Writing
Anthem College Phoenix Depth Perception and Memory Analysis Research Paper

Anthem College Phoenix

Question Description

Can you help me understand this Psychology question?

The second paper is centered around a photograph/picture of your choice and you need to write a paper discussing various aspects of your processing of this picture including aspects of perception (ch4) memory (ch6) and knowledge representation (ch6&ch7). Please review the instructions here and submit the paper in the link below. Remember that your paper needs to be in paper format (title, author's name, full paragraphs meaningfully connected, citations in the text and references listed in the end). Your paper needs to address the questions listed below but it should NOT be a list of answers. It is your task to integrate the answers into one paper. For example for part 3 instead ot saying "the schema I am using here is... I was asked what type of schema it is and it is.... etc" write a paragraph like I wrote below for my picture (see wiki for my picture and a full example)

"In my picture I am standing in front of a street fall decoration. My schema for fall decorations include items such as pumpkins, scarecrows, mums, hay red and yellow leaves, jack-o-lanterns, skulls, black cats and bats. This schema is an example of a scene-schema because it is a representation of set of objects organized in a certain way (just like chairs and table are typically organized in a certain way in a classroom scene but differently in a kitchen scene and you would not find them at all in bathroom scene). The fact that I retrieve this schema when trying to remember this scene might affect my memory by distorting my episodic memory for this particular scene to better fit my semantic memory represented by my schema. For example, I thought there were fall leaves in the display but when examining the picture carefully there really aren't any. I remember fall leaves because they are part of my schema even though they were not actually in the display. The particular objects we expect in fall displays in this area are culturally dependent, for example, day-of-the-dead displays in Mexico (during the same time of year) also include skulls but they are specially decorated with dots and lines and flowery decorations. other items include many different kinds of flowers (not just mums), cut outs in colorful papers (including colors not associated with fall in this counrty like bright pink and blue), fruits (apples, pears, etc) and cakes/sweetbreads (bing.com\images)"

Here are the sections/questions that your paper should address, look over the questions again when you finish the paper and make sure you addressed all of them:

Insert your picture under the title.

1. Perception: What depth cues are present in you photograph and what category do they all fall in? Find at least three and for each one do the following: Name the cue, explain how it works in general, and describe exactly how it works in your picture (where is it? what objects, characteristics, features, etc are involved).

2. Types of memory: What is the memory you most strongly associate with this picture?- describe it and explain what type of memory it is. Identify three other memories you have related to your picture: You should have at least four memories altogether for your picture: Episodic, Semantic, Procedural, Priming (e.g., perceptual priming).

3. Identify a schema that is related to the picture and analyze it based on the following questions:

a. What is the specific schema you identified?

b. What type of schema is it?

c. How might this schema affect your memory for the picture or the event associated with it?

d. How might this schema be affected by cultural differences? (you will probably need to look for more information on this from other sources as well)


Format:APA

Use APA style to format the paper (title page, running head, 12 point font, double spaced, correct formating for headings, citations, references etc.) but there is no need for an abstract. See "syllabus and Genereral information" section for template. Papers may be submitted anytime UP TO the due date listed in the schedule.

Unformatted Attachment Preview

PERCEPTION AND MEMORY OF FALL BREAK 1 Depth Perception and Memory Analysis of a Fall Break Picture Dr. Carmela Gottesman University of South Carolina Salkehatchie PERCEPTION AND MEMORY OF FALL BREAK 2 Depth Perception and Memory Analysis of a Fall Break The picture above was taken in Gatlinburg, TN on Fall Break several years ago. I am standing in front of a Fall decorative display. In addition to street decoration this display is also marking a Moonshine distillery that is further to the left. Behind the display, a popular restaurant is partially visible. When perceiving this picture multiple depth cues are useful for telling distances. As this is a two-dimensional, unmoving image, all these cues would be in the pictorial cues category ( Weiten, 2015 ). Relative height (height-in-plane) is useful in many places; objects lower in the visual field are closer than objects higher in the visual field (Weiten, 2015). For example, I am closer to the camera than the green pumpkin on the left as I am lower in the picture than the pumpkin is (this can be seen clearly when paying attention to where the pumpkin and I touch the PERCEPTION AND MEMORY OF FALL BREAK 3 ground). Relative size can be used to tell that I am closer to the camera than the other people in the picture because their size in the picture is much smaller than mine. Note that this cue doesn't work for the pumpkins because pumpkins can be, and likely are, very different in size. For example, we can tell that the white pumpkin is bigger in the picture than and the orange pumpkin by my legs, but that is because it is actually physically bigger not because it is closer. Indeed, the white pumpkin is farther away than the orange pumpkin. Linear perspective (especially if you combine it with amodal completion; Gottesman, lecture, February 13, 2017) also gives me depth information when I look at the rows of bricks in the pavement on the right. That section of the sidewalk is clearly wider lower down in the picture than by the green and yellow squash on the right, showing how the pavement is receding in depth. Parallel lines will appear to converge with depth (Weiten, 2015). Perceiving this picture triggers the retrieval of multiple memories from my Long-Term Memory. The first thing that pops into my mind is memory of the fact that that I typically spend Fall Break in the mountains of North Carolina and Tennessee. This memory is semantic memory because semantic memory is memory for or knowledge of what things are, (Weiten, 2015) for me Fall break typically includes a trip to the mountains. Semantic memory also helps me identify the various objects in the picture. For example, it tells me that yellow and orange flowers are all mums. When trying to retrieve episodic memory for the event related to this picture I think I remember that after this picture was taken we went over to the moonshine distillery and sampled multiple kinds of moonshine. I have an episodic memory, memory for a specific event, for doing that but, to tell the truth, I am not sure if that happened after this picture was taken or at a different time (different day? different trip?). Semantic memory also tells me that parking spaces are hard to find on the boardwalk in Gatlinburg so I must have used my procedural memory to PERCEPTION AND MEMORY OF FALL BREAK 4 walk to this spot (though I can't retrieve the episodic memory of having done this). Procedural memory being memory evident in doing things, (Weiten, 2015; Gottesman, lecture, February 24, 2017) this picture also reminds me that a family member I was with in Gatlinburg last summer didn't have good procedural memory for using the phone camera and therefore took some very bad pictures. My ability to recognize this picture quickly as a picture taken on the boardwalk in Gatlinburg is primed by having seen this picture before. Another type of implicit memory is called priming. Priming refers to processing something faster because it was processed before (Gottesman, lecture, February 24, 2017). Two examples come to mind here. First, I perceive this picture faster now that I have looked at it multiple times. When I was looking for a picture to use here and saw this picture for the first time (or at least for the first time in several years, I don't have good episodic memory for whether or when I saw this picture before) it took me longer to tell what was in it. Second, I can complete the sign that I am occluding; in the picture you can see the letters "shine" but I complete it quickly to "moonshine"; I am more likely to do this more accurately and faster than people who have not seen the sign before because of priming. My perception of this picture being primed by perceptual implicit memory, I can very quickly tell that it is a picture of me standing in front of a street fall decoration display. My schema for fall decorations include items such as pumpkins, scarecrows, mums, hay, red and yellow leaves, and colorful corn stalk. If Halloween elements are added the displays typically also include jack-o-lanterns, skulls, black cats and bats. This schema is an example of a scene schema because it is a representation of set of objects organized in a certain way (just like chairs and table are typically organized in a certain way in classroom scenes but differently in kitchen scenes, and you would not find them at all in bathroom scenes). PERCEPTION AND MEMORY OF FALL BREAK 5 The fact that I retrieve this schema when trying to remember this scene might affect my memory by distorting my episodic memory for this particular scene to better fit my semantic memory represented by my schema. For example, I remembered there were fall leaves in the display but when examining the picture carefully there really aren't any. I remember fall leaves because they are part of my schema even though they were not actually in the display and therefore should not be in my episodic memory for this picture. The particular objects we expect in fall displays in this area are culturally dependent, for example, day-of-the-dead displays in Mexico (during the same time of year) also include skulls but they are specially decorated with dots and lines and flowery decorations. Other items include many different kinds of flowers (not just mums), cut outs in colorful papers (including colors not associated with fall in this country like bright pink and blue), fruits (apples, pears, etc) and cakes/ sweetbreads (bing.com\images). A person coming with that cultural background to this scene might mistakenly remember seeing other fruits rather than just pumpkins in this display and other flowers except for mums because that is what they would expect. according to the Discrepancy Principle, if they payed attention to the details of how this display differs from they expectations (e.g., "Oh! there are no other fruits here!") then their memory is less likely to be distorted by their schema. In conclusion, we see that our perception and memory for a picture/scene is affected by cognitive processes at many levels. Both perception and memory are affected by universal expectations that seem hard wired into our system like the depth cues discussed above. We are also affected by cultural/regional expectations that are also reflected in experiences we have living in a particular environment, like our expectation of what is included in fall decorations. On top of all this we are affected by individual experiences that differ from one person to the next PERCEPTION AND MEMORY OF FALL BREAK 6 even within the same culture, like taking a specific trip to a specific place, creating episodic memories that you might share with no one or only with the few people that were on the trip with you. PERCEPTION AND MEMORY OF FALL BREAK 7 References The Day of the Dead Decorations. (n.d.). Bing.com. Retrieved October 20, 2018, https://www.bing.com/images/search?q=day%20of%20the%20dead %20decorations&qs=LS&form=QBIRMH&sp=1&pq=day%20of%20the%20dead %20deco&sc=8-20&cvid=01E9E7859E8D438DA4AEA8C232677A5A Weiten, W. (2015). Psychology Themes and Variations (pp. 16-17). Boston, MA: Cengage Learning. ...
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Final Answer

Attached.

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Running head: PERCEPTION

Depth Perception and Memory Analysis
Name
Institutional Affiliation

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PERCEPTION
Depth Perception and Memory Analysis

The image presented is an apple that has been shown in 3-Dimensional appearance. The
image can be easily perceived as the distance between it, and the camera is significantly short. In
fact, from the viewer’s perception, there is no distance between the camera and the image; the
camera almost touched the image (Zareian, Razdan & TAHMASEBI, 2016). The depth cues
used in this case are binocular, which allows us to see the pict...

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