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MGT 301 Saudi Electronic University Leadership Style Theories Questions

MGT 301

Saudi electronic university

MGT

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leaders make things happen 13 Leadership Essentials the key point Not all managers are leaders and not all leaders are managers. In a managerial position, being a leader requires understanding how to adapt one’s management style to the situation to generate willing and effective followership. As shown in the Zappos example, the most successful leaders are those who are able to generate strong cultures in which employees work together to get things done. chapter at a glance What Is Leadership? What Are Situational Contingency Approaches to Leadership? What Are Follower-Centered Approaches to Leadership? What Are Inspirational and Relational Leadership Perspectives? ETHICS IN OB CEO PAY—IS IT EXCESSIVE? FINDING THE LEADER IN YOU LOOKING FOR LEADER MATCH AT GOOGLE OB IN POPULAR CULTURE what’s inside? PATH-GOAL AND REMEMBER THE TITANS RESEARCH INSIGHT PARTICIPATORY LEADERSHIP AND PEACE 291 292 13 Leadership Essentials Leadership LEARNING ROADMAP Managers versus Leaders / Trait Leadership Perspectives / Behavioral Leadership Perspectives Most people assume that anyone in management, particularly the CEO, is a leader. Currently, however, controversy has arisen over this assumption. We can all think of examples where managers do not perform much, if any, leadership, as well as instances where leadership is performed by people who are not in management. Researchers have even argued that failure to clearly recognize this difference is a violation of “truth in advertising” because many studies labeled “leadership” may actually be about “management.”1 Managers versus Leaders • Leadership is the process of influencing others and the process of facilitating individual and collective efforts to accomplish shared objectives. A key way of differentiating between managers and leaders is to argue that the role of management is to promote stability or to enable the organization to run smoothly, whereas the role of leadership is to promote adaptive or useful changes.2 Persons in managerial positions could be involved with both management and leadership activities, or they could emphasize one activity at the expense of the other. Both management and leadership are needed, however, and if managers do not assume responsibility for both, then they should ensure that someone else handles the neglected activity. The point is that when we discuss leadership, we do not assume it is identical to management. For our purposes, we treat leadership as the process of influencing others to understand and agree about what needs to be done and how to do it, and the process of facilitating individual and collective efforts to accomplish shared objectives.3 Leadership appears in two forms: (1) formal leadership, which is exerted by persons appointed or elected to positions of formal authority in organizations, and (2) informal leadership, which is exerted by persons who become influential because they have special skills that meet the needs of others. Although both types are important in organizations, this chapter will emphasize formal leadership; informal leadership will be addressed in the next chapter.4 The leadership literature is vast—thousands of studies at last count—and consists of numerous approaches.5 We have grouped these approaches into two chapters: Leadership Essentials, Chapter 13, and Leadership Challenges and Organizational Change, Chapter 14. The present chapter focuses on trait and behavioral Change Brings Out the Leader in Us Avon CEO Andrea Jung feels “there is a big difference between being a leader and being a manager.” That difference lies in being flexible and willing to change. According to Jung, if you have difficulty with change you will have a harder time being successful as a leader. Leadership 293 theory perspectives, cognitive and symbolic leadership perspectives, and transformational and charismatic leadership approaches. Chapter 14 deals with such leadership challenges as how to be a moral leader, how to share leadership, how to lead across cultures, how to be a strategic leader of major units, and, of course, how to lead change. Many of the perspectives in each chapter include several models. Although each of these models may be useful to you in a given work setting, we invite you to mix and match them as necessary in your setting, just as we did earlier with the motivational models discussed in Chapter 5. Trait Leadership Perspectives For over a century, scholars have attempted to identify the key characteristics that separate leaders from nonleaders. Much of this work stressed traits. Trait perspectives assume that traits play a central role in differentiating between leaders and nonleaders in that leaders must have the “right stuff.”6 The great person-trait approach reflects the attempt to use traits to separate leaders from nonleaders. This list of possible traits identified only became longer as researchers focused on the leadership traits linked to successful leadership and organizational performance. Unfortunately, few of the same traits were identified across studies. Part of the problem involved inadequate theory, poor measurement of traits, and the confusion between managing and leading. Fortunately, recent research has yielded promising results. A number of traits have been found that help identify important leadership strengths, as outlined in Figure 13.1. As it turns out, most of these traits also tend to predict leadership outcomes.7 Key traits of leaders include ambition, motivation, honesty, self-confidence, and a high need for achievement. They crave power not as an end in itself but as a means to achieve a vision or desired goals. At the same time, they must have enough emotional maturity to recognize their own strengths and weaknesses, and have to be oriented toward self-improvement. Furthermore, to be trusted, they must have authenticity; without trust, they cannot hope to maintain the loyalty of their followers. Leaders are not easily discouraged, and they stick to a chosen • Trait perspectives assume that traits play a central role in differentiating between leaders and nonleaders or in predicting leader or organizational outcomes. Energy and adjustment or stress tolerance: Physical vitality and emotional resilience Prosocial power motivation: A high need for power exercised primarily for the benefit of others Achievement orientation: Need for achievement, desire to excel, drive to success, willingness to assume responsibility, concern for task objectives Emotional maturity: Well-adjusted, does not suffer from severe psychological disorders Self-confidence: General confidence in self and in the ability to perform the job of a leader Integrity: Behavior consistent with espoused values; honest, ethical, trustworthy Perseverance or tenacity: Ability to overcome obstacles; strength of will Cognitive ability, intelligence, social intelligence: Ability to gather, integrate, and interpret information; intelligence, understanding of social setting Task-relevant knowledge: Knowledge about the company, industry, and technical aspects Flexibility: Ability to respond appropriately to changes in the setting Positive Impact on Leadership Success Figure 13.1 Traits with positive implications for successful leadership. 294 13 Leadership Essentials course of action as they push toward goal accomplishment. At the same time, they must be able to deal with the large amount of information they receive on a regular basis. They do not need to be brilliant, but usually exhibit above-average intelligence. In addition, leaders have a good understanding of their social setting and possess extensive knowledge concerning their industry, firm, and job. Even with these traits, however, the individual still needs to be engaged. To lead is to influence others, and so we turn to the question of how a leader should act. Behavioral Leadership Perspectives • The behavioral perspective assumes that leadership is central to performance and other outcomes. How should managerial leaders act toward subordinates? The behavioral perspective assumes that leadership is central to performance and other outcomes. However, instead of underlying traits, behaviors are considered. Two classic research programs—at the University of Michigan and at the Ohio State University—provide useful insights into leadership behaviors. Michigan Studies In the late 1940s, researchers at the University of Michigan sought to identify the leadership pattern that results in effective performance. From interviews of high- and low-performing groups in different organizations, the researchers derived two basic forms of leader behaviors: employee-centered and production-centered. Employee-centered supervisors are those who place strong emphasis on their subordinates’ welfare. In contrast, production-centered supervisors are more concerned with getting the work done. In general, employeecentered supervisors were found to have more productive workgroups than did the production-centered supervisors.8 These behaviors are generally viewed on a continuum, with employeecentered supervisors at one end and production-centered supervisors at the other. Sometimes, the more general terms human-relations oriented and task oriented are used to describe these alternative leader behaviors. • A leader high in consideration is sensitive to people’s feelings. • A leader high in initiating structure is concerned with spelling out the task requirements and clarifying aspects of the work agenda. • Leadership grid is an approach that uses a grid that places concern for production on the horizontal axis and concern for people on the vertical axis. Ohio State Studies At about the same time as the Michigan studies, an important leadership research program began at the Ohio State University. A questionnaire was administered in both industrial and military settings to measure subordinates’ perceptions of their superiors’ leadership behavior. The researchers identified two dimensions similar to those found in the Michigan studies: consideration and initiating structure.9 A highly considerate leader was found to be one who is sensitive to people’s feelings and, much like the employee-centered leader, tries to make things pleasant for his or her followers. In contrast, a leader high in initiating structure was found to be more concerned with defining task requirements and other aspects of the work agenda; he or she might be seen as similar to a production-centered supervisor. These dimensions are related to what people sometimes refer to as socioemotional and task leadership, respectively. At first, the Ohio State researchers believed that a leader high in consideration, or socioemotional warmth, would have more highly satisfied or better performing subordinates. Later results suggested, however, that many individuals in leadership positions should be high in both consideration and initiating structure. This dual emphasis is reflected in the leadership grid approach. The Leadership Grid Robert Blake and Jane Mouton developed the leadership grid approach based on extensions of the Ohio State dimensions. Leadership grid results are plotted on a nine-position grid that places concern for production on Leadership 295 the horizontal axis and concern for people on the vertical axis, where 1 is minimum concern and 9 is maximum concern. As an example, those with a 1/9 style—low concern for production and high concern for people—are termed “country club management.” They do not emphasize task accomplishment but stress the attitudes, feelings, and social needs of people.10 Similarly, leaders with a 1/1 style—low concern for both production and people—are termed “impoverished,” while a 5/5 style is labeled “middle of the road.” A 9/1 leader—high concern for production and low concern for people— RESEARCH INSIGHT Participatory Leadership and Peace In an unusual cross-cultural organizational behavior study, Gretchen Spreitzer examined the link between business leadership practices and indicators of peace in nations. She found that earlier research suggested that peaceful societies had (1) open and egalitarian decision making and (2) social control processes that limit the use of coercive power. These two characteristics are the hallmarks of participatory systems that empower people in the collective. Spreitzer reasoned that business firms can provide open egalitarian decisions by stressing participative leadership and empowerment. Spreitzer recognized that broad cultural factors could also be important. The degree to which the culture is future oriented and power distance appeared relevant. And she reasoned that she needed specific measures of peace. She selected two major indicators: (1) the level of corruption and (2) the level of unrest. The measure of unrest was a combined measure of political instability, armed conflict, social unrest, and international disputes. While she found a large leadership database that directly measured participative leadership, she developed the measures of empowerment from another apparently unrelated survey. Two items appeared relevant: the decision freedom individuals reported (decision freedom), and the degree to which they felt they had to comply with their boss regardless of whether they agreed with an order (compliance). You can schematically think of this research in Cultural Factors terms of the following model. Future Orientation As one might expect with exploratory research, Power Distance the findings support most of her hypotheses but not all. Participative leadership was related to less Peace corruption and less unrest, as was the futureParticipative Leadership Corruption Unrest oriented aspect of culture. Regarding empowerment, there were mixed results; decision freedom was linked to less corruption and unrest, but the Empowerment Decision Freedom compliance measure was only linked to more Compliance unrest. Do the Research Do you agree that when business used participatory leadership, it legitimated the democratically based style and increased the opportunity for individuals to express their voice? What other research could be done to determine the link between leadership and peace?11 Source: Gretchen Spreitzer, “Giving Peace a Chance: Organizational Leadership, Empowerment, and Peace,” Journal of Organizational Behavior 28 (2007), pp. 1077–1095. 296 13 Leadership Essentials has a “task management” style. Finally, a 9/9 leader, high on both dimensions, is considered to have a “team management” style; this is the ideal leader in Blake and Mouton’s framework. Cross-Cultural Implications It is important to consider whether the findings of the Michigan, Ohio State, and grid studies transfer across national boundaries. Some research in the United States, Britain, Hong Kong, and Japan shows that the behaviors must be carried out in different ways in alternative cultures. For instance, British leaders are seen as considerate if they show subordinates how to use equipment, whereas in Japan the highly considerate leader helps subordinates with personal problems.12 We will see this pattern again as we discuss other theories. The concept seems to transfer across boundaries, but the actual behaviors differ. Sometimes the differences are slight, but in other cases they are not. Even subtle differences in the leader’s situation can make a significant difference in precisely the type of behavior needed for success. Successful leaders adjust their influence attempts to the situation. Situational Contingency Leadership LEARNING ROADMAP Fiedler’s Leadership Contingency View / Path-Goal View of Leadership / Hersey and Blanchard Situational Leadership Model / Substitutes for Leadership • Prosocial power motivation is power oriented toward benefiting others. The trait and behavioral perspectives assume that leadership, by itself, would have a strong impact on outcomes. Another development in leadership thinking has recognized, however, that leader traits and behaviors can act in conjunction with situational contingencies—other important aspects of the leadership situation—to predict outcomes. Traits are enhanced by their relevance to the leader’s situational contingencies.13 For example, achievement motivation should be most effective for challenging tasks that require initiative and the assumption of personal responsibility for success. Leader flexibility should be most predictive in unstable environments or when leaders lead different people over time. Prosocial power motivation, or power oriented toward benefiting others, is likely to be most important in situations where decision implementation requires lots of persuasion and social influence. “Strong” or “weak” situations also make a difference. An example of a strong situation is a highly formal organization with lots of rules, procedures, and policies. An example of a weak situation is one that is ambiguous and unstructured. In a strong situation traits will have less impact than in a weaker, more unstructured situation because the leader has less ability to influence the nature of the situation. In other words, leaders can’t show dynamism as much when the organization restricts them. Traits may also make themselves felt by influencing leader behaviors (e.g., a leader high in energy engages in directive, take-charge behaviors).14 In an attempt to isolate when particular traits and specific combinations of leader behavior and situations are important, scholars have developed a number of situational contingency theories and models. Some of these theories emphasize traits, whereas others deal exclusively with leader behaviors and the setting. Fiedler’s Leadership Contingency View Fred Fiedler’s leadership contingency view argues that team effectiveness depends on an appropriate match between a leader’s style, essentially a trait measure, and the Situational Contingency Leadership 297 demands of the situation.15 Specifically, Fiedler considers situational control—the extent to which a leader can determine what his or her group is going to do—and leader style as important in determining the outcomes of the group’s actions and decisions. To measure a person’s leadership style, Fiedler uses an instrument called the least–preferred co-worker (LPC) scale. Respondents are asked to describe the person with whom they have been able to work least well—their least preferred co-worker, or LPC—using a series of adjectives such as the following two: Unfriendly ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ 1 2 3 4 5 Pleasant ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ 1 2 3 4 5 ____ ____ ____ 6 7 8 ____ ____ ____ 6 7 8 Friendly Unpleasant Fiedler argues that high-LPC leaders (those describing their LPC very positively) have a relationship-motivated style, whereas low-LPC leaders have a taskmotivated style. Because LPC is a style and does not change across settings, the leaders’ actions vary depending on the degree of situational control. Specifically, a task-motivated leader (low LPC) tends to be nondirective in high- and lowcontrol situations, and directive in those in between. A relationship-motivated leader tends to be the opposite. Confused? Take a look at Figure 13.2 to clarify the differences between high-LPC leaders and low-LPC leaders. Figure 13.2 shows the task-motivated leader as being more effective when the situation is high and low control, and the relationship-motivated leader as being more effective when the situation is moderate control. The figure also shows that Fiedler measures situational control with the following variables: • Situational control is the extent to which leaders can determine what their groups are going to do and what the outcomes of their actions are going to be. • The least-preferred co-worker (LPC) scale is a measure of a person’s leadership style b ...
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College of Administrative and Financial Sciences

Assignment 2
Deadline: 28/03/2020 @ 23:59
Course Name: Organizational Behavior

Student’s Name:

Course Code: MGT301

Student’s ID Number:

Semester: II

CRN: 21779
Academic Year: 1440/1441 H

For Instructor’s Use only
Instructor’s Name: Dr.Noorjahan Sherfudeen
Students’ Grade: 00/10
Level of Marks: High/Middle/Low
Instructions – PLEASE READ THEM CAREFULLY
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page.
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