Health Medical
New York University Week 6 Causation and Association Discussion

New York University

Question Description

I don’t know how to handle this Health & Medical question and need guidance.

IMPORTANT NOTE REGARDING WORD LIMIT REQUIREMENTS:

Please note that each and every assignment has its own word limit.


Differentiate between association and causation using the causal guidelines. Discuss which of the guidelines you think is the most difficult to establish. Discuss the four types of causal relationships and use an example not listed in the textbook to describe each relationship.


PLEASE ANSWER ALL QUESTIONS IN PARAGRAPHS AND MAKE IT COHESIVE AND TRY TO INCORPORATE THE READINGS BELOW

PLEASE add the links/sites below to the reference list if you use any of these readings and make sure everything is in proper APA format.

https://apastyle.apa.org/learn/quick-guide-on-refe...

Review Chapter 14, and read Chapters 11-13 in Gordis Epidemiology.

URL:

https://www.gcumedia.com/digital-resources/elsevier/2019/gordis-epidemiology_6e.php



Read "Causation in Epidemiology: Association and Causation," located on the Health Knowledge website.

URL:

https://www.healthknowledge.org.uk/e-learning/epidemiology/practitioners/causation-epidemiology-association-causation

Read "Section 5: Measures of Association," from Lesson 3 of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) self-study course, Principles of Epidemiology in Public Health Practice: An Introduction to Applied Epidemiology and Biostatistics (2012), located on the CDC website.

URL:

https://www.cdc.gov/csels/dsepd/ss1978/lesson3/section5.html


Use the "BRFSS Web Enabled Analysis Tool," located on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) website, to complete the topic assignment.

URL:

https://nccd.cdc.gov/weat/#/


Review "Multicausality: Confounding," by Schoenbach (2004), located on the Epidemilog.net website.

URL:

http://www.epidemiolog.net/evolving/Multicausality-Confounding.pdf


View "How to Calculate Relative Risk," by Shaneyfelt (2012), located on the YouTube website.

URL:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xk2uK14eHNs


View "How to Calculate an Odds Ratio," by Shaneyfelt (2012), located on the YouTube website.

URL:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ITi0SxmQTO8


MUST have at least three citations with the page numbers and three references in APA format and all questions clearly answered in paragraphs.(The List of References should not be older than 2016 and should not be included in the word count.)

Be sure to support your postings and responses with specific references to the Learning Resources.

It is important that you cover all the topics identified in the assignment. Covering the topic does not mean mentioning the topic BUT presenting an explanation from the context of ethics and the readings for this class

To get maximum points you need to follow the requirements listed for this assignments 1) look at the word/page limits 2) review and follow APA rules 3) create subheadings to identify the key sections you are presenting and 4) Free from typographical and sentence construction errors.

REMEMBER IN APA FORMAT JOURNAL TITLES AND VOLUME NUMBERS ARE ITALICIZED.

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Final Answer

Attached.

Running head: CAUSATION AND ASSOCIATION

Causation and Association
Name
Institution

1

CAUSATION AND ASSOCIATION

2

Causation and Association
Epidemiology seeks to identify the cause of any disease. Considering that most
epidemiological studies tend to be observational rather than experimental, there is a need for
the existing associations to be considered before inferring a cause and effect relationship.
Causation and association are two terms that tend to be confused based on exposure levels as
well as anticipated outcomes (Hartwig, Davies, Hemani, & Smith, 2016). However, it is
essential to note that associations occur due to a number of effects including chance or
random error, bias or systematic error, or confounding variables. An association between two
variables is determin...

henryprofessor (72782)
UCLA

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