Humanities
ENGL 124 GCU The Abortion Debate in Reaction to The Modern Women’s Movement Discussion

engl 124

Grand Canyon University

ENGL

Question Description

I’m trying to study for my English course and I need some help to understand this question.

Select an issue that interests you that is rooted in an ideological argument. Abortion Debates issue attached

  • Read both sides of the argument carefully and take notes on the strengths and weaknesses you observe.
  • Write a short response (3-4 paragraphs) that summarizes both sides of the issue and applies the four tests described in this lesson and in the textbook (readings attached). Which side comes out with the strongest argument and why? You will have to use clear evidence from the text to support your reading. Make sure to include the ideologies behind each argument.

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Published by CQ Press, an Imprint of SAGE Publications, Inc. www.cqresearcher.com Abortion Debates Will the Supreme Court impose new restrictions? A nti-abortion activists have been lobbying heavily in recent years in the nation’s state legislatures, which since 2010 have passed more than 200 laws imposing new regulations on abortion. Supporters of the procedure are challenging many of the new state laws in court, contending they are unreasonable and prevent women — especially poor women — from accessing safe, legal abortions. Proponents of the laws say one of their primary goals is to test the limits of the Supreme Court’s 1973 Roe v. Wade decision legalizing abortion. meanwhile, the federal government is implementing its sweeping health-care reform law, which requires health insurance plans to cover contraception, leading two companies whose owners oppose birth control on religious grounds to sue the government — a case Advocates of legislation to restrict abortions rally on July 8, 2013, at the Texas capitol in Austin. Since lawmakers passed the controversial law last year, many of the state’s abortion providers have shut down. In recent years, state legislatures have passed some 200 laws imposing new regulations on abortions. A majority of U.S. voters continue to support abortion rights. the Supreme Court will hear this month. Anti-abortion activists say they’ll bring their arguments to a receptive electorate in 2014, while their opponents say polls show a majority of voters continue to support abortion rights. I N THIS REPORT S I D E CQ Researcher • March 21, 2014 • www.cqresearcher.com Volume 24, Number 12 • Pages 265-288 THE ISSUES ....................267 BACKGROUND ................274 CHRONOLOGY ................275 CURRENT SITUATION ........280 AT ISSUE........................281 OUTLOOK ......................282 RECIPIENT Of SOCIETY Of PROfESSIONAL JOURNALISTS AwARD fOR EXCELLENCE ◆ AmERICAN BAR ASSOCIATION SILvER GAvEL AwARD BIBLIOGRAPHY ................286 THE NEXT STEP ..............287 ABORTION DEBATES THE ISSUES 267 • will the strategy of restricting abortions at the state level lead to Roe v. Wade being overturned? • Does emergency contraception cause abortion? • Should employers with religious objections be able to exclude coverage for abortions and birth control expenses in company health insurance plans? SIDEBARS AND GRAPHICS 268 276 278 Banning Abortion By 1880 every state had banned abortion, except to protect the mother’s life. Decriminalizing Abortion In 1970, prompted by the American medical Association, states began to loosen their abortion restrictions. Challenging Roe A House bill calls for banning abortions after the 20th week of pregnancy. 269 273 Regional Divide on Abortion Grows Abortion support grew in New England, declined in South Central states. 275 Chronology Key events since 1973. 276 Compromise Remains Elusive in Abortion Debate Politicians “benefit from keeping the divisiveness alive.” 279 Abortion Debate Takes to the Road “Choose Life” license plates available in 29 states. Abortion and the ACA The Affordable Care Act’s treatment of abortion services is stirring controversy. 280 Upcoming Elections Republicans are seeking the right tone on the abortion issue to win votes. 282 ASSISTANT MANAGING EDITOR: Kathy Koch, kathy.koch@sagepub.com Thomas J. Colin tom.colin@sagepub.com CONTRIBUTING WRITERS: Brian Beary, marcia Clemmitt, Sarah Glazer, Kenneth Jost, Reed Karaim, Peter Katel, Robert Kiener, Barbara mantel, Tom Price, Jennifer weeks SENIOR PROJECT EDITOR: Olu B. Davis EDITORIAL ASSISTANT: Ethan mcLeod FACT CHECKERS: Eva P. Dasher, michelle Harris, Nancie majkowski INTERN: Kaya Yurieff 280 281 Abortion Rate at 38-Year Low Abortions peaked in 1981 at 29 per 1,000 women. At Issue: Do abortion limits disproportionately harm low-income women? VICE PRESIDENT AND EDITORIAL DIRECTOR, HIGHER EDUCATION GROUP: michele Sordi EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR, ONLINE LIBRARY AND REFERENCE PUBLISHING: Todd Baldwin Copyright © 2014 CQ Press, an Imprint of SAGE Publications, Inc. SAGE reserves all copyright and other rights herein, unless previously specified in writing. No part of this publication may be reproduced electronically or otherwise, without prior written permission. Unauthorized reproduction or transmission of SAGE copyrighted material is a violation of federal law carrying civil fines of up to $100,000. FOR FURTHER RESEARCH CQ Press is a registered trademark of Congressional Quarterly Inc. 285 For More Information Organizations to contact. OUTLOOK 286 Bibliography Selected sources used. Pushback? State lawmakers are introducing provisions supporting abortion rights. 287 The Next Step Additional articles. 287 Citing CQ Researcher Sample bibliography formats. CQ Researcher (ISSN 1056-2036) is printed on acidfree paper. Published weekly, except: (march wk. 4) (may wk. 4) (July wk. 1) (Aug. wks. 3, 4) (Nov. wk. 4) and (Dec. wks. 3, 4). Published by SAGE Publications, Inc., 2455 Teller Rd., Thousand Oaks, CA 91320. Annual full-service subscriptions start at $1,054. for pricing, call 1-800-818-7243. To purchase a CQ Researcher report in print or electronic format (PDf), visit www.cqpress.com or call 866-427-7737. Single reports start at $15. Bulk purchase discounts and electronic-rights licensing are also available. Periodicals postage paid at Thousand Oaks, California, and at additional mailing offices. POSTmASTER: Send address changes to CQ Researcher, 2300 N St., N.w., Suite 800, washington, DC 20037. Cover: Getty Images/Erich Schlegel 266 tjb@sagepub.com An Imprint of SAGE Publications, Inc. CURRENT SITUATION 280 MANAGING EDITOR: Thomas J. Billitteri SENIOR CONTRIBUTING EDITOR: States Tighten Laws for Providers Abortion-rights advocates and opponents see different aims. BACKGROUND 274 States Limit Abortion Period forty-two states limit when women can get abortions. March 21, 2014 Volume 24, Number 12 CQ Researcher Abortion Debates BY WILLIAM WANLUND THE ISSUES regulations for abortion clinics, anti-abortion candidates for the legislatures and shorter periods he falls Church during a pregnancy when legal Healthcare Center is abortions can be performed. facing a financial criThe ultimate goal, the groups sis, according to director Rosesay, is to test the limits of the mary Codding. Supreme Court’s landmark deA state law enacted in 2011, cision and possibly even get she says, requires the small the ruling overturned. AbortionNorthern virginia abortion rights groups are suing dozens clinic to abide by the same of states over the laws, conbuilding and safety standards tending they impose unreasonthat apply to new hospital able demands on abortion construction. She says reguproviders, making it more diffilations stemming from the law cult for women to get safe, legal will require $1.5 million in and affordable abortion care. renovations to the facility, such further fueling the debate, as enlarging a janitor’s utility the federal government this year closet, expanding laundry fais implementing its sweeping cilities and upgrading heathealth-care reform law, which ing, ventilation and air conrequires that health insurance ditioning equipment. plans cover contraception. ComCodding is suing the state panies with religious objections over the regulations, arguing to birth control are suing the they are unreasonable and government over the requireMembers of NARAL Pro-Choice America protest at a hotel in Washington hosting a fundraiser for Republican “include things that have abment, a case that will be arpresidential hopeful Mitt Romney on March 22, 2012. solutely no impact on health, gued before the Supreme Court The protesters were objecting to Romney’s proposal to patient safety or the welllater this month and which some stop federal support for the abortion rights/family being of our small staff.” On say could have far-reaching implanning group Planned Parenthood of America. The Oct. 9 a judge rejected the plications on the availability of federal government’s sweeping, new health-care reform law — dubbed Obamacare — requires that health state’s effort to have Codbirth control. insurance plans cover contraception. Later this month the ding’s case thrown out; a cirPolls show most Americans U.S. Supreme Court will hear a challenge to the law by cuit court in Arlington, va., still want abortion to be legal, companies with religious objections to birth control. is scheduled to hear the case but regional differences in atApril 29. titudes are growing. A Pew ReBut lawmakers who support such search Center survey conducted last July Abortion-rights activists say the virginia law is among 205 similar mea- laws say they are designed to protect found that 54 percent of Americans say sures enacted in 29 states since 2011 patients. “This is not about banning abortion should be legal in all or most designed to restrict the number of abor- abortion in virginia,” Republican state circumstances, while 40 percent said it tions performed in the United States. Sen. Jill Holtzman vogel said when the should be illegal all or most of the The new laws — which, among other law was passed. “It is simply caring for time. Opposition to legal abortion was things, require abortion providers to women who are about to have an in- highest — 52 percent — in the South have admitting privileges and/or trans- vasive surgical procedure and creating Central states and lowest — 20 percent fer agreements with local hospitals or an environment for them . . . to have — in New England, according to the impose structural requirements on [the procedure] in a place that’s safe.” 2 survey. The disparity between the two After decades of trying to get the regions has risen 19 percentage points clinics — are partly responsible for the more than 70 abortion facilities in Supreme Court to weaken its 1973 Roe since 1996. 3 30 states that have closed or stopped v. Wade decision legalizing abortion, opThe number of abortions performed offering abortions since 2010, say op- ponents of abortion rights have turned each year has been declining since their focus on the states, supporting new 2000 and fell 13 percent between 2008 ponents of the laws. 1 AFP/Getty Images/Paul J. Richards T www.cqresearcher.com March 21, 2014 267 ABORTION DEBATES States Limit When Women Can Get Abortions Since the Supreme Court in 1992 allowed states to restrict abortions after fetal viability, 42 states have enacted laws limiting when a pregnant woman can get an abortion. A law pending in Mississippi would be the most restrictive, banning abortions at 18 weeks of pregnancy. Thirteen other states banned abortions as early as 20 weeks, but since medical professionals generally say fetal viability, or survival, cannot occur before 23 weeks, several of those laws already have been challenged in court and the cases are expected to be appealed to the Supreme Court. State Abortion Bans, by Length of Pregnancy Wash. Ore. N.D.*** Mont. Idaho* Wis. S.D. Wyo. Neb. Nev. Colo. Kan. W.Va.** Ky. Calif. Ariz.* Okla. Ark.*** Va. Tenn. La. Miss. ** Del. N.C. N.M. Texas R.I. Conn. N.J. Pa. Ind. Ohio Mo. Mass. N.Y. Mich. Iowa Ill. Utah N.H. Vt. Maine Minn. S.C. D.C. Md. Ala. Ga.* Fla. Alaska Range (in weeks) Hawaii * Blocked by court order or litigation and not in effect. 18 20 22 24-26 28 ** Awaiting final approval. *** North Dakota and Arkansas passed 6-week and 12-week restrictions, respectively, which were blocked by federal judges. Source: “State Policies on Later Abortions,” Guttmacher Institute, March 1, 2014, http://tinyurl.com/k83kfmk; see also Niraj Chokshi, “West Virginia’s legislature passes a 20-week abortion ban,” The Washington Post, March 10, 2014, http://tinyurl.com/lpzacw6; Jeff Amy, “Mississippi Senate passes amended 20-week abortion ban,” The Associated Press, March 11, 2014, http://tinyurl.com/kmbpmg8; Erik Eckholm, “Judge Blocks North Dakota Abortion Restrictions,” The New York Times, July 22, 2013, http://tinyurl.com/msavshk. and 2011 (the latest year for which statistics were available), according to a march report from the Guttmacher Institute, a policy research organization that supports abortion rights. 4 Those numbers do not yet reflect the impact of the new state laws, say experts. A 2012 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) report attributed a 9 percent drop in preg- 268 CQ Researcher nancy rates between 1990 and 2008 to improved contraception and economic instability. 5 But Carol Tobias, president of the anti-abortion organization National Right to Life (NRL), says the abortion rate is falling because “pro-life legislative efforts at the state and federal level” have “raised awareness about the humanity of the unborn child.” 6 As for the new rules like the ones Codding is challenging, a sensational case in Pennsylvania last year heightened the debate over the need for new regulations. Philadelphia abortion doctor Kermit Gosnell was sentenced to life in prison without parole in may 2013 after being convicted in the gruesome deaths of a patient and three babies born alive during late-term abortions at a filthy clinic. 7 “for many years, abortion providers have been treated as a special class,” Tobias says. “They have hidden behind the idea that . . . abortion should somehow be treated differently from other surgical procedures. As a result, we end up with situations . . . where abortionists are allowed to operate in substandard conditions that put women at risk.” The new state regulations are “common-sense requirements” that mandate such things as improved sanitary conditions, working emergency equipment and larger hallways and rooms so emergency personnel can quickly access patients in distress, says michael New, a political scientist and adjunct scholar with the Charlotte Lozier Institute, a washington policy research organization that opposes abortion. But abortion-rights activists — who call the new measures TRAP laws, for targeted regulation of abortion providers — say they are designed to make it too expensive or logistically impossible for abortion clinics to stay open. “The TRAP laws we are challenging make it harder for good providers to continue providing abortion services, which means that women have less access to legal abortion,” says Julie Rikelman, litigation director at the Center for Reproductive Rights, a New Yorkbased legal advocacy organization that supports women’s access to abortion. “TRAP laws are designed to seem benign, but they’re not.” Jennifer Dalven, director of the Reproductive freedom Project at the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU), says, “more and more, we are seeing politicians pass laws that either directly ban abortion or are back-door bans that purport to protect women’s health but in fact are laws designed to shut down women’s health centers and outlaw abortion.” In Texas, at least a third of the state’s abortion providers, mostly in rural areas, have stopped providing abortion services since the state passed one of the country’s toughest abortion clinic laws last year. Among other things, it requires doctors performing abortions to be accredited at a hospital within 30 miles of the abortion clinic. By march of this year, only 24 abortion facilities were still operating in Texas, a state with a population of more than 26 million people. 8 The American medical Association and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, which oppose the Texas law, wrote in a legal brief that: “There is simply no medical basis to impose a local admitting-privileges requirement on abortion providers.” The law “does not serve the health of women in Texas, but instead jeopardizes women’s health by restricting access to abortion providers and denying women well-researched, safe, evidencebased and proven protocols for the provision of medical abortion.” 9 Abortion-rights supporters have challenged the Texas law in court, and the fifth U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals heard the case on Jan. 6. Both sides expect the case to eventually reach the Supreme Court. 10 A Bloomberg News investigation found that abortion clinics have been closing in record numbers across the country since the new state laws went into effect but that only about a third of closings have been due to the new laws. The rest closed due to demographic changes, declining demand, industry consolidation, doctor retirements and crackdowns on unfit providers, the news service said. 11 The warring sides in the abortion debate are gearing up for an active www.cqresearcher.com States Tighten Laws for Providers At least 29 states in the past four years have enacted laws to regulate abortion clinics that supporters say are designed to protect patients and opponents say aim to make it more difficult for women to get safe, legal and affordable abortions. Among other things, the laws require that abortion clinic doctors have admitting privileges and transfer agreements with local hospitals or require clinics to meet the same structural standards as ambulatory surgical centers. States with Recent Laws on Abortion Clinics Wash. Ore. N.D. Mont. Idaho Wis. S.D. Wyo. Neb. Utah Colo. Kan. W.Va. Va. Ky. Calif. Ariz. Okla. N.M. Tenn. Ark. Miss. Texas La. Del. N.C. S.C. Ala. R.I. Conn. N.J. Pa. Ind. Ohio Mo. Mass. N.Y. Mich. Iowa Ill. Nev. N.H. Vt. Maine Minn. D.C. Md. Ga. Fla. Alaska Hawaii Source: “Targeted Regulation of Abortion Providers,” Guttmacher Institute, March 1, 2014, http://tinyurl.com/mnhuenr 2014 election season, as state legislature and congressional races get underway. Erika west, political director of NARAL Pro-Choice America, a washington, D.C.-based advocacy organization that supports abortion rights, told a press conference that, with national politics largely at a standstill due to a highly polarized government, the organization would focus on races for state offices and support candidates who advocate abortion rights. 12 But NRL’s Tobias thinks abortionrights proponents will face “an uphill battle” in trying to affect statelevel elections, given the recent successes of anti-abortion groups in getting states to adopt new abortion laws. “People in the states are electing pro-life legislators because they support pro-life laws.” 13 As supporters and opponents of abortion rights carry their messages into the 2014 election campaigns, here are some key questions being asked: Will the strategy of restricting abortions at the state level lead to Roe v. Wade being overturned? In the 2010 mid-term elections, voters swept Republicans by the hundreds into state legislatures. Republicans won 675 new seats and wrested control of 11 legislatures from Democrats, according to the National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL). After the elections, 25 state legislatures were in GOP hands, and 11 governorships had flipped from Democratic to Republican control. 14 It was a moment that James C. Bopp Jr., a conservative Indiana lawyer and March 21, 2014 269 ABORTION DEBATES general counsel for National Right to Life, had been waiting for since 2007, when he and law firm colleague Richard E. Coleson wrote an 11-page strategy memo for anti-abortion activists. The ultimate target was getting Roe v. Wade overturned. “Astute pro-life leaders . . . have been working hard to get pro-life officials elected,” wrote Bopp and Coleson, so that “over the long term, there might emerge a majority on the Supreme Court willing to overrule Roe. [That] has been a powerful motivator for pro-life political activism.” 15 Encouraged by the prospect of a more sympathetic Supreme Court and emboldened by the wave of social conservatives elected to state office, abort ...
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Running head: ABORTION DEBATES

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Abortion Debates

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ABORTION DEBATES

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Abortion Debates

Abortion rights groups sued dozens of state laws claiming demands are unreasonable for the
service providers and this makes it even harder for women to get affordable, safe and legal
abortions. However, the situation worsened when federal government implemented a health...

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