Computer Science
University of Central Missouri Importance of Email in Information Governance Paper

University of Central Missouri

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I don’t know how to handle this Computer Science question and need guidance.

From the chapter reading, we learned that e-mail is a major area of focus for information governance (IG) efforts, and has become the most common business software application and the backbone of business communications today. In addition, the authors provided details to support their position by providing 2013 survey results from 2,400 corporate e-mail users from a global perspective. The results indicated that two-thirds of the respondents stated that e-mail was their favorite form of business communication which surpassed not only social media but also telephone and in-person contact.

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INFORMATION GOVERNANCE FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF CLOUD
COMPUTING
1

Information Governance for the Implementation of Cloud Computing
Sourav Mukherjee
Senior Database Administrator &
PhD student at University of the Cumberlands
Chicago, United States

Abstract
Information Governance has become gradually an important area due to the explosion of data in
numerous formats at diverse levels of any organization. An Information Governance platform
may have the capability to improve the data quality and may also support in leveraging strategic
decision making. There is a growing trend to move the data from on-premise software to the new
on-demand cloud-based solutions to support the growing needs of the business computing
services which has the potential to lower the costs and mitigating the risks. Cloud computing is
considered as a utility that is massively scalable and can be readily modified, the way we may
control the temperature in the furnace using the thermostat which has the potential to save
energy. There are many organizations that are investigating the Cloud to see if the application
can meet their information Governance needs such as eDiscovery, compliance, law, security, risk
management, records management, and business operations. Information Governance is a superdiscipline that embraces components of several key fields as mentioned above (Robert F.
Smallwood, 2014).

Electronic copy available at: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3405102

INFORMATION GOVERNANCE FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF CLOUD
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Keywords: Cloud, Information Governance, tenancy, security, scalability, thin client
Information Governance for the Implementation of Cloud Computing
Organizations are migrating applications and storage to the cloud at a faster rate. Cloud
computing let the users’ access and use shared data and computing services and resources via the
Internet or a VPN link which is encrypted for the security purpose. Cloud computing does not
signify the transfer of assets or resources to upkeep any business, it also functions like a
partnership association where at least two parties are engaged to attain a common benefit, and
the risks and opportunities are divided among themselves. Like any other outsourcing venture,
cloud computing brings with concerns related to the procuring entity’s lack of knowledge of the
activities outsourced. Over a period, the control of the infrastructure by the sourcing organization
diminishes. Such a partnership is under the threats of the non-equal relationships as one of the
parties is in a leading place, as it handles certain processes. This happens in the case of cloud
computing, as this is extremely challenging to insource the services moved to cloud to bring back
to the on-premise. Majority of the organizations, nowadays, essentially depend on IT. When IT
and the business are associated in an organization, IT supplies what the business desires and the
business can provide what the market desires. IT has become a deliberate function for most of
the organizations, and it is imperative that IT and business are aligned. IT governance is one of
the most desirable ways to attain IT in a business position. Therefore, IT governance is a
necessary method which needs to be applied to cloud computing information security to manage
the risks associated with cloud computing information security. This study developments the
required knowledge by outspreading IT governance to cloud computing and information security
governance.

Electronic copy available at: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3405102

INFORMATION GOVERNANCE FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF CLOUD
COMPUTING
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INTRODUCTION
This paper has offered a study on applying information technology (IT) governance policies and
processes for the application of a tenable cloud computing platform. IT governance is explained
as a set of procedures intended to inspire actions that are reliable with the mission, strategy, and
principles of the organization, the methods address several matters related to IT such as decision
processes, rules, the assignment of responsibilities, and contribution rights for the stakeholder.
Cloud deployments give users some sovereignty and freedom from their IT department, and IT
departments are inspired to have immediate resources at their removal and eliminating few of the
errands for infrastructure to focus on business applications. IT governance must be effective. To
offer such effectiveness in the IT governance process, there must have a dependence on a couple
of key mechanisms such as •

IT steering committee



Engagement of senior management in IT



Corporate performance measurement systems

One of the principal goals of IT governance is to take decisions for investment and utilization of
IT functions by focusing the question about how an organization should gain investments to its
IT for the highest benefit to the entire organization.
Moreover, as the use of cloud computing for bringing IT functions becomes universal,
organizations using cloud computing must efficiently smear IT governance to it. While cloud
computing gifts wonderful opportunities, it emanates with several risk factors as well.

Electronic copy available at: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3405102

INFORMATION GOVERNANCE FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF CLOUD
COMPUTING
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Information security is one of the highest risks in cloud computing. Thus, IT governance must be
pragmatic to cloud computing information security to facilitate managing the risks associated
with cloud computing information security. Cloud computing in the newest model to deliver the
IT services and it demands a framework for securing the organization’s information while stored
in the cloud. Managers and IT leaders who are the subscribers of the Cloud-based services are
held responsible for providing seamless IT performance.
Several critical IG challenges connected with cloud computing must be focused on. These take
account of privacy and security matters, records management (RM) problems, and compliance
questions, such as the competence to reply to legal discovery orders. Furthermore, there are
metadata management and supervision questions. An inquiry and examination are required to
perform to know how the Cloud Services providers will provide RM capability which is again a
crucial matter to know how to lend support to IG functions such as archiving and e-discovery,
and meeting IG policy requirements. Organizations need to identify the security risks, loopholes
with regards to cloud computing and they should have a defined IG policy and controls in place
to influence the Cloud technology to support electronic data and information being looking
further on the Cloud Strategy.
With the growing maturity and expansion of cloud computing, public cloud computing services
are an expected choice for enterprises to attain better cost savings and resource use, however,
there are qualms about the security in the cloud computing services space.
Besides, enterprise data security and privacy questions have become one of the major factors that
have delayed the popularity of cloud computing [4]. Thus, cloud computing will advantage from
a defined framework of IT governance and the related best practices.

Electronic copy available at: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3405102

INFORMATION GOVERNANCE FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF CLOUD
COMPUTING
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CLOUD COMPUTING
Cloud Computing is a new entrant in the field of Information Technology. At the core, the cloud
technology offers a secure, hosted and customizable services over the internet. This is a
substitute for running them on a personal computer, server or corporate network. Applications
and on-demand resources/features such as data centers, applications, networking, storage,
software, and analytics are all available. It is also a shared infrastructure that offers dynamic
access to computing services. We only pay for what we use, and it is possible to easily scale up
or scale down to match the user needs. It throws away the need to procure server hardware and
creates a seamless process to deploy IT infrastructure to provision computing resources and
creates a gateway for users to access applications, data, and storage within their own business
unit environments or networks. Currently, cloud computing has befitted a global trend, and it has
pulled the attention, concentration, and awareness from both the business unit and the academic
society as well. Such technology provides a paradigm shift in the field of information
technology. Thus, the corporate information resources would be stored, recovered, and
administered on the cloud computing platforms. Possibly the greatest feature of all is that the
services managed by the cloud provider can be easily turned on or off, increased or decreased,
based on user needs.
Per the Forbes magazine contribution by Louis Columbus (Jan 7, 2018) says that [3], “83% Of
Enterprise Workloads Will Be in The Cloud By 2020”. The LogicMonitor’s survey predicts that
41% of enterprise workloads will be run on public cloud platforms (top providers such as
Amazon AWS, Google Cloud Platform, Microsoft Azure, IBM Cloud, and others) by 2020. An
additional 20% are forecasted to be private-cloud-based followed by another 22% running on

Electronic copy available at: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3405102

INFORMATION GOVERNANCE FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF CLOUD
COMPUTING
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hybrid cloud platforms by 2020. On-premise workloads are projected to diminish from 37%
today to 27% of all workloads by 2020. Considering the above factors, we can easily identify the
extreme growth of the Cloud-based platform is coming to soar in the near-term.
The following picture (sources: Wikipedia [1]), will demonstrate a conceptual overview and
understanding of Cloud Computing showing the various elements involved in the Cloud
(components). Cloud computing allows convenient, on-demand network access to a shared
pool of configurable computing resources that can be quickly provisioned.

Figure 1. Cloud Computing [2]

Electronic copy available at: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3405102

INFORMATION GOVERNANCE FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF CLOUD
COMPUTING
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The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is the official central arbitrator of
definitions, standards, criteria, rules, and guidelines for cloud computing. NIST defines cloud
computing as [7]:
“a model for allowing convenient, ubiquitous, on-demand network admittance to a shared pool
of configurable computing resources such as networks, servers, storage, applications, and
services that can be quickly provisioned and released with negligible management effort or
service provider collaboration.”
Key Features of Cloud Computing
NIST has defined five major characteristics of Cloud Computing.
Features

Definition/details

On-demand self-service

Can provision the computing resources (CPU, memory, disk)
automatically as needed based on the resource usage stats and that
too without involving any human intervention.

Broad network access

Capabilities are accessible over the network, can be accessed via
mobile phones, laptops or through other handheld devices (both thick
and thin client platforms)

Resource Pooling

Multi-tenancy model is formed. Location independence with no
control or knowledge about the exact location of the resources.

Rapid Elasticity

Quick scale-out and scale-in features provided. Resources may be
provisioned as an unlimited capacity and maybe purchased at any
time by any quantity.

Measured Service

Resource usage may be observed, measured and reported. Creates
transparency for both provider and consumers.

Electronic copy available at: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3405102

INFORMATION GOVERNANCE FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF CLOUD
COMPUTING
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“Gartner Projects Cloud Services Business to Grow Exponentially Through 2022. The
worldwide public cloud services market is projected to rise 17.5 percent in 2019 to a total of
$214.3 billion, up and about from $182.4 billion in 2018, according to Gartner, Inc [11]”. Today
there is no vendor or service provider whose business model offerings, services and revenue
growth are not prejudiced by the cumulative growth and adoption of cloud-first approaches in the
organizations. Through 2022, Gartner’s study predicts that the market size and growth of the
cloud services business at closely three times the development of overall IT services”. Gartner
further expects that by the close of 2019, more than 30 percent of Information technology
providers’ new software investments will shift from cloud-first to cloud-only. This means that
license-based software consumption will further plummet, while SaaS and subscription-based
cloud consumption models continue their rise.

Table 1. Worldwide Public Cloud Service Revenue Forecast (Billions of U.S. Dollars)
Cloud Based Service Platforms

2018

2019

2020

2021

2022

Cloud Business Process Services
(BPaaS)

45.8

49.3

53.1

57.0

61.1

Cloud Application Infrastructure Services
(PaaS)
15.6

19.0

23.0

27.5

31.8

Cloud Application Services (SaaS)

80.0

94.8

110.5

126.7

143.7

Cloud Management and Security
Services

10.5

12.2

14.1

16.0

17.9

Electronic copy available at: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3405102

INFORMATION GOVERNANCE FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF CLOUD
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Cloud System Infrastructure Services
(IaaS)

30.5

38.9

49.1

61.9

76.6

Total Market

182.4

214.3

249.8

289.1

331.2

BPaaS = business process as a service;
PaaS = platform as a service;
SaaS = software as a service;
IaaS = infrastructure as a service;
Note: Totals may not sum up due to rounding factors.
Source: Gartner (April 2019)
Few examples of business applications that commonly are migrated to the cloud environment
include advertising, collaboration, e-mail, office productivity applications (Office Suite based
products), sales support solutions (CRM based applications), customer response systems, file
storage and shared locations, files (dropbox.com, SkyDrive, OneDrive) and system backups
images. So knowingly, unknowingly we are keeping our corporate personal or important details
to cloud-based systems. The mobile phone backups are mostly kept in Cloud-based storage (an
example). This is totally ungoverned information stored in the cloud.

Cloud Deployment models

There are four basic cloud computing models which are popularly used depending on the
customer’s use cases – private, public, community, and hybrid combination of multiple clouds).

Table 2. Cloud Deployment models

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INFORMATION GOVERNANCE FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF CLOUD
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Model

Purpose

Private Cloud

Dedicated to a single enterprise. Not shared. Mostly useful for
such industries where the data is critical and sensitively such as
healthcare, Insurance, Government sector, defense, etc.

Public Cloud

Managed by a general public or by a large industry group which
is owned by the organization selling the cloud-based services.

Community Cloud

In this model, the cloud-based infrastructure is shared among
several organizations which support or functions a specific
industry/community with shared concern, mission, policy, etc.

Hybrid Cloud

This cloud m...

Carnegie Mellon University

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