 2];12(2):65-70. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pm c/articles/PMC2796756/ 15. Guidelines for environmentally sound management of e-waste [Internet]. Delhi, India: Central Pollution Control Board; 2008 Mar 12 [cited 2015 Nov 2]. 86 ...
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Running head: SUSTAINABILITY STUDY

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Sustainability Study
Name
Institution

SUSTAINABILITY STUDY

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Sustainability Study

The focus on public awareness on the dangers of waste electrical and electronic
equipment (WEEE) to the health of citizens in developing countries is the right measure to
discourage disposal with municipal solid waste, reduce the rate of reuse, and prevent crude
recycling. Currently, the preference of the public in poor countries for hazardous WEEE
management practices is due to the lack of education on their role in environmental pollution and
climate change. Public engagement and education programs on the health and environmental
dangers of WEEE will teach and inspire the citizens of developing countries to separate their
WEEE from other solid waste and prevent their disposal at landfills or incineration sites (Morris
& Metternicht, 2016, p. 228). Similarly, the potential of public awareness programs to show
consumers the health and environmental dangers of the reuse of WEEE will discourage the
economic incentives for trade-in electronic scraps that increase the pressure on collection
services (Osibanjo & Nnorom, 2007, p.496). Also, the illustration of the connections between the
greenhouse gases that are generated from crude recycling methods and environmental disasters
such as flooding, drought, and diseases will contribute to efforts to reduce the economic
incentives for the practice (Yong, Lim, & Ilankoon, 2019, p.162). In addition, the
implementation of regular and focused public awareness programs in developing countries
would contr...

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